Australian War Memorial

The Australian War Memorial is Australia's national memorial to the members of its armed forces and supporting organisations who have died or participated in wars involving the Commonwealth of Australia, and some conflicts involving personnel from the Australian colonies prior to Federation. The memorial includes an extensive national military museum. The Australian War Memorial was opened in 1941, and is widely regarded as one of the most significant memorials of its type in the world.

The Memorial is located in Australia's capital, Canberra. It is the north terminus of the city's ceremonial land axis, which stretches from Parliament House on Capital Hill along a line passing through the summit of the cone-shaped Mount Ainslie to the northeast. No continuous roadway links the two points, but there is a clear line of sight from the front balcony of Parliament House to the War Memorial, and from the front steps of the War Memorial back to Parliament House.

The Australian War Memorial consists of three parts: the Commemorative Area (shrine) including the Hall of Memory with the Tomb of the Unknown Australian Soldier, the Memorial's galleries (museum) and Research Centre (records). The Memorial also has an outdoor Sculpture Garden. The Memorial is currently open daily from 10am until 5pm, except on Christmas Day.

Many people include Anzac Parade as part of the Australian War Memorial because of the Parade's physical design leading up to the War Memorial, but it is maintained separately by the National Capital Authority (NCA).[1]

Australian War Memorial
Government of Australia
AWM canberra 1
For Australian military dead of all wars
Location35°16′50″S 149°08′57″E / 35.2805°S 149.1491°ECoordinates: 35°16′50″S 149°08′57″E / 35.2805°S 149.1491°E
Designed byEmil Sodersten and John Crust
Unknown burials1
Queen Elizabeth II, being guided around the war memorial by Charles Bean (16 February 1954). The Duke of Edinburgh follows behind in naval uniform.
Lone Pine at the AWM
The tree planted at the war memorial in 1934 as a memorial to the WWI Battle of Lone Pine.
AWM Canberra Dawn 25APR05
Anzac Day 90th anniversary Dawn Service (25 April 2005)
2013-04-25 AWM Anzac Dawn - Ben Roberts-Smith VC
Dawn Service, 25 April 2013. The crowd of around 35,000 people was addressed by Cpl Ben Roberts-Smith VC MG who read stories and anecdotes from Australian service men and women relating to the war in Afghanistan.
Towards entrance of dome, Australian War Memorial
Towards the entrance of the Hall of Memory, from within.
Interior of the AWM dome
Detail of the dome from inside the Hall of Memory.
Australian War Memorial courtyard
Memorial Courtyard
AWM Western Front Gallery August 2012
The main Western Front gallery in August 2012
Man in the mud August 2012 2
The Man in the mud diorama. This diorama was not included in the redeveloped WW1 Gallery. It is currently not on display.


Charles Bean, Australia's official World War I historian, first conceived a museum memorial to Australian soldiers while observing the 1916 battles in France. The Australian War Records Section was established in May 1917 to ensure preservation of records relating to the war being fought at the time. Records and relics were exhibited first in Melbourne and later Canberra.

An architecture competition in 1927 did not produce a winning entry. Two of the entrants, Sydney architects Emil Sodersten and John Crust, were however encouraged to re-present a joint design. A limited budget and the effects of the Depression confined the scope of the project.[2]

The building was completed in 1941, after the outbreak of World War II. It was officially opened following a Remembrance Day ceremony on 11 November 1941 by the then Governor-General Lord Gowrie, a former soldier whose honours include the Victoria Cross. Additions since the 1940s have allowed the remembrance of Australia's participation in all recent conflicts. The Tomb of the Unknown Australian Soldier was added in 1993, to mark the 75th anniversary of the end of World War I.[3]

Directors of the AWM to the present:

  • 1919–1920 – Henry Gullett
  • 1920–1952 – Major John Linton Treloar, OBE (1894–1952)
  • 1942–1946 – Arthur Bazley (acting director)
  • 1952–1966 – Major J. J. McGrath, OBE ( –1998)
  • 1966–1974 – W. R. Lancaster (formerly Assistant Director of the War Memorial)
  • 1974–1975 – Bill Sweeting (acting director)
  • 1975–1982 – Noel Joseph Flanagan, AO
  • 1982–1987 – Air Vice Marshal James H. Flemming, AO
  • 1987–1990 – Keith W. Pearson, AO
  • 1990–1994 – Brendon E. W. Kelson
  • 1996–2012 – Major General Steve Gower, AO
  • 2012–present – The Hon. Dr. Brendan Nelson, AO

Remembrance Driveway

Remembrance Nature Park, located behind the War Memorial, is the Canberra terminus of the Remembrance Driveway, a system of arboreal parks, landmarks and road-side stops between Sydney and Canberra commemorating the 24 World War II and Vietnam War Victoria Cross recipients.[4] Within that Nature Park is a small bronze plaque mounted on a large boulder, commemorating Indigenous Australians who have fought for their country.

Anzac Parade

Anzac Parade is a short, broad boulevard named in honour of the soldiers of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC). It stretches from near the north shore of Lake Burley Griffin to the foot of the Memorial proper, along the line of sight from Parliament House. It separates the residential suburbs of Campbell and Reid, and is fairly heavily trafficked as a route between northeast Canberra (Dickson etc.) and Kings Avenue Bridge.

Along each side of the Parade is a row of monuments commemorating specific military campaigns or services, such as the Vietnam War and Australia's wartime nurses. The monuments are mostly sculptures in a variety of styles ranging from naturalistic to Modern.

The foot of the Parade, near the lake, is paired by monumental sculptures in the form of gigantic basket handles, donated to the Memorial by New Zealand. The two monuments are dedicated to Australia and New Zealand respectively, and are inspired by the Māori proverb Mau tena kiwai o te kete, maku tenei, "Each of us at a handle of the basket", signifying the long tradition of cooperation and general closeness between the two Commonwealth countries.

The symbolic association of the two nations is carried forward in the vegetation decorating Anzac Parade. Long beds of New Zealand Hebe shrubs line the middle of the avenue, and behind the two rows of monuments are narrow bands of Australian eucalypt trees.


Looking along Anzac Parade to the War Memorial at the foot of Mount Ainslie

The National War Memorial, Canberra

The entrance to the Australian War Memorial from Anzac Parade

Remembrance Nature Park

Remembrance Nature Park

Anzac Parade Canberra 2014-09-16

Anzac Parade looking down from the War Memorial

Commemorative area

The Memorial proper is sited on a broad pie slice-shaped lawn at the north end of Anzac Parade. The commemorative area is situated in the open centre of the memorial building, (including the cloisters to each side and the Hall of Memory under the building's central dome) and the sculpture garden is on the lawn to the west.

The heart of the commemorative area is the Hall of Memory, a tall domed chapel with a small floor plan in the form of an octagon. The walls are lined with tiny mosaic tiles from the floor to the dome. Inside lies the Tomb of the Unknown Australian Soldier.[5]

Three of the walls, facing east, west and south feature stained glass designs representing qualities of Australian servicemen and women. At the four walls facing northeast, northwest, southeast and southwest are mosaic images of a Sailor, a Servicewoman, a Soldier and an Airman respectively.

The mosaic and stained glass are the work of the one-armed Australian muralist Napier Waller, who lost his right arm at Bullecourt during World War I and learned to write and create his works with his left arm. He completed his work in 1958.

In front of the Hall of Memory is a narrow courtyard with a memorial pool surrounding an eternal flame and flanked by footpaths and shrubbery, including plantings of rosemary for remembrance. Above the courtyard to either side are long cloisters containing the Roll of Honour, a series of bronze plaques naming the 102,185 Australian servicemen and women killed in conflict or on peacekeeping operations. The plaques include names dating back to the British Sudanese Expedition, the Second Boer War, and the Boxer Rebellion. The entire long wall of the west gallery is covered with the names of the 66,000 who died in World War I. The east gallery is covered with the names of those who died in World War II and conflicts since.

The roll shows the names only, not rank or other awards, as "all men are equal in death". Visiting relatives and friends insert poppies in the gaps between the bronze plaques, beside the names of those they wish to honour. This tradition originated when the Unknown Australian Soldier was interred, as the Poppies were originally intended for his grave. Many continue to be inserted beside the names of those who died. The Memorial only remove the poppies when the plaques have to be rewaxed for their preservation, otherwise, the Memorial staff make no effort to remove them.

The Colonial Gallery located behind the Temporary Exhibits Gallery states that the Imperial Bushman Breaker Morant of the Boer War does not appear in the Roll of Honour, not because he was dishonoured, but because he was not a member of the Australian armed forces. Conversely with the inclusion of the Commemorative Book which lists the names of all the Australians who died in service of other allied armies, he is also absent, this is due to the fact that he was neither serving in an allied regular unit, nor was technically an Australian Citizen at the time.

Last Post Ceremony

The Memorial started conducting Last Post Ceremonies on 17 April 2013 when they featured the story of Private Robert Poate of the 6th Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, who was killed in Afghanistan in 2012.

When the Memorial closes each day, there is the Last Post Ceremony at which visitors can gather at the entrance of the Commemorative Area. This Ceremony involves the reading of the story of one of the 102,815 people whose names are on the Roll of Honour. The host welcomes visitors to the Ceremony which starts with the National Anthem and a brief explanation as to the origins of the Memorial and the explanation of the Ceremony that is about to take place. Then a piper and a bugler descend from the Hall of Memory. The piper then plays "Flowers of the Forest" as visitors, family members of the individual being honoured that day or visiting dignitaries lay wreaths of floral tributes at the base of the Pool of Reflection beside a portrait (if available) of whomever is the subject of that day's story. If there is no photo on record, the image of a tri-folded Australian Flag is displayed in its place. After which, a member of the Australian Defence Force (ADF) reads out the story, covering where the honoured person grew up, what they did prior to enlisting in the ADF, what actions (if any) they participated in during their respective conflict, and invariably the circumstances of their death and burial. Following this the ADF member will ascend to the balcony above the Eternal Flame and recite the Ode. The Piper will then play the "Last Post" At the completion of this the ADF member, the piper and bugler will return to the Hall of Memory and the doors will be closed. The Host then gives a closing address and the memorial officially closes.

On 14 January 2016, the Memorial held its 1,000th Last Post Ceremony where it featured the story of Flight Sergeant Lindsay Arthur Bayley, who was killed on active service with No. 9 Squadron, Royal Air Force, during the Second World War.

On Anzac Day and Remembrance Day, the Eulogy to the Unknown (the speech made by then Prime Minister Paul Keating when the Unknown Australian Soldier was interred) is read instead of a specific individual. Due to the fact that the Memorial is closed on Christmas Day, these three days are the only in which the Last Post Ceremony does not take place.

Barring any further additions to the Roll of Honour it will not be until 2295 that all of the names on the Roll of Honour would have had their stories read.

Forecourt and Stone of Remembrance

The forecourt is the part of the commemorative area that is the main place in Canberra where Anzac Day and Remembrance Day services are held. These services are normally attended by Federal parliament representatives and officials from foreign embassies and Commonwealth high commissions, most notably New Zealand. The Stone of Remembrance is the focal point for these activities, and the steps from the Memorial towards Anzac Parade lead to the Stone then to the Parade. The grassed sides of the forecourt form a natural amphitheatre that can accommodate around 35,000 to 40,000 people at a typical Anzac Day Dawn Service. Most will be standing, but the Memorial erects some staged seating for Anzac Day and Remembrance Day.

Memorial building

Menin Gate at midnight (Will Longstaff)
The Memorial's art collection includes Menin Gate at Midnight (1927) by Australian artist Will Longstaff

The Memorial is a two-storey building with a floor plan in the shape of a Byzantine cross. The building is of Byzantine architecture style with strong styling elements of Art Deco throughout. In 2001, a new, broad annexe called ANZAC Hall was added to the north of the original building. In order to preserve the view of the original building from Anzac Parade, Anzac Hall was designed to be recessed in the ground, and hidden behind a wall.

The upper level is dedicated primarily to World War I (the entire west wing) and World War II (the entire east wing). The World War I gallery, is arrayed in chronological order from the start of Australia's involvement in the war. The first two sections of the Gallery relate extensively to the Gallipoli campaign. The World War I gallery was redeveloped in 2014 for the Centenary of the First World War, and was reopened in November 2014. Between the wings lies Aircraft Hall, which contains a number of complete aircraft, encompassing air power in the Pacific and contains aircraft mostly from the World War II era including a restored Japanese A6M Zero, that was flown in combat over New Guinea.

At the 'heart' of the building resides the Hall of Valour, a display of 76 of the 100 Victoria Crosses awarded to Australian soldiers; the largest publicly held collection of Victoria Crosses in the world.[6] The gallery is built to resemble a Victoria Cross with the left hand side dedicated to the WW1 VC recipients, and the right to the WW2, Vietnam and Afghanistan. The Collection has on display the first and last Imperial VC's (Major General Sr Neville Reginald Howse and Warrant Officer Class 2 Keith Payne) and all four of the VC's awarded under the Australian Award System. There is an individual display for the holder of each Cross shown there, with a photograph, an excerpt from the citation that accompanied the award, and usually additional medals awarded to that recipient. The relatives of Australian VC holders often donate or loan the Crosses to the Memorial for safekeeping and greater public awareness of their honoured kin. Architecturally the centre of the Hall of Valour is positioned directly under the Tomb of the Unknown Australian Soldier.

On 24 July 2006, Kerry Stokes purchased the 60th VC medal at auction for a world-record price of A$1,000,000 and asked that it be displayed in the Victoria Cross Gallery. This medal was awarded to Captain Alfred Shout for hand-to-hand combat at the Lone Pine trenches in Gallipoli, Turkey. The Victoria Cross Gallery now has all nine VCs awarded to Australians at Gallipoli: Alexander Burton, William Dunstan, John Hamilton, Albert Jacka, Leonard Keysor, Alfred Shout, William Symons, Hugo Throssell and Frederick Tubb.[7]

The lower level contains the Afghanistan: Australia's Story Gallery which currently is the sole audio-visual Gallery in the Memorial, a research area, a gallery for Colonial and Pre-Federation Conflicts including the War in Sudan, the Boxer Rebellion and the Boer War, and the Conflicts: Post 1945 to Today, Cold War Gallery comprising exhibits for the Korean War, the conflicts in Malaya and Indonesia and the Vietnam War. This section also encompasses the Peacekeeping Gallery and exhibits dedicated to both Gulf Wars. It also has an area for temporary special exhibitions.

ANZAC Hall is a large annexe to the upper level of the Memorial, used for the display of large military hardware. Notable displays on the west side include a complete and particularly historic Lancaster bomber known as G for George, The wrecks of M-14 and M-21 reconstructed to form a Japanese Ko-hyoteki class midget submarine as both were sunk during the raid on Sydney Harbour in 1942, rare German aircraft such as the Me 262 and Me 163, One of the main guns each from HMAS Sydney and SMS Emden, The east side includes a World War I aircraft exhibition, notably displaying a Royal Aircraft Factory SE5a, Pfalz D.XII and Albatros D.Va, among others These aircraft are accompanied by a movie directed by Peter Jackson titled "Over the Front" highlighting the formation of the Australian Flying Corps. Each of the large permanent exhibits are accompanied by an audio-visual experience. they are from West to East.

  • Strike by Night: Accompanying G for George (Played on the hour)
  • Sydney Under Attack: Accompanying the reconstructed Japanese Midget Submarine (Played on Even half hours i.e. 1030, 1230, 230, 430)
  • Our First Naval Victory: Accompanying the Guns from HMAS Sydney and SMS Emden (Played on Odd hours opposite Sydney Under Attack)
  • Over The Front: a Separate Video played alongside the WW1 Aircraft Collection (Played quarter past the hour)

The building is large and the collections are extensive; a full day will suffice for only the most cursory examination of its contents, the conservative estimate is a minimum of three days is required to see every single item on display gallery item to gain any recollection. A gift shop and two coffee shops are on site, one overlooking ANZAC Hall, named "The Landing Place", and the other on the east side of the main building, named "Poppy's Cafe".

Sculpture garden

Kangaroos against Gun Turret
Kangaroos standing before a naval gun turret. The domed structure in the background is the Hall of Memory.

The sculpture garden on the west lawn of the Memorial contains a variety of outdoor monuments. The footpath through the garden is embedded with bronze plaques commemorating various branches of service, specific units and historical events. There is also a number of sculptures, including a gigantic figure of a World War II-era Australian soldier that was originally located in the Hall of Memory, before the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier was placed there. There is a gun turret and Bridge from HMAS Brisbane, a gun barrel from the heavy cruiser HMAS Australia and the barrel from the Amiens Gun – a huge railroad gun captured from the Germans during World War I.[8]

At the rear of the Memorial outside ANZAC Hall there is a Centurion Tank and a Thales Bushmaster.

This area is used for special displays during annual Memorial Open Days, and summertime band concerts are held on the nearby lawn.

Storage facility

Only 5 percent of the Memorial's collection is displayed at any time, with the remainder being stored at the Treloar Resource Centre in the industrial suburb of Mitchell.[9] The facility also includes workshops that are used for restoration tasks. The Treloar Resource Centre is occasionally opened to the public for "Big Things in Store" open days.[10]


The memorial played a key role in sponsoring the official histories that were produced for World War I, World War II, Korea and Vietnam.[11] In addition, the memorial currently produces a quarterly magazine called Wartime. Featuring images from the memorial's collection and articles written by established historians, according to the AWM, the magazine is "...devoted to the Australian experience of war; military history; and the effects of war on society".[12] The magazine's first issue was published in November 1997.[13]

The memorial also previously published a journal titled The Journal of the Australian War Memorial (ISSN 1327-0141). In October 2003, after publishing 39 issues, the journal went into hiatus, although a fortieth and final issue was published in January 2007.[14]

See also


  1. ^ "Anzac Parade". National Capital Authority. Archived from the original on 19 July 2008. Retrieved 3 September 2015.
  2. ^ "Origins of the Australian War Memorial". Australian War Memorial. Retrieved 3 September 2015.
  3. ^ "Tomb of the Unknown Australian Soldier". Australian War Memorial. Retrieved 28 September 2014.
  4. ^ "Remembrance Driveway". New South Wales Government. Roads and Traffic Authority. Retrieved 28 August 2011.
  5. ^ "Commemoration". Australian War Memorial. Retrieved 17 August 2010.
  6. ^ "Victoria Cross". Encyclopedia. Australian War Memorial. Retrieved 3 September 2015.
  7. ^ Craig Blanch (23 April 2009). "Australia's Gallipoli Victoria Crosses". Retrieved 27 January 2018.
  8. ^ The Amiens Railway Gun Story, Buckland, J. L. Australian Railway Historical Society Bulletin, July 1978 pp. 137–42
  9. ^ Fantin, Elise (18 June 2016). "Australian War Memorial overhauls donation process". ABC News. Retrieved 18 June 2016.
  10. ^ Ellery, David (17 September 2012). "Thousands flock to see AWM's hidden gems". The Canberra Times. Retrieved 3 September 2015.
  11. ^ "Official Histories". Australian War Memorial. Retrieved 14 September 2017.
  12. ^ "Wartime magazine". Australian War Memorial. Retrieved 14 September 2017.
  13. ^ "Wartime Issue 1: November 1997". Australian War Memorial. Retrieved 14 September 2017.
  14. ^ "Journal of the Australian War Memorial". Australian War Memorial. Retrieved 14 September 2017.


  • McKernan, Michael (1991). Here is Their Spirit: A History of the Australian War Memorial 1917–1990. University of Queensland Press.
  • Romain Fathi, Représentations muséales du corps combattant de 14–18. L'Australian War Memorial de Canberra au prisme de l'Historial de la Grande Guerre de Péronne. Paris: L’Harmattan, 2013, 210p.
  • Teniswood-Harvery, Arabella (2016). "Reconsidering the Anzac Legend: Music, National Identity and the Australian Experience of World War I, as Portrayed in the Australian War Memorial's Art and Photographic Collection". Music in Art: International Journal for Music Iconography. 41 (1–2): 129–140. ISSN 1522-7464.

External links

15th Brigade (Australia)

The 15th Brigade was an infantry brigade of the Australian Army. Originally raised in 1912 as a Militia formation, the brigade was later re-raised as part of the First Australian Imperial Force during World War I. The brigade took part in the fighting on the Western Front in France and Belgium during 1916–1918 before being disbanded in 1919. After this it was re-raised as a part-time unit of the Citizens Force in 1921 in Victoria. During World War II the brigade took part in the Salamaua–Lae, Markham–Ramu and Bougainville campaigns before being disbanded following the end of hostilities.

2nd Brigade (Australia)

The 2nd Brigade was a brigade-sized infantry unit of the Australian Army. Formed in 1903 as a militia formation based in Victoria, the brigade later served during the First World War as part of the Australian Imperial Force, allocated to the 1st Division. During the war, the 2nd Brigade took part in the fighting at Gallipoli, including the Battle of Krithia where it lost almost a third of its strength. Later they took part in the Battle of Lone Pine before being withdrawn back to Egypt in December 1915. Following this the brigade was transferred to the Western Front in France and Belgium where, between March 1916 and the armistice in November 1918, they took part in most of the major Allied operations.

In the 1920s the brigade reverted to a part-time militia formation, once again based in Victoria, forming part of the 4th Division. During the Second World War, the brigade remained a part of 4th Division until 1943, when it was reallocated to the 2nd Division based in Western Australia where they were tasked with carrying out garrison duties before being redeployed to Darwin at the end of the year as the threat of invasion by the Japanese decreased. It was eventually disbanded in early 1945.

ACT Memorial

The ACT Memorial is an Australian war memorial honouring men and women associated with the Australian Capital Territory who served in a number of conflicts and peacekeeping missions throughout the world. Located in Canberra, on London Circuit, opposite Civic Square, the ACT Memorial consists of two primary components: a physical memorial, and a web site providing public access to a database of names and information about those honoured by the memorial. The memorial was dedicated on 10 August 2006 by the ACT Chief Minister, Mr Jon Stanhope MLA.

Anzac Day

Anzac Day () is a national day of remembrance in Australia and New Zealand that broadly commemorates all Australians and New Zealanders "who served and died in all wars, conflicts, and peacekeeping operations" and "the contribution and suffering of all those who have served". Observed on 25 April each year, Anzac Day was originally devised to honour the members of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC) who served in the Gallipoli Campaign, their first engagement in the Great War (1914–1918).

Anzac Parade, Canberra

Anzac Parade, a significant road and thoroughfare in the Australian capital Canberra, is used for ceremonial occasions and is the site of many major military memorials.

Named in honour of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC) of World War I, Anzac Parade joins Gallipoli Reach of Lake Burley Griffin in the south and the Australian War Memorial to the north. As the main axis between Parliament House and Mount Ainslie, it bisects Constitution Avenue, which forms one side of the Parliamentary Triangle between Civic and Russell Hill.

The Parade is flanked by Victorian blue gum eucalyptus trees on gently sloping banks either side of the three-lane, one-way roads centred by a wide parade ground topped with granulated rock (similar to scoria), with planted boxes of a low bush called Hebe. The eucalypts are Australian; and the hebe comes from New Zealand. The Parade is also flanked by the streets of Anzac Park West and Anzac Park East on either side of Anzac Park.

On Anzac Day (25 April) and other ceremonial occasions, the Parade and adjoining streets may be blocked off to provide a parade route for formed groups of armed services personnel and veterans to proceed either along the central parade ground or the flanking roads. Removable concrete kerbs to facilitate marching along the central parade route are at the cross streets of Parkes Way, Constitution Avenue, Currong Street/Blamey Crescent, and Limestone Avenue/Fairbairn Avenue.

Australia in the War of 1939–1945

Australia in the War of 1939–1945 is a 22-volume official history series covering Australian involvement in the Second World War. The series was published by the Australian War Memorial between 1952 and 1977, most of the volumes being edited by Gavin Long, who also wrote three volumes and the summary volume The Six Year War.

In contrast to the Official History of Australia in the War of 1914–1918, the series has a greater focus on the war's impact upon domestic events, including volumes on operations of the Australian Government and contributions made by Australian industry and science. Australia in the War of 1939–1945 includes a series on the history of the Australian military medical services and the problems encountered by these services during the war.

Australian War Memorial, London

The Australian War Memorial in London is a memorial dedicated in 2003 to the 102,000 Australian dead of the First and Second World Wars. It is located on the southernmost corner of Hyde Park Corner, on the traffic island that also houses the Wellington Arch, the New Zealand War Memorial, the Machine Gun Corps Memorial and the Royal Artillery Memorial.

Borneo campaign (1945)

The Borneo campaign of 1945 was the last major Allied campaign in the South West Pacific Area during World War II to liberate the-Japanese held British Borneo and Dutch Borneo. In a series of amphibious assaults between 1 May and 21 July, the Australian I Corps, under Lieutenant General Leslie Morshead, attacked Imperial Japanese forces occupying the island. Allied naval and air forces, centred on the U.S. 7th Fleet under Admiral Thomas Kinkaid, the Australian First Tactical Air Force and the U.S. Thirteenth Air Force also played important roles in the campaign. They were resisted by Imperial Japanese Navy and Army forces in southern and eastern Borneo, under Vice-Admiral Michiaki Kamada, and in the north west by the Thirty-Seventh Army, led by Lieutenant-General Masao Baba.

Charles Bean

Charles Edwin Woodrow Bean (18 November 1879 – 30 August 1968), usually identified as C. E. W. Bean, was an Australian World War I war correspondent and historian.Bean is remembered as the editor of the 12-volume Official History of Australia in the War of 1914–1918 and was instrumental in the establishment of the Australian War Memorial, and of the creation and popularisation of the ANZAC legend.

G for George

G for George is an Avro Lancaster Mk. I bomber, squadron code AR-G and serial number W4783, operated by No. 460 Squadron RAAF during World War II. It is now preserved at the Australian War Memorial (AWM), Canberra, Australia.

Henry Wells (general)

Lieutenant General Sir Henry Wells, (22 March 1898 – 20 October 1973) was a senior officer in the Australian Army. Serving as Chief of the General Staff from 1954 to 1958, Wells' career culminated with his appointment as the first Chairman, Chiefs of Staff Committee, a position marking him as the professional head of the Australian Military. He served in this capacity from March 1958 until March 1959, when he retired from the army.

Born in Victoria, Wells began his career in the Australian Army in 1916 when he entered the Royal Military College, Duntroon. Graduating as a lieutenant three years later, he served in a variety of staff and instructional positions before the outbreak of the Second World War. Initially posted to the 7th Division as a staff officer in 1940, Wells was promoted to lieutenant colonel and made senior liaison officer to I Corps. Serving in Greece and North Africa, he was awarded the Distinguished Service Order for his leadership at El Alamein. Transferred to the South West Pacific theatre in 1943 as a brigadier, he served in the New Guinea Campaign with the headquarters of II Corps and later in the Borneo campaign with I Corps.

Wells was promoted to major general in 1946 and appointed Deputy Chief of the General Staff. Following promotion to lieutenant general, he was made Commander-in-Chief, British Commonwealth Forces Korea from 1953 to 1954, serving during the last days of the war. In retirement, Wells was a director of several companies. Aged 75, he died in 1973.

John Treloar (museum administrator)

John Linton Treloar, OBE (10 December 1894 – 28 January 1952) was an Australian archivist and the second director of the Australian War Memorial (AWM). During World War I he served in several staff roles and later headed the First Australian Imperial Force's (AIF) record-keeping unit. From 1920 Treloar played an important role in establishing the AWM as its director. He headed an Australian Government department during the first years of World War II, and spent the remainder of the war in charge of the Australian military's history section. Treloar returned to the AWM in 1946, and continued as its director until his death.

Treloar's career was focussed on the Australian military and its history. Prior to World War I he worked as a clerk in the Department of Defence and, after volunteering for the AIF in 1914, formed part of the Australian Army officer Brudenell White's staff for most of the war's first years. He was appointed commander of the Australian War Records Section (AWRS) in 1917. In this position, he improved the AIF's records and collected a large number of artefacts for later display in Australia. Treloar was appointed the director of what eventually became the AWM in 1920, and was a key figure in establishing the Memorial and raising funds for its permanent building in Canberra. He left the AWM at the outbreak of World War II to lead the Australian Government's Department of Information, but was effectively sidelined for much of 1940. In early 1941 he was appointed to command the Australian military's Military History and Information Section with similar responsibilities to those he had held during World War I. He attempted to intervene in the management of the AWM during his absence, however, to the increasing frustration of its acting director. Treloar worked intensely in all his roles and suffered periods of ill-health as a result. Following the war, he returned to the Memorial in 1946 but his performance deteriorated over time, possibly due to exhaustion. He died in January 1952.

Treloar continues to be regarded as an important figure in Australian military history. His principal achievements are seen as gathering and classifying Australia's records of the world wars and successfully establishing the AWM. The street behind the Memorial and its main storage annex were named in Treloar's honour following his death.

List of Royal Australian Air Force wings

This is a list of the wings organised by the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF).

List of Victorian Football League players who died on active service

Since the inception of the Victorian Football League in 1897, many of its players have served in the armed services, including the Anglo-Boer War, World War I, World War II, the Korean War (in which Melbourne's Geoff Collins served as a fighter pilot), and the Vietnam War (in which Geelong's Wayne Closter served).

A number of the VFL players who served also lost their lives on active service; they were either killed in action, or died as a consequence of the wounds, injuries, and/or illnesses they had suffered in their active service.According to Main & Allen (2002, p. x), "no VFL footballer was killed in any wars other than the Anglo-Boer War and the two World Wars".

Military history of Australia during World War II

Australia entered World War II on 3 September 1939, following the government's acceptance of the United Kingdom's declaration of war on Nazi Germany. Following attacks on Allied countries, the Australian government later declared war on other members of the Axis powers, including the Kingdom of Italy (11 June 1940) and the Empire of Japan (8 December 1941). By the end of the war, almost a million Australians had served in the armed forces, whose military units fought primarily in the European theatre, North African campaign, and the South West Pacific theatre. In addition, Australia came under direct attack for the first time in its post-colonial history. Its casualties from enemy action during the war were 27,073 killed and 23,477 wounded.Australian Army units were gradually withdrawn from the Mediterranean and Europe following the outbreak of war with Japan. However, Royal Australian Air Force and Royal Australian Navy units and personnel continued to take part in the war against Germany and Italy. From 1942 until early 1944, Australian forces played a key role in the Pacific War, making up the majority of Allied strength throughout much of the fighting in the South West Pacific theatre. While the military was largely relegated to subsidiary fronts from mid-1944, it continued offensive operations against the Japanese until the war ended.

World War II contributed to major changes in the nation's economy, military and foreign policy. The war accelerated the process of industrialisation, led to the development of a larger peacetime military and began the process with which Australia shifted the focus of its foreign policy from Britain to the United States. The final effects of the war also contributed to the development of a more diverse and cosmopolitan Australian society.

Mont Saint-Quentin Australian war memorial

Mont Saint-Quentin Australian war memorial, located in Mont Saint-Quentin region of Picardy, is an Australian First World War memorial.

The Australian Second Division has a war memorial on the road from Bapaume to Péronne. It is the only one of the five Australian division memorials initiated by members of the division. The base was erected in 1925. It has bronze bas-reliefs by May Butler-George of men hauling and pushing a gun and of men advancing with bayoneted rifles and hand-grenades. It had on its top an Australian soldier thrusting his bayonet through a German eagle. The sculptor was Charles Web Gilbert.However, in 1940, German soldiers smashed the memorial. A replacement statue by Stanley Hammond of a thoughtful Australian soldier looking down was erected in 1971.

Pandora Archive

PANDORA is the national web archive for the preservation of Australia's online publications. It was established by the National Library of Australia in 1996, and is now built in collaboration with Australian state libraries and cultural collecting organisations, including the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies, the Australian War Memorial, and the National Film and Sound Archive.The name, PANDORA, is a bacronym that encapsulates its mission: Preserving and Accessing Networked Documentary Resources of Australia.

The PANDORA archive collects Australian web resources, preserves them, and makes them available for viewing. Access to the archive is made available to the public via the Pandora web site. Web sites are selected based on their cultural significance and research value. Each participating institution selects websites based on its own criteria relating to the overall mission of that institution.The provision for legal deposit of digital format publications was added to the Australian Copyright Act 1968 in 2016 so the National Library of Australia may copy Australian web sites without acquiring permission. They do notify publishers before copying a web site to the PANDORA archive, and may request publisher assistance if required.The archival management system called PANDAS (PANDORA Digital Archiving System) is used to add a title into PANDORA. This was developed and is maintained by the National Library of Australia. The latest version is PANDAS 3 which was deployed in mid-2007.

Peter Stanley

Peter Alan Stanley (born 28 October 1956) is an Australian historian and Research Professor at the University of New South Wales in the Australian Centre for the Study of Armed Conflict and Society. He was Head of the Centre for Historical Research at the National Museum of Australia from 2007–13. Between 1980 and 2007 he was an historian and sometime exhibition curator at the Australian War Memorial, including as head of the Historical Research Section and Principal Historian from 1987. He has written eight books about Australia and the Great War since 2005, and was a joint winner of the Prime Minister's Prize for Australian History in 2011.

The Official History of Australia's Involvement in Southeast Asian Conflicts 1948–1975

The Official History of Australia's Involvement in Southeast Asian Conflicts 1948–1975 covers Australia's involvement in the Malayan Emergency, Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation and Vietnam War. The series is an official history and was funded by the Australian Government and published by Allen & Unwin in association with the Australian War Memorial. Peter Edwards was appointed the official historian for the series in 1982. The series comprises nine volumes, which were published between 1992 and 2012. A single-volume summary of the series, Australia and the Vietnam War, was published in 2014.

The coverage of the effects of Agent Orange in volume 3 of the series has been criticised by some Australian veterans of the Vietnam War, who argue that it presented veterans who sought compensation as being dishonest. In 2015 the Australian War Memorial commissioned a book to consider the long-term effects of Agent Orange on veterans' health, as well other medical effects of the war.

Major national monuments
(capital cities)
On foreign soil
Regional monuments
Boer War memorials
World War I memorials
World War II memorials
Korean War memorials
Canberra landmarks
and structures
Parks and
open spaces
and islands

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