Australian honours system

The Australian honours system consists of a number of orders, decorations, and medals through which the country's sovereign awards its citizens for actions or deeds that benefit the nation. Established in 1975 with the creation of the Order of Australia, the system's scope has grown since then and over time has replaced the Imperial/British honours system that previously applied to Australians. The system includes an array of awards, both civil and military, for gallantry, bravery, distinguished service, meritorious service, and long service. Various campaign and commemorative medals have also been struck. New honours can be awarded at any time, but conventionally most new honours are awarded on Australia Day (26 January) and on the Queen's Birthday (as observed in the eastern states, that is, on the second Monday in June) every year, when lists of new honours are published.

History

The Australian states and the Commonwealth of Australia originally used the Imperial honours system, also known as the British honours system. The creation in 1975 of the Australian Honours System saw Australian recommendations for the Imperial awards decline, with the last awards being gazetted in 1989. The Commonwealth of Australia ceased making recommendations for Imperial awards in 1983, with the last Queen's Birthday Australian Honours list submitted by Queensland and Tasmania in 1989. The Queen still confers upon Australians honours that emanate from her personally such as the Royal Victorian Order, apart from the Order of Australia. Only a handful of peerages and baronetcies were created for Australians. Some were in recognition of public services rendered in Britain rather than Australia. Hereditary peerages and baronetcies derive from Britain. There have never been Australian peerages or baronetcies created under the Australian Crown.[1]

Individual Australian states, as well the Commonwealth Government, were full participants in the Imperial honours system. Originally there was bipartisan support, but Australian Labor Party (ALP) governments, both national and state, ceased making recommendations for Imperial awards – in particular, appointments to the Order of the British Empire mainly after 1972. During the Second World War, the Governor-General, on the advice of wartime Labor governments, made recommendations for gallantry awards, including eleven for the Victoria Cross. Appointments to the Order of the British Empire were for officers and men engaged in operational areas.

In 1975, the ALP (which had been out of power federally from 1949 until 1972) created the Australian Honours System. Recommendations were processed centrally, but state governors still had the power, on the advice of their governments, to submit recommendations for Imperial awards. From 1975 until 1983, the Liberal Party was in power federally, under Malcolm Fraser and, although it retained the Australian Honours System, it reintroduced recommendations for meritorious Imperial awards, but not for Imperial awards for gallantry, bravery or distinguished service. Recommendations for Imperial awards by the federal government ceased with the election of the Hawke Labor Government in 1983. In 1989, the last two states to make Imperial recommendations were Queensland and Tasmania.[2] The defeat of both governments at the polls that year marked the end of Australian recommendations for Imperial awards.

Following the UK New Year Honours List in 1990, which contained no Australian nominations for British honours, the Queen's Private Secretary, Sir William Heseltine, wrote to the Governor-General, saying "this seems a good moment to consider whether the time has not arrived for Australia, like Canada, to honour its citizens exclusively within its own system". There followed more than two years of negotiations with state governments before the Prime Minister, Paul Keating, made the announcement on 5 October 1992 that Australia would make no further recommendations for British honours.[3] The Australian Order of Wear states that "all imperial British awards made to Australian citizens after 5 October 1992 are foreign awards and should be worn accordingly".[4]

The Australian Honours System has followed United States rather than British practice in allowing for late awards years after an action that is being commended. More than one hundred late awards for the Second World War and Vietnam have been gazetted. In the British system, no Victoria Cross has been awarded more than six years after the action commended. The longest period between action and award of the US Medal of Honor is 137 years, when in January 2001 President Bill Clinton presented the Medal of Honor to descendants of a Civil War soldier. Although 'The Report of the inquiry into unresolved recognition for past acts of naval and military gallantry and valour' released in March 2013 did not recommend any belated Victoria Cross for Australia awards, it did recommend a Unit Citation for Gallantry to HMAS Yarra for February and March 1942.[5] Similarly, Australian Bravery Awards have been gazetted years after the action being commended, including a Commendation for Brave Conduct awarded in 1987 to Robert Anderson for his courage in rescuing a child from a burning car at Kalgoorlie eight years earlier in 1979.[6]

Nominating or applying for awards

Australians become recipients of each of the 55 different types of Australian awards and honours through one of two separate processes; by nomination or by application.[7]

  • Nomination: Individual nominations may be made by members of the public or a community group for the Order of Australia and Australian Bravery Decorations. Nominations for Meritorious Service Awards are based on nominations from each specific organisation. The Department of Defence also nominates individuals for a range of service decorations.[7] Non-Australians can be given honorary awards for "extraordinary service to Australia or humanity at large".[8] Nomination forms for the Order of Australia are available through the Australian Honours Secretariat website, or upon application to the Honours Secretariat at Government House, Canberra or from any state Government House.
  • Application: Many of the honours or awards are based on an application by the recipient or a recommendation on their behalf. Awards that fall under this category include service awards for defence force and police personnel for operational service or to other individuals for special civilian services recognised by the Australian Government. Unlike Imperial bravery or gallantry awards, any person can nominate themselves for an Australian Bravery Award under the current design of the nomination form.[7]

Categories of honours and awards

There are two broad categories of honours and awards.

Individual honours and awards

The Honours and the Awards in the Australian system are, and have been:

  • those within the Australian System of Honours and Awards;
  • those conferred by The Sovereign in exercise of the Royal Prerogative;
  • those within the Order of St John;
  • Imperial/British awards conferred before 6 October 1992; and
  • foreign awards, the acceptance and wearing of which have been authorised by the Governor-General.

Note that awards of the British Empire/United Kingdom conferred after 5 October 1992 are foreign awards.[9]

Military theatre and battle honours, honour titles and distinctions

The Australian Defence Force has a system of battle honours, theatre honours, honour titles and honour distinctions to recognise exemplary service by units (not individuals) in combat and combat-related roles. Normally, Defence Honours are not awarded below sub-unit level (an organisation normally commanded by a Major or equivalent). The recommendation for the award of battle honours, theatre honours, honour titles and honour distinctions is made by a Battle Honours Committee.[10]

There are four categories of honours in the Defence system as follows:[10]

  • Honour Title: An Honour Title is awarded to any non-combat unit or sub-unit that is not entitled to a Battle Honour but which satisfies the same requirements for the award of a Battle Honour. An example of the award of an Honour Title is the title Coral, awarded to 102nd Field Battery for its outstanding achievement during the Battle of Coral–Balmoral in South Vietnam.[10][12]
  • Honour Distinction: An Honour Distinction is defined as a public commemoration of creditable performance by a unit or sub-unit in an operation which does not attract a Theatre, Battle or Honour Title. Honour Distinctions are intended to recognise service under operational conditions in security-related, peace keeping and peace enforcement and similar operations. The first award of an Honour Distinction was the award made to the 17th Construction Squadron for the Australian contribution to the United Nations Transition Assistance Group (UNTAG) peacekeeping mission in Namibia in 1989 and 1990.[13][14]

It is common that units claim Honours from original units with a historical connection to a military predecessors of the current Unit. For example, 4th/3rd Battalion, Royal New South Wales Regiment which is a modern amalgamated unit, is entitled to the previous Honours of the 3rd Battalion, the 4th Battalion as well as the World War I Honours of the 3rd and 4th Battalions First Australian Imperial Force. The term Battle Honour can be used to denote both battle and theatre honours.[10]

Historically the system was drawn from the British system adopted during World War I but has been modified since. A relatively recent change is the introduction of the Honours for recognition of outstanding service in dangerous operations short of declared theatres of war.[15] Defence also has a process of Defence and Service Commendations and other honours including the Army Combat Badge and Infantry Combat Badge which are awarded by Army Headquarters.[16][17]

Australian honours and awards

Order of Australia

The Order of Australia insignia were designed by Stuart Devlin in 1976. Devlin used the livery colours of the Australian Coat of Arms, gold and royal blue. He also translated an individual ball of wattle blossom into a simple convex golden disc with a rich texture of beads and radiating lines accentuating a ring of blue enamel representing the sea.

The disc is surmounted by an enamel Crown signifying the position of The Order of Australia as an Australian Royal Honour. The Sovereign is Head of the Order of Australia. The Governor-General is Principal Knight or Dame and Chancellor of the Order of Australia. The blue and gold theme is continued in the ribbon. Most of the insignia pieces are produced by the Royal Australian Mint in Canberra. The actual pieces for the two Divisions of the Order are identical: it is only the ribbon which differentiates an award between the General and the Military Divisions. In the Military Division the ribbon is distinguished by the addition of a narrow gold band on each edge.

When established, only the grades of Member, Officer and Companion of the Order existed. In 1976, Malcolm Fraser recommended to Queen Elizabeth II the addition of the Medal and grade of Knight and Dame in the Order. The grade of Knight and Dame was removed on the advice of Prime Minister Bob Hawke in 1986 without prejudice to any person who had been admitted to the Order at that grade. The grade of Knight and Dame was restored on the advice of Tony Abbott in March 2014. In November 2015, Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull, a prominent republican, announced that the Queen had accepted his request to amend the Order's letters patent and cease awards in this class, after Cabinet had agreed that he should advise that these titles are no longer appropriate in the Australian honours system.[18][19] Currently there are four grades within the Order in both Military and General Divisions. People cannot be admitted to the Order posthumously; if a person is successfully nominated but dies prior to the scheduled announcement, the date of effect of the award is deemed to be a date before they died.

The Council for the Order of Australia makes recommendations to the Governor-General as to the appropriateness of a nominee to be admitted to the Order and at what grade. It is up to the Honours Secretariat to provide the council with as much fully verified information as is possible on each nominee so that appropriate consideration may be given to each case. This is a long process and up to eighteen months can elapse between the original submission and publication of a successful nomination.

  • AUS Order of Australia (civil) BAR
    General Division ribbon
  • AUS Order of Australia (military) BAR
    Military Division ribbon
AUS Order of Australia (civil) BAR
AUS Order of Australia (military) BAR

Classes

Knight / Dame of the Order of Australia (AK / AD)
Appointments to this class of the Order ceased from November 2015. A maximum of four knights and dames were appointed each year. The full list is at List of Knights and Dames of the Order of Australia.
Companion of the Order of Australia (AC)
Appointments are made for eminent achievement and merit of the highest degree in service to Australia or to humanity at large. Excluding honorary appointments, no more than 35 Companions shall be appointed in any calendar year. The full list is at List of Companions of the Order of Australia.
Officer of the Order of Australia (AO)
Appointments made for distinguished service of a high degree to Australia or to humanity at large. Excluding honorary appointments, no more than 140 Officers shall be appointed in any calendar year.
Member of the Order of Australia (AM)
Appointment made for service in a particular locality or field of activity or to a particular group. Excluding honorary appointments, no more than 340 Members shall be appointed in any calendar year.
Medal of the Order of Australia (OAM)
Awarded for service worthy of particular recognition. There is no quota limit on awards of the Medal of the Order.

Bold names are living recipients. These have included:

Order Foundation Motto Chancellor
Order of Australia
AUS Order of Australia (civil) BAR
Order of Australia 1975 – Elizabeth II His Excellency General The Honourable Sir Peter Cosgrove AK, MC
Knights/(Dames) (AK/AD): Sir John Kerr (1976), Sir Robert Menzies (1976), Sir Colin Syme (1977), Sir Zelman Cowen (1977), Sir Macfarlane Burnet (1978), Dame Alexandra Hasluck (1978), Dame Enid Lyons (1980), Charles, Prince of Wales (1981), Sir Roden Cutler (1981), Sir Garfield Barwick (1981), Sir Charles Court (1982), Sir Ninian Stephen (1982), Sir Roy Wright (1983), Sir Gordon Jackson (1983), Dame Quentin Bryce (2014), Sir Peter Cosgrove (2014), Dame Marie Bashir (2014), Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (2015), Sir Angus Houston (2015)

Gallantry

Victoria Cross (UK) ribbon
SGAustRibbon
MGAustRibbon
Commendation for Gallantry (Australia) ribbon

Bravery

AUS Cross of Valour
SCAustRibbon
BMAustRibbon
Commendation for Brave Conduct (Australia) ribbon

Distinguished Service

DSC (Australia) ribbon
DSM (Australia) ribbon
Commendation for Distinguished Service (Aust) ribbon

Conspicuous Service

CSC Australia ribbon
CSM Australia ribbon

Nursing Service

NSC Australia ribbon

Meritorious Service

PSM Australia ribbon
APM Australia ribbon
AFSM Australia ribbon
ASM Australia ribbon
ESM Australia ribbon
Australian Corrections Medal ribbon
Australian Antarctic Medal ribbon

Campaign Medals

Australian Service Medal 1939-45 ribbon
Australian Active Service Medal 1945-75 ribbon
Australian Service Medal 1945-1975 ribbon
AGSMK Ribbon
Vietnam Medal ribbon
Vietnam Logistic and Support Medal ribbon
Australian Active Service Medal ribbon
Australian Service Medal ribbon
Rhodesia Medal Ribbon
INTERFET Medal ribbon
Iraq Medal (Australia) ribbon
Afghanistan Medal (Australia) ribbon
AUS OSM Border Service
AUS OSM Civilian ribbon
AUS OSM Greater Middle East Operation

Special Service

Police Overseas Service Medal (Australia) ribbon
Humanitarian Overseas Service Medal (Australia) ribbon
AUS National Emergency Medal ribbon bar
Civilian Service Medal 1939-45 (Australia) ribbon
NPSM Ribbon

Commemorative

80th Anniversary Armistice Remembrance Medal ribbon
Australian Sports Medal ribbon
Centenary Medal (Australia) ribbon

Long Service

Defence Force Service Medal (Australia) ribbon
Reserve Force Decoration (Australia) ribbon
Reserve Force Medal (Australia) ribbon
Defence Long Service Medal (Australia) ribbon
National Medal (Australia) ribbon
Australian Cadet Forces Service Medal (Australia) ribbon
Service Medal of the Order of St John Ribbon

Other Defence Medals

Australian Defence Medal (Australia) ribbon
Champion Shots Medal (Australia) ribbon
Anniversary of National Service Medal (Australia) ribbon

Royal honours

The sovereign confers honours upon Australians in exercise of the royal prerogative (rather than through the government). Bold names are living recipients. These have included:

Order Foundation Motto Chancellor
Arms of the Most Noble Order of the Garter
Order of the Garter UK ribbon
The Most Noble Order of the Garter 1348 – Edward III Honi soit qui mal y pense
Shame upon him who thinks evil upon it
The 5th Duke of Abercorn
Knights/(Ladies) (KG/LG): Richard Casey, Baron Casey (1969), Sir Paul Hasluck (1979), Sir Ninian Stephen (1994)
Insignia of Knight of the Thistle
Order of the Thistle UK ribbon
The Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle 1687 – James VII of Scotland
(James II of England)
Nemo me impune lacessit
No one provokes me with impunity
The 13th Earl of Airlie
Knights/(Ladies) (KT/LT): Sir Robert Menzies (1963)
Order of Merit Dorothy Hodgkin (cropped)

Order of Merit (Commonwealth realms) ribbon
Order of Merit 1902 – Edward VII For Merit Elizabeth II
Members (OM): Samuel Alexander (1930), Gilbert Murray (1941), Sir Macfarlane Burnet (1958), Sir Owen Dixon (1963), Howard Florey, Baron Florey (1965), Sir Sidney Nolan (1983), Dame Joan Sutherland (1991), Robert May, Baron May of Oxford (2002), John Howard (2012)
Royal Victorian Order in Heraldry
Royal Victorian Order UK ribbon
Royal Victorian Order 1896 – Queen Victoria Victoria The Princess Royal (Grand master)
The 3rd Earl Peel (Chancellor)
Knights/(Dames) Grand Cross (GCVO): Sir Paul Hasluck (1970), Sir John Kerr (1977), Sir Zelman Cowen (1980), Sir Ninian Stephen (1982), Sir William Heseltine (1990)

Knights/(Dames) Commander (KCVO/DCVO): Sir Brudenell White (1920), Sir Bertram Mackennal (1921), Sir George Pearce (1927), Sir Leighton Bracegirdle (1947), Sir Frank Berryman (1954), Sir Eric Harrison (1954), Sir John Lavarack (1954), Sir John Northcott (1954), Sir Percy Spender (1957), Sir Robert Jackson (1962), Sir Roy Dowling (1963), Sir Eric Woodward (1963), Sir Murray Tyrrell (1968), Sir Roden Cutler (1970), Sir Alan Mansfield (1970), Sir Reg Pollard (1970), Sir Stanley Burbury (1977), Sir Colin Hannah (1977), Sir Douglas Nicholls (1977), Sir James Scholtens (1977), Sir Wallace Kyle (1977), Sir Henry Winneke (1977), Sir John Yocklunn (1977), Sir Keith Seaman (1981), Sir James Ramsay (1981), Sir David Smith (1990)

Order of St John (UK) ribbon -vector Venerable Order of Saint John Royal charter 1888 – Victoria Pro fide and Pro utilitate hominum
For faithful and For utility of men
The 2nd Duke of Gloucester
Queen Elizabeth II Golden Jubilee Medal ribbon Queen Elizabeth II Golden Jubilee Medal (2002) Awarded by the Queen to living holders of the Victoria Cross (2)[29] and George Cross (1)
Awarded to: Edward Kenna, Keith Payne, Michael Pratt
QEII Diamond Jubilee Medal ribbon Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal (2012) Awarded by the Queen to living holders of the Victoria Cross (1), Victoria Cross for Australia (3), George Cross (1) and the Cross of Valour (5)[30]
Awarded to: Keith Payne, Mark Donaldson, Ben Roberts-Smith, Daniel Keighran, Michael Pratt, Darrell Tree, Victor Boscoe, Allan Sparkes, Timothy Britten, Richard Joyes

Imperial honours

Imperial honours awarded to Australians, if awarded since 5 October 1992, are no longer part of the Australian honours system, and are foreign awards. Bold names are living recipients.

Prior to 6 October 1992, such honours were part of the Australian system (and awards made prior to that date still retain legal recognition in Australia):

Order Foundation Motto Chancellor/
Grand Master
BaronetUK-cropped Baronet's Badge ribbon Baronet/(Baronetess)
Order of the Bath DSC05151 Order of the Bath UK ribbon Most Honourable Order of the Bath 1725 – George I Tria iuncta in uno
Three joined in one
The Prince of Wales (Grand master)
Admiral The Lord Boyce (King-of-Arms)
Knights/(Dames) Grand Cross (GCB): Sir George Reid (1916), Sir Isaac Isaacs (1937), Sir Arthur Longmore (1941), Sir Edmund Hudleston (1963), Sir Wallace Kyle (1966), Sir John Hackett (1967), Sir William Heseltine (1990)
Knights/(Dames) Commander (KCB/DCB): Sir William Bridges (1915), Sir Neville Howse (1917), Sir Harry Chauvel (1918), Sir Talbot Hobbs (1918), Sir John Monash (1918), Sir John Gellibrand (1919), Sir Thomas Glasgow (1919), Sir Charles Rosenthal (1919), Sir Brudenell White (1927), Sir George Hyde (1934), Sir Julius Bruche (1935), Sir Douglas Evill (1940), Sir Arthur Coningham (1941), Sir Thomas Blamey (1942), Sir Leslie Morshead (1942), Sir Peter Drummond (1943)
StMichaelandStGeorgeInsignia Ord.St.Michele-Giorgio Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George 1818 – George IV Auspicium melioris ævi
Token of a better age
The 2nd Duke of Kent
The Lord Robertson of Port Ellen (Chancellor)
Knights/(Dames) Grand Cross (GCMG): Sir Henry Ayers (1894), Sir Frederick Darley (1901), Sir John Forrest (1901), Sir Edmund Barton (1902), Sir John Madden (1906), Sir George Reid (1911), Sir Joseph Cook (1918), Sir Harry Chauvel (1919), Sir John Monash (1919), Sir Isaac Isaacs (1932), Sir John Higgins (1934), Sir John Latham (1935), Sir William Irvine (1936), Sir Robert Garran (1937), Sir Earle Page (1938), Sir James Mitchell (1947), Sir William McKell (1951), Sir Owen Dixon (1954), Sir Thomas Playford (1957), Sir Arthur Fadden (1958), Sir Garfield Barwick (1965), Richard Casey, Baron Casey (1965), Sir Paul Hasluck (1969), Sir John McEwen (1971), Sir Henry Bolte (1978), Sir Robert Askin (1975), Sir John Kerr (1976), Sir Zelman Cowen (1977), Sir John Gorton (1977), Sir William McMahon (1977), Sir Harry Gibbs (1981), Sir Ninian Stephen (1982)
Ster Orde van het Britse Rijk Order of the British Empire (Civil) Ribbon Most Excellent Order of the British Empire 1917 – George V For God and the Empire The 1st Duke of Edinburgh (Grand master)
Admiral Sir Peter Abbott (King-of-Arms)
Knights/Dames Grand Cross (GBE): Dame Flora Reid (1917), Sir Owen Cox (1920), Sir Thomas Robinson (1920), Dame Mary Hughes (1922), Dame Nellie Melba (1927), Sir Robert Gibson (1932), Sir Thomas Blamey (1943), Sir Douglas Evill (1946), Dame Pattie Menzies (1954), Dame Enid Lyons (1957)
Companion of Honour Order of Companions of Honour ribbon Order of the Companions of Honour 1917 – George V In action faithful and in honour clear Elizabeth II
Companions (CH): Joseph Lyons (1936), Billy Hughes (1941), Sir Earle Page (1942), Richard Casey, Baron Casey (1944), Sir Robert Menzies (1951), Harold Holt (1967), Sir John McEwen (1969), Sir John Gorton (1971), Sir William McMahon (1972), Malcolm Fraser (1977), Doug Anthony (1981)
Knights Bachelor Insignia Knight-Bachelor.ribbon Knight Bachelor Living Knights Bachelor: Sir Lenox Hewitt (1971), Sir Gustav Nossal (1977), Sir Roderick Carnegie (1978), Sir Arvi Parbo (1978), Sir Andrew Grimwade (1980), Sir William Cole (1981), Sir James Gobbo (1981), Sir James Hardy (1981), Sir William Kearney (1982), Sir Eric Neal (1982), Sir Frank Moore (1983), Sir Llewellyn Edwards (1984), Sir Graham McCamley (1986), Sir Leo Hielscher (1987), Sir Max Bingham (1988), Sir Clem Renouf (1988), Robert May, Baron May of Oxford (1996), Sir Peter Morris (1996), Sir Peter Barter (2001), Sir Rod Eddington (2005), Sir Marc Feldmann (2010), Sir Trevor Garland (2010), Sir David Higgins (2011), Sir Michael Hintze (2013), Sir Jonathan Mills (2013), Sir Chris Clarke (2015), Sir Lynton Crosby (2016), Sir Frank Lowy (2017) All other Knights Bachelor

Foreign honours – including UN and NATO service

Specific foreign awards are not mentioned on the Order of Wear document – just the general comment that foreign awards appear after the awards mentioned.

A list of foreign honours commonly awarded to Australians appears at Australian Honours Order of Wearing#Foreign awards.

A list of foreign awards commonly awarded to Australians for campaign and peacekeeping service appears at Australian Campaign Medals#Foreign awards.

Permission for formal acceptance and wearing of foreign awards is given by the Governor-General on the recommendation of the Prime Minister or the minister responsible for Australian honours.[31]

Additional information regarding UN medals can be found on the Australian Defence Force website.[32]

See also

References

  1. ^ Who's Who Australia 2008. Details are provided at Australian peers and baronets.
  2. ^ London Gazette, 17 June 1989, pp. B29 & B30
  3. ^ A matter of honour: the report of the review of Australian honours and awards, December 1995, pp. 21–22
  4. ^ "The Order of Wearing Australian Honours and Awards" (PDF). Special Gazette No. S192. Commonwealth of Australia. 2012.
  5. ^ "HMAS Yarra". Defence Honours and Awards Appeals Tribunal. Australian Government. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
  6. ^ Commendation for Brave Conduct, ANDERSON, Robert Graham, 30 January 1987, It's an Honour
  7. ^ a b c "Nominating or Applying for Awards". Australian Government. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
  8. ^ "Order of Australia". Medals Australia. Archived from the original on 1 December 2006. Retrieved 2007-01-01.
  9. ^ "- all Imperial awards made to Australian citizens after 5 October 1992 are foreign awards and should be worn accordingly." Order of Wearing, updated 25 September 2007. page 1. (Generally, foreign awards are worn after Australian awards, and postnominals of foreign awards are not recognised.)
  10. ^ a b c d e f Administration of Australian Battle Honours, Theatre Honours, Honour Titles and Honour Distinctions. Defence Instruction (Army). 38–3 (ADMIN ed.). Canberra: Australian Army. 4 May 2012.
  11. ^ "Australian Army Corps Badges". Australian Department of Defence. Archived from the original on 27 February 2012. Retrieved 30 March 2007.
  12. ^ McAulay, Lex (1988). The Battle of Coral: Vietnam Fire Support Bases Coral and Balmoral, May 1968. London, England: Arrow Books. ISBN 0-09-169091-9.
  13. ^ Morrison, David (10 April 2012). "Letter from the Chief of Army to the Governor General of Australia" (PDF). Army Headquarters, Canberra: 2. OCA/OUT/2012/R11194182. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 June 2013.
  14. ^ Morrison, David (10 August 2012). "Letter from the Chief of Army to the Officer Commanding 17th Construction Squadron" (PDF). Army Headquarters, Canberra: 2. OCA/OUT/2012/R11944295.
  15. ^ John Wellfare, ed. (23 May 2013). "Honour for engineers: First Honour Distinction has been awarded to 17 Const Sqn for Namibia 1989-90 peacekeeping mission" (PDF) (1305 ed.). Army Headquarters, Canberra: 4. Retrieved 18 June 2013.
  16. ^ "Army Combat Badge" (PDF). DI(A) PERS 119-1 Issue: 5/2009. Department of Defence (Army Headquarters). 24 August 2009.
  17. ^ "Who is eligible for the Infantry Combat Badge". Defence Medals FAQ. defence.gov.au.
  18. ^ Norman, Jane; Iggulden, Tom (2 November 2015). "Knights and dames scrapped from Order of Australia, Malcolm Turnbull says". ABC News. Australia. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
  19. ^ Medhora, Shalailah (2 November 2015). "Knights and dames removed from Order of Australia by Malcolm Turnbull". The Guardian. Australia. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
  20. ^ National Emergency Medal regulations, The Australian Honours Secretariat – Governor General of Australia's site. Archived 30 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  21. ^ National Police Service Medal, It's an Honour – Australian Government Website
    National Police Service Medal fact sheet, It's an Honour – Australian Government Website
  22. ^ "80th Anniversary Armistice Remembrance Medal". A-Z of Awards. Itsanhonour.gov.au. Retrieved 5 December 2010.
  23. ^ "Australian Sports Medal". A-Z of Awards. Itsanhonour.gov.au. Retrieved 5 December 2010.
  24. ^ "Centenary Medal". A-Z of Awards. Itsanhonour.gov.au. Retrieved 5 December 2010.
  25. ^ http://www.defence.gov.au/Medals/_Master/docs/DHAM/48.pdf
  26. ^ Australian Defence Medal, It's an Honour – Australian Government Website
    Australian Defence Medal fact sheet, It's an Honour – Australian Government Website
  27. ^ "MSM Awards". Honours.homestead.com. 13 September 1988. Retrieved 5 December 2010.
  28. ^ "Anniversary of National Service 1951–1972 Medal". A-Z of Awards. Itsanhonour.gov.au. Retrieved 5 December 2010.
  29. ^ The first award of the Victoria Cross for Australia was in 2009.
  30. ^ Presentation of The Queen’s Diamond Jubilee medal to Corporal Daniel Keighran VC, gg.gov.au
  31. ^ Foreign Awards, www.itsanhonour.gov.au
  32. ^ Australian Issue of UN Medals, www.defence.gov.au

Bibliography

  • Bruce Knox (1998). "Honours". In Graeme Davison; John Hirst; Stuart MacIntyre (eds.). The Oxford Companion to Australian History. Melbourne, Australia: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-553597-9.

External links

80th Anniversary Armistice Remembrance Medal

The 80th Anniversary Armistice Remembrance Medal was a commemorative medal made to commemorate the 80th anniversary of the Armistice marking the end of World War I. Each of the 71 surviving Australian First World War veterans were presented with the medal for Anzac Day 1999. It is the first commemorative medal in the Australian Honours System.A total of 71 medals were issued prior to Anzac Day (25 April) 1999, with the medal being minted in record time following its establishment in January 1999.

Bravery Medal (Australia)

The Bravery Medal (BM) is a bravery decoration awarded to Australians. It is awarded for acts of bravery in hazardous circumstances. The BM was created in February 1975. The decorations recognise acts of bravery by members of the community. They selflessly put themselves in jeopardy to protect the lives or property of others. It is ranked third of the Australian bravery decorations in the Australian Honours System. Recipients of the Bravery Medal are entitled to use the post-nominal letters "BM".

Commendation for Brave Conduct

The Commendation for Brave Conduct is a bravery decoration awarded to Australians. It is awarded for an act of bravery that is worthy of recognition. The Commendation for Brave Conduct was created in February 1975. The decorations recognise acts of bravery by members of the community who selflessly put themselves in jeopardy to protect the lives or property of others. It is ranked fourth in the Australian bravery decoration in the Australian Honours System.

Commendation for Distinguished Service

The Commendation for Distinguished Service is a military decoration awarded to personnel of the Australian Defence Force, it is awarded for the distinguished performance of duties in warlike operations. The Commendation for Distinguished Service was introduced in 1991 and replaced its Imperial equivalent, Mention in Despatches. It is the third level of distinguished service decoration in the Australian Honours System.

Commendation for Gallantry

The Commendation for Gallantry is a military decoration awarded to personnel of the Australian Defence Force, it recognises acts of gallantry in action considered worthy of recognition. The award was introduced on 15 January 1991, replacing the Imperial equivalent of the Mentioned in Despatches. It is ranked fourth in the Gallantry Decorations in the Australian Honours System. Since its inception 67 awards have been made.

Conspicuous Service Cross (Australia)

The Conspicuous Service Cross (CSC) is a decoration (medal) of the Australian honours system. It is awarded "for outstanding devotion to duty or outstanding achievement in the application of exceptional skills, judgment or dedication, in non-warlike situations". In October 2017, 1002 people were listed as recipients All ranks are eligible for the award.

Conspicuous Service Medal

The Conspicuous Service Medal (CSM) is a military decoration awarded to personnel of the Australian Defence Force, and officers and instructors of the Australian Defence Force Cadets. It is awarded for meritorious achievement or dedication to duty in non-war like situations. The CSM was introduced in 1989 and is a distinct Australian military award. It is the second level award of the Conspicuous Service Decorations in the Australian Honours System. Recipients of the Conspicuous Service Medal are entitled to use the post-nominal letters "CSM". Since its inception 1,021 had been awarded, plus a single Bar. All ranks are eligible for the award.

Cross of Valour (Australia)

The Cross of Valour was established in 1975 as the highest Australian Bravery Award. The awards were established as part of the institution of the Australian Honours System. The Cross of Valour has been awarded to five Australian civilians and, although there has been no Australian military recipient, they would be eligible in situations where normal honours to the military do not apply.The Cross of Valour is awarded "only for acts of the most conspicuous courage in circumstances of extreme peril". The award carries the post-nominal initials CV; awards may be made posthumously.

Distinguished Service Cross (Australia)

The Distinguished Service Cross (DSC) is a military decoration awarded to personnel of the Australian Defence Force. It is awarded for distinguished command and leadership in action. The DSC was introduced in 1991 and is the highest distinguished service decoration in the Australian Honours System. Recipients of the Distinguished Service Cross are entitled to use the post-nominal letters "DSC". Since its inception 97 awards have been made—which includes seven Bars—with the most recent being announced in the 2017 Australia Day Honours.

Distinguished Service Medal (Australia)

The Distinguished Service Medal (DSM) is a military decoration awarded to personnel of the Australian Defence Force for distinguished leadership in warlike operations. The DSM was introduced in 1991 and is the second highest distinguished service decoration in the Australian Honours System. Recipients of the Distinguished Service Medal are entitled to use the post-nominal letters "DSM". Since its inception 152 awards have been made—which includes six Bars—with the most recent being announced in the 2017 Australia Day Honours.

Group Bravery Citation

The Group Bravery Citation is a bravery decoration awarded to Australians. It is awarded for a collective act of bravery by a group of people in extraordinary circumstances that is considered worthy of recognition. The Group Bravery Citation was created in 1990. The decorations recognise acts of bravery by members of the community who selflessly put themselves in jeopardy to protect the lives or property of others.

It is ranked 5th in the list of Australian bravery decoration in the Australian honours system.

Humanitarian Overseas Service Medal

The Humanitarian Overseas Service Medal is an award in the Australian honours system. The award is presented to those who perform humanitarian service in a foreign country, in particular those working in dangerous environments or conditions or during a humanitarian crisis. The award was introduced by letters patent on 16 April 1999, following a review of the Australian honours and awards system beginning in 1995.

Potential recipients have to prove they worked for a minimum of 30 days in the location depicted by the clasp, during a period of time set in the award criteria. In addition, potential recipients have to be working for an aid organisation recognised by the criteria or with a United Nations taskforce during that timeframe. In 2005, special criteria were established for people working during the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake or the 2005 Nias–Simeulue earthquake, with a maximum time period of 7 or 14 days depending on the time frame.

The medal was originally intended as a civilian award, in parallel with the Australian Service Medal and the Police Overseas Service Medal, and until 2005 the Australian Defence Force had never been declared an eligible organisation. This is because, in most cases, the Australian Service Medal is already available to military personnel serving alongside humanitarian relief operations. However, defence personnel on leave of absence and serving an eligible organisation could qualify for the medal. The declaration of eligible organisations for the Indian Ocean clasp was the first time the Australian Defence Force was declared an eligible organisation, as Operation Sumatra Assist was purely a disaster relief operation and did not attract any military operational service award. The Australian Defence Force was again declared an eligible organisation for the participation of its personnel in Operation Pakistan Assist, part of the Australian humanitarian response to 8 October 2005 Pakistan earthquake.

National Emergency Medal (Australia)

The National Emergency Medal is an award of the Australian honours system given for sustained service during a nationally significant emergency; or to other persons who rendered significant service in response to such emergencies. The medal was established by Her Majesty The Queen in October 2011. The medal is awarded for events specifically set out by regulation or may be awarded upon the recommendation of the National Emergency Medal Committee for significant service.

National Medal (Australia)

The National Medal is an Australian award given for long service by operational members of specified eligible organisations. It was introduced in 1975, as an original component of the new Australian honours system, and replaced a range of medals available to military and civilian uniformed services for long service and good conduct. The eligible groups have in common that their members serve or protect the community at the risk of death, injury or trauma, hence it is only available to members of the eligible organisations who are operationally deployed. In the case of corrective services, eligibility is restricted to officers with custodial duties.

National Police Service Medal

The National Police Service Medal (NPSM) is a special service award within the Australian honours system to provide "recognition for the unique contribution and significant commitment of those persons who have given ethical and diligent service as a sworn member of an Australian police service".The NPSM is awarded for "15 years 'ethical and diligent service' on or after 14 February 1975, or for a lesser period if that service was terminated due to the member's death, or to an impairment related to the discharge of their duties as a Constable of Police".Australian police continue to receive the National Medal to recognise their long service. Thus, at the completion of 15 years 'ethical and diligent service', a police officer may receive both the National Police Service Medal and the National Medal.

Nursing Service Cross

The Nursing Service Cross (Post-nominal letters NSC) was a decoration (medal) of the Australian Honours System. The NSC was awarded for outstanding performance of nursing duties in both operational and non-operational situations.

The NSC replaced the Royal Red Cross in the Imperial honours system for recognising nursing personnel.

Police Overseas Service Medal (Australia)

The Police Overseas Service Medal is an award in the Australian honours system. The award is presented to those members of an Australian Police force who undertake service;

with international peace-keeping organisations, or

following a request from another government for assistance.The award was introduced by letters patent on 25 April 1991.

Recipients of the Police Overseas Service Medal are not entitled to any post-nominal letters as a result.

Star of Courage (Australia)

The Star of Courage (SC) is a bravery decoration awarded to Australians. It is awarded for acts of conspicuous courage in circumstances of great peril. The SC was created on 14 February 1975. The decoration recognises acts of bravery by members of the community. They selflessly put themselves in jeopardy to protect the lives or property of others. It is ranked second in the Australian civil bravery decorations in the Australian Honours System. Recipients of the Star of Courage are entitled to use the post-nominal letters "SC".

Star of Gallantry

The Star of Gallantry (SG) is a military decoration awarded to personnel of the Australian Defence Force (ADF) and other persons recognised by the Minister for Defence. It is awarded for acts of great heroism or conspicuous gallantry in action in circumstances of great peril. It is the second highest of the military gallantry awards in the Australian Honours System, only surpassed by the Victoria Cross or Victoria Cross for Australia (VC).

Orders, decorations, and medals by country
Africa
Americas
Asia
Europe
Oceania
Australia Orders, decorations, and medals of Australia
National orders
Royal orders
Gallantry
Bravery
Distinguished service
Conspicuous service
Nursing service
Meritorious service
Campaign medals
(Service periods)
Special service
Commemorative
Long service
Other defence awards
Australian honours lists
New Years Honours
Australia Day Honours
King's/Queen's Birthday Honours
Bravery Honours
Special Honours Lists
Royal Visit Honours
Coronation Honours
Related Pages
History
Geography
Politics
Economy
Society

Languages

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.