Australian nationalism

Australian nationalism asserts that the Australians are a nation and promotes the national and cultural unity of Australia.[1][2][3][4] Australian nationalism has a history dating back to the late 19th century as Australia gradually developed a distinct culture and identity from that of Britain, beginning to view itself as a unique and separate entity and not simply an extension or a derivation of British culture and identity.

Flag of Australia
Flag of Australia

History

Pre-Federation

By the late 19th century, Australia was governed as a series of six largely self-governing colonies that were spread across the continent.[5] Attempts to coordinate governance had failed in the 1860s for want of popular support and the support from the British government, but by the 1880s, and with the rise of nationalist movements in Europe, the efforts to establish a federation of the Australian colonies began to gather momentum. British imperialism was a significant driver of this nationalism, with Britain eager for the Australian colonies to consolidate in order to better cement British influence in the South Pacific.[6] This form of nationalism supported a view of Australia as a nation of "White Britons"; Indigenous Australians were not included in this vision of a unified nation.[7]

Australian nationalist parties

Current

Defunct

Australian nationalist movements and groups

Active

Defunct

See also

References

  1. ^ wiliam, Sydney Australia. "Nationalism in Australia". Retrieved 11 March 2016.
  2. ^ Christopher Scanlon (25 January 2014). "Australia Day: is nationalism really so bad?". The Conversation. Retrieved 11 March 2016.
  3. ^ "Surrendering nationalism". Griffith Review. Retrieved 11 March 2016.
  4. ^ "Nationalism and racism". Retrieved 11 March 2016.
  5. ^ Crisp, Leslie (1949). The Parliamentary Government of the Commonwealth of Australia. Adelaide: Longmans, Green & Co. Lotd. p. 2.
  6. ^ Trainor, Luke (1 January 1994). British Imperialism and Australian Nationalism: Manipulation, Conflict and Compromise in the Late Nineteenth Century. Cambridge University Press. pp. 3–4. ISBN 9780521436045.
  7. ^ Trainor, Luke (1 January 1994). British Imperialism and Australian Nationalism: Manipulation, Conflict and Compromise in the Late Nineteenth Century. Cambridge University Press. p. 5. ISBN 9780521436045.
Aussie Aussie Aussie, Oi Oi Oi

"Aussie Aussie Aussie, Oi Oi Oi" is a cheer or chant often performed at Australian sport events. It is a variation of the Oggy Oggy Oggy chant used by both association football and rugby union fans in Great Britain from the 1960s onwards. It is usually performed by a crowd uniting to support a sports team or athlete. The alternate is for an individual to chant the line "Aussie, Aussie, Aussie!" and the crowd to respond with "Oi! Oi! Oi!". A variation of this is for an individual to chant, "Aussie!", with the crowd responding, "Oi!", along the lines of, "Aussie, Aussie, Aussie!", "Oi, Oi, Oi!"' "Aussie!", "Oi!", "Aussie", Oi!", "Aussie, Aussie, Aussie!", "Oi, Oi, Oi!".

Australia First Movement

The Australia First Movement was a fascist movement founded in October 1941 by Rhodes scholar Percy Stephensen, growing out of the Rational Association and the Victorian Socialist Party. Adela Pankhurst, of the famous suffragette family, was involved in the movement, along with writers Xavier Herbert, Miles Franklin and Eleanor Dark. While businessman William John Miles campaigned under the "Australia First" slogan and in January 1942 transferred authorship of the Publicist monthly to Stephensen (whom he co-authored the publication with), he had no involvement in the movement.

The movement's advocacy of independence from the British Empire attracted the support of the Catholic weekly, The Advocate, as well as the Odinist Alexander Rud Mills. It was antisemitic, and by 1938 was advocating for the establishment of a national socialist corporate state and a political alliance with the axis powers of Germany, Italy and Japan. Compromised by its direct links with Japan, the organisation was suppressed in March 1942. Four AFM members in Perth, and sixteen in Sydney, were arrested. Two were convicted of conspiring to assist the enemy and others were interned – a decision later criticised heavily by Paul Hasluck, in his official history of Australian involvement in the Second World War.A number of the movement's members had come from a far-left background. Stephensen, Pankhurst and Walsh were former Communists.

Australia First Party

The Australia First Party (NSW) Incorporated (normally referred to as Australia First Party or AFP) is an Australian far-right political party founded in 1996 by Graeme Campbell and currently led by Jim Saleam. The policies of Australia First have been described as nationalistic, anti-multicultural and economic protectionist. The party's logo includes the Southern Cross of the Eureka Flag.

Saleam is a convicted criminal, a former member of the neo-Nazi National Socialist Party of Australia and founder of the militant Australian white supremacist group National Action. Saleam's criminal convictions include property offenses and fraud in 1984 and being an accessory before the fact in 1989 for his involvement in the shotgun attack on the home of African National Congress representative Eddie Funde.

Australian Made logo

The Australian Made and Australian Grown trade mark logos signify products whose ingredients or production mostly originate from Australia. This programme was established in 1986 with a logo created by Ken Cato and is conducted by the Australian Made Campaign Limited, a not-for-profit public foundation created by the Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry and various Australian business chambers.The logo is accompanied by one of the following phrases, either Australian Grown, Australian Made or Product of Australia.

Australian National Socialist Party

The Australian National Socialist Party (ANSP) was a minor Australian Nazi (short for national socialist) party that was formed in 1962. It merged into the National Socialist Party of Australia, originally a splinter group, in 1968.

Australian Natives' Association

The Australian Natives' Association (ANA) was a mutual society founded in Melbourne, Australia in April 1871 as the Victorian Natives' Association. Its membership was restricted to white men born in Australia.

In 1872 it voted to extend membership to men born in the other Australian colonies and changed its name at the same time. The Association played a leading role in the movement for Australian federation in the last 20 years of the 19th century. In 1900 it had a membership of 17,000, mainly in Victoria.

The ANA provided sickness, medical and funeral cover. Membership in the ANA was restricted to men born in Australia, at a time when Australian-born people of European descent (not including Indigenous Australians) were rising to power in place of an older generation born in Britain. In the 1890s, for the first time, they became the majority of the population. The ANA consisted mainly of energetic middle-class men aged under 50 - a perfect base for a forward-looking, idealistic movement such as federation. In 1880 the ANA committed itself to the federation of the Australian colonies, and provided much of the organisational and financial support for the Federation Leagues which led the campaign, particularly in Victoria. It avoided party politics, but they soon adopted the rising liberal politician and ANA member Alfred Deakin as their candidate for leadership of the federal movement.In 1891, when the Victorian Parliament was considering the federation bill, it was the ANA which organised public meetings around the colony to rally support for the bill, many of them addressed by Deakin. After the failure of the 1891 bill, it was the ANA which kept the federal cause alive. When the movement revived after 1897, the ANA campaigned vigorously for the referendums to approve the proposed constitution. With federation achieved in 1901, the ANA withdrew from political activity, although it continued patriotic activity such as promoting the observance of Australia Day. Other nationalistic issues supported by the ANA included afforestation, an Australian-made goods policy, water conservation, Aboriginal welfare, the celebration of proper and meaningful citizenship ceremonies following the increased levels of migration after World War II, and the adoption of the wattle as the national floral emblem in 1912.With the Returned and Services League and many trade unions, the ANA was one of the last Australian pressure groups to support the White Australia Policy. While this policy was wound down in the decades after the Second World War and totally abolished by 1970, a few members continued to support it until the 1970s. The ANA continued to prosper, operating a private health fund, a building society, general insurance company and small-scale life insurance and fund management activities. In 1993, it merged these operations with Manchester Unity IOOF of Victoria to create Australian Unity, then the largest friendly society in Australia by number of members. As of 2007, only the WA branch exists, and this is winding down, although Australian Unity attempts to maintain a modicum of activity in the Victoria-based ANA fraternal society.

Australian patriotism

Australian patriotism is patriotism involving cultural attachment of Australians to Australia as their homeland. Australian patriotism has been identified by some as distinct from Australian nationalism because of the emphasis of Australian patriotism upon values rather than a commitment to a nation. According to the 2014 World Values Survey over 90 per cent of Australians are either "very proud" or "quite proud" of their nation.

Australian settlement

The Australian settlement is a term that has been used to describe a set of nation-building policies adopted in Australia at the beginning of the twentieth century. Those policies profoundly influenced the way Australia developed over the coming decades and were only dismantled towards the end of the century. They were: the 'White Australia' Policy of immigration restriction; protective tariffs on imports of manufactured goods; a system of compulsory conciliation and arbitration for industrial disputes; and early social welfare policies. The term 'settlement' refers to the way this constellation of policies emerged as a compromise between major interests in Australian society at that time, namely workers and employers.

Australophile

An Australophile is one who appreciates or expresses love of Australian culture, the Australian people, Australian history or all things Australian in general. An Australophile may extend to someone who is born outside Australia and the definition is not limited to an Australian itself. The concept of Australophilia is opposed to Australophobia, which is the dislike or fear of Australia and its cultural aspects.

The phenomenon was notable in the United States in the 1980's, as many films released at the time took place in Australia or featured Australian characters.

Australia is also a popular choice for students attending universities who are doing study abroad programs.

Centre Party (New South Wales)

The Centre Party, occasionally referred to as the Centre Movement, was a short-lived political party that operated in the Australian state of New South Wales. Founded in December 1933, the party's leader and most prominent figure was Eric Campbell, the leader of the paramilitary New Guard movement. That organisation had been established to oppose what its members perceived as the socialist tendencies of Jack Lang, the Premier of New South Wales, but declined following Lang's dismissal in early 1932.

The Centre Party contested five seats at the 1935 state election, and its candidates placed second to the United Australia Party (UAP) in two electorates, with almost 20% of the vote. However, it polled poorly in the other seats it contested, and disbanded shortly after the election. The Centre Party is generally seen as the political extension of the remnant of the New Guard, which had decreased in popularity and influence, and, under Campbell's leadership, had become increasingly inclined towards fascism.

List of political parties in Australia

This article lists political parties in Australia.

The Australian federal parliament has a number of distinctive features including compulsory voting, with full-preference instant-runoff voting in single-member seats to elect the lower house, the Australian House of Representatives, and the use of the single transferable vote to elect the upper house, the Australian Senate.

Australia has a mild two-party system, with two dominant political groupings in the Australian political system, the Australian Labor Party and the Liberal/National Coalition. Federally, 6 of the 150 members of the lower house (Members of Parliament, or MPs) are not members of major parties, as are 19 of the 76 members of the upper house (senators).

Other parties tend to perform better in the upper houses of the various federal and state parliament since these typically use a form of proportional representation.

Love Australia or Leave

Love Australia or Leave is an Australian political party registered for federal elections since October 2016. The party platform includes opposition to immigration and Islam in Australia, and support of Australia leaving the United Nations.

It was founded in 2016 by Kim Vuga who had appeared in a television documentary in 2015 called Go Back to Where You Came From which sought to expose ordinary Australians to the situations faced by refugees and asylum seekers.The party was registered in October 2016. Its founder Kim Vuga unsuccessfully stood for election in the federal election in July 2016 as an independent candidate to represent Queensland in the Australian Senate. She used the slogan "Love Australia or Leave" which has become the name of her party. It intends to be registered and stand candidates in the 2018 Queensland state election.

National Action (Australia)

National Action was a militant Australian white supremacist group founded by former neo-Nazi and convicted criminal Jim Saleam and David Greason. Saleam co-founded the group on Anzac Day, 1982, after having been a member of the short-lived National Socialist Party of Australia as a teenager during the 1970s.Jim Saleam’s criminal convictions include property offenses and fraud in 1984 and being an accessory before the fact in regard to organising a shotgun attack in 1989 on African National Congress representative Eddie Funde. Saleam served jail terms for both crimes. He pleaded not guilty to both charges, claiming that he was set up by police. The group was disbanded following the murder of a member, Wayne "Bovver" Smith, in the group's headquarters at Tempe.National Action co-founder David Greason's book, I was a Teenage Fascist, tells of Greason's own time within the Australian neo-Nazi movement and the events behind the founding of National Action.

National Socialist Party of Australia

The National Socialist Party of Australia (NSPA) was a minor Australian neo-Nazi party that operated between 1967 and early 1970s. It was formed in 1967 as a more moderate breakaway from the Australian National Socialist Party (ANSP). The NSPA was led by Ted Cawthron.

Pauline Hanson's One Nation

Pauline Hanson's One Nation (PHON or ONP, also One Nation or One Nation Party) is a nationalist, right-wing populist party in Australia. One Nation was founded in 1997, by member of parliament Pauline Hanson and her advisors David Ettridge and David Oldfield after Hanson was disendorsed as a federal candidate for the Liberal Party of Australia. The disendorsement came before the 1996 federal election because of comments she made about Indigenous Australians. Hanson sat as an independent for one year before forming Pauline Hanson's One Nation.

Federally, no One Nation candidate has ever been elected to the House of Representatives (Hanson was already a member of the House when One Nation was formed). However, one candidate from the party was elected to the Senate in the 1998 federal election, and four One Nation senators were elected in the 2016 federal election. In state politics, however, One Nation has performed better. At the 1998 Queensland state election the party gained more than 22% of the vote in Queensland's unicameral legislative assembly, winning 11 of the 89 seats. David Oldfield was elected to the New South Wales Legislative Council as a One Nation candidate, but he was expelled from the party and later formed the unsuccessful splinter group, One Nation NSW. Three members were elected to the Western Australian Legislative Council.

One Nation changed its name back to "Pauline Hanson's One Nation" in June 2015.

At the 2016 federal election the party polled 4.3% (+3.8) of the nationwide primary vote in the Senate. Only Queensland polled higher for the party than their nationwide percentage − the party polled 9.2% (+8.6) of the primary vote in that state. Pauline Hanson (QLD) and three other One Nation candidates − Malcolm Roberts (QLD), Brian Burston (NSW) and Rod Culleton (WA) were elected to the Senate. Elected to the 3rd Queensland Senate spot, as per convention Hanson is serving a six-year term while the three other One Nation Senators who were elected in the last half of spots were appointed to three-year terms. Culleton was stripped of his seat in January 2017 after he was declared bankrupt. In March 2017, the High Court ruled that Culleton's election to the Senate was invalid in any event because of a criminal conviction in New South Wales. After a court-ordered recount, Culleton was replaced by the second candidate on the WA list, Peter Georgiou.

The party has a strongly nationalist and conservative platform. Hanson and other party members have denied claims that the party is racist. Hanson says that "criticism is not racism" about her statements on immigration and race. Hanson has also said that she enjoys the company of other ethnicities and welcomes people to Australia wherever their origin, but does not want other cultures to overly influence Australia.

Reclaim Australia

Reclaim Australia is a far-right Australian nationalist protest group which is associated with nationalist and neo-Nazi hate groups. The group was formed in 2015, holding street rallies in cities across Australia to protest against Islam.

True Blue Crew

The True Blue Crew is an anti-Islam far-right street protest group which has been described as being far-right, nationalist and has also been referred to as a neo-Nazi hate group. The group is led by Kane Miller and is based in Melton, Victoria. They have been described by academics as displaying "overt white racism, xenophobia and social conservatism aimed at bolstering male values and privilege. They understand themselves as Australian patriots preserving and protecting white, Anglo-Saxon heritage against particular groups including Muslims, Jews, immigrants and indigenous Australians.

United Patriots Front

The United Patriots Front (UPF) is a far-right Australian nationalist protest group which is associated with nationalist and neo-Nazi hate groups. Based in the state of Victoria, UPF is a nationalist anti-Islam organisation that opposes immigration, multiculturalism and Islam by street protests. It is a splinter group from the anti-Islamic Reclaim Australia group, formed after a dispute between Shermon Burgess and Reclaim Australia organisers. The group has been described by a number of media outlets and journalists as a hate group, and has claimed solidarity with Golden Dawn, a Greek Metaxist, fascist party.

UPF leader Blair Cottrell is a convicted criminal and has been described by numerous media outlets and Australia's Race Discrimination Commissioner, Tim Soutphommasane, as a neo-Nazi.

Besides other run-ins with the law, in September 2017, UPF leaders Cottrell, Neil Erikson, and Christopher Shortis, were found guilty by a magistrate of inciting contempt against Muslims, and each was fined $2,000. In early January 2019, Erikson and Cottrell promised to unleash a Cronulla-style race riot on Melbourne. During the rally a significant number of participants were documented giving Nazi salutes.

William Lane

William Lane (6 September 1861 – 26 August 1917) was an Australian journalist, author, advocate of Australian labour politics and a utopian socialist ideologue.Lane was born in Bristol, England into an impoverished family. After showing great skill in his education, he worked his way into Canada as first a linotype operator, then as a reporter for the Detroit Free Press where he would later meet his future wife Ann Lane, née Macquire. After settling in Australia with his wife and child, as well as his brother John, he became active in the Australian labour movement, founding the Australian Labour Federation and becoming a prolific journalist for the movement. He authored works covering topics such as labour rights and white nationalism.

After becoming disillusioned with the state of Australian politics following an ideological split in the labour movement, he and a group of utopian acolytes (among them influential writer and poet Mary Gilmore) moved to Paraguay in 1892 to found New Australia, with the intention of building a new society on the foundations of his utopian ideals. Following disagreement with the colony regarding the legality of miscegenation and alcohol consumption, he left to found the nearby colony Cosme in May 1894, and later abandoned the project altogether in 1899.

Upon resetting in New Zealand he continued his journalistic endeavours until his death in August 1917. After his death he was both celebrated as a champion of utopian socialism, and condemned as the arrogant leader of a failed new society. Due to his radical politics and his extensive journalistic career, he remains a controversial figure in Australian history.

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