Australian Squadron

The Australian Squadron was the name given to the British naval force assigned to the Australia Station from 1859 to 1911.[1]

The Squadron was initially a small force of Royal Navy warships based in Sydney, and although intended to protect the colonies of Australia and New Zealand, the ships were primarily used for surveying and police work.[1] The isolation of Australia from the rest of the British Empire meant the force was easily neglected, and by the 1870s, was perceived to be useless for its intended role.[1] Following the passing of the Australasian Defence Act 1887, an additional 'Auxiliary Squadron' was assigned to the Station by the British Admiralty with the responsibility for protecting trade in the region.[1] During the early 1900s, the Australian and New Zealand governments agreed to help fund the Squadron, while the Admiralty committed itself to keeping the Squadron at a constant strength.[1]

As a British force, the Australia Squadron ceased on 4 October 1913, when the ships of the Royal Australian Navy (RAN) entered Sydney Harbour for the first time.[2] However, the term was subsequently used between 1926 and 1949 to refer to the ships of the RAN: after the decommissioning and scuttling of the battlecruiser HMAS Australia and other cutbacks, the term 'Australian Fleet' was thought to be inappropriate to describe the navy's strength.[2] HMAS Melbourne served as squadron flagship between 1922 and 1928.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e Dennis et al. 2008, p. 67.
  2. ^ a b Dennis et al. 2008, p. 68.

References

  • Dennis, Peter; Grey, Jeffrey; Morris, Ewan; Prior, Robin (2008). The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History (2nd ed.). South Melbourne, VIC: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-551784-2. OCLC 271822831.
816 Naval Air Squadron

816 Naval Air Squadron was a Royal Navy Fleet Air Arm carrier based squadron formed at the start of the Second World War.

The squadron formed aboard HMS Furious in October 1939 with 9 Fairey Swordfish torpedo bombers for anti-submarine duty on convoys between the UK and Canada

In 1948 it was re-formed as 816 Squadron RAN an Australian squadron with the Fairey Firefly and embarked on HMAS Sydney.

851 Naval Air Squadron

851 Naval Air Squadron was a Fleet Air Arm squadron of the Royal Navy, first formed in October 1943 at Squantum Naval Air Station in Massachusetts, United States as a MAC-ship escort squadron. It was later disbanded around December 1945.

It was reformed in 1954 as an Australian squadron on 3 August 1954.

Australia Station

The Australia Station was the British, and later Australian, naval command responsible for the waters around the Australian continent. Australia Station was under the command of the Commander-in-Chief, Australia Station, whose rank varied over time.

Australian Flying Corps

The Australian Flying Corps (AFC) was the branch of the Australian Army responsible for operating aircraft during World War I, and the forerunner of the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF). The AFC was established in 1912, though it was not until 1914 that it began flight training.

In 1911, at the Imperial Conference held in London, it was decided that aviation should be developed by the various national armed forces of the British Empire. Australia became the first member of the Empire to follow this policy. By the end of 1911, the Army was advertising for pilots and mechanics. During 1912, pilots and mechanics were appointed, aircraft were ordered, the site of a flying school was chosen and the first squadron was officially raised. On 7 March 1913, the government officially announced formation of the Central Flying School (CFS) and an "Australian Aviation Corps", although that name was never widely used.

AFC units were formed for service overseas with the Australian Imperial Force (AIF) during World War I. They operated initially in the Mesopotamian Campaign. The AFC later saw action in Palestine and France. A training wing was established in the United Kingdom. The corps remained part of the Australian Army until it was disbanded in 1919, after which it was temporarily replaced by the Australian Air Corps. In 1921, that formation was re-established as the independent RAAF.

Cyprian Bridge

Admiral Sir Cyprian Arthur George Bridge (13 March 1839 – 16 August 1924) was a British Royal Navy officer towards the end of the era of Pax Britannica. He was Commander-in-chief of both the Australian Squadron and the China Squadron.

Fleet Command (Australia)

Fleet Command is responsible for the command, operations, readiness, training and force generation of all ships, submarines, aircraft squadrons, diving teams, and shore establishments of the Royal Australian Navy. Fleet Command is headquartered at HMAS Kuttabul in Sydney, and is led by the Commander Australian Fleet (COMAUSFLT), also referred to as Fleet Commander Australia (FCAUST), which is a rear admiral (two-star) appointment.

The position of Commander Australian Fleet was established in 2007. The previous positions since 1913 were:

Rear Admiral Commanding HM Australian Fleet (1913–1926),

Rear Admiral Commanding HM Australian Squadron (1926–1949),

Flag Officer Commanding HM Australian Fleet (1949–1988, regularly abbreviated as FOCAF), and

Maritime Commander Australia (1988–2007 – MCAUST).(I)

George Hyde (admiral)

Admiral Sir George Francis Hyde, (19 July 1877 – 28 July 1937) was an English-born Australian admiral, known as a former head and the first officer to achieve the rank of full admiral in the Royal Australian Navy.

Leonard Holbrook

Rear Admiral Leonard Stanley Holbrook MVO (1 January 1882 – 29 August 1974) was a senior officer in the Royal Navy. He was the Commodore Commanding His Majesty's Australian Squadron from 29 May 1931 to 7 April 1932.

No. 119 (Netherlands East Indies) Squadron RAAF

No. 119 (Netherlands East Indies) Squadron was a joint Dutch and Australian squadron of World War II which formed part of the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF). The squadron was formed in September 1943 but could not be made operational due to a shortage of Dutch personnel. As a result, it was disbanded in December 1943.

No. 120 (Netherlands East Indies) Squadron RAAF

No. 120 Squadron was a joint Dutch and Australian squadron of World War II. The squadron was first formed in December 1943 as part of the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF), and saw combat in and around New Guinea during 1944 and 1945 equipped with P-40 Kittyhawk fighters. Following the war, No. 120 Squadron was transferred to the Netherlands East Indies Air Force in 1946 and participated in the Indonesian National Revolution.

No. 455 Squadron RAAF

No. 455 Squadron was a Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) torpedo bomber squadron during World War II and became famous as part of the "ANZAC Strike Wing" that was formed from Australian and New Zealand squadrons. Raised in early 1941, mainly from Australian personnel, the squadron served over Europe during the war, operating from various bases in the United Kingdom; it also briefly sent a detachment to the Soviet Union in 1942. Operating Handley Page Hampdens and Bristol Beaufighters, the squadron mainly undertook anti-shipping and anti-submarine operations during the war. It was disbanded in May 1945 following the cessation of hostilities against Germany.

No. 461 Squadron RAAF

No. 461 Squadron was a Royal Australian Air Force maritime patrol squadron during World War II which operated under Royal Air Force control flying in Europe and over the Atlantic. The squadron was formed in 1942 and was disbanded in mid-1945, just after the end of the war in Europe. Personnel were drawn from many countries of the British Empire, although the majority were Australians. Throughout the war, the squadron was credited with destroying a total of six German U-boats, and operated mainly in the Bay of Biscay and Atlantic.

No. 467 Squadron RAAF

No. 467 Squadron RAAF was a Royal Australian Air Force bomber squadron, active over North West Europe during World War II. Formed in November 1942 as an Article XV Squadron in Britain, the squadron was notionally an Australian squadron under the command of the Royal Air Force, and consisted of a mixture of personnel from various Commonwealth nations. After becoming operational in early 1943, the squadron flew operations in Occupied Europe until the end of the war flying Avro Lancaster heavy bombers. It was scheduled to deploy to the Far East to take part in further operations against Japan, but the war ended before it could complete its training and the squadron was disbanded in September 1945.

Richard Lane-Poole

Vice Admiral Sir Richard Hayden Owen Lane-Poole (1 April 1883 – 25 March 1971) was a senior officer in the Royal Navy. He was the Rear Admiral Commanding His Majesty's Australian Squadron from 1936 to 1938.

Robin Dalglish

Rear Admiral Robin Campsie Dalglish, CB (3 December 1880 – 17 December 1934) was a senior officer in the Royal Navy. He represented Great Britain in Fencing at the 1920 and 1924 Summer Olympics. He was the first Australian-born admiral in the Royal Navy.

Royal Australian Navy

The Royal Australian Navy (RAN) is the naval branch of the Australian Defence Force. Following the Federation of Australia in 1901, the ships and resources of the separate colonial navies were integrated into a national force, called the Commonwealth Naval Forces. Originally intended for local defence, the navy was granted the title of 'Royal Australian Navy' in 1911, and became increasingly responsible for defence of the region.

Britain's Royal Navy’s Australian Squadron was assigned to the Australia Station and provided support to the RAN. The Australian and New Zealand governments helped to fund the Australian Squadron until 1913, while the Admiralty committed itself to keeping the Squadron at a constant strength. The Australian Squadron ceased on 4 October 1913, when RAN ships entered Sydney Harbour for the first time.The Royal Navy continued to provide blue-water defence capability in the Pacific up to the early years of the Second World War. Then, rapid wartime expansion saw the acquisition of large surface vessels and the building of many smaller warships. In the decade following the war, the RAN acquired a small number of aircraft carriers, the last of which was decommissioned in 1982.

Today, the RAN consists of 48 commissioned vessels, 3 non-commissioned vessels and over 16,000 personnel. The navy is one of the largest and most sophisticated naval forces in the South Pacific region, with a significant presence in the Indian Ocean and worldwide operations in support of military campaigns and peacekeeping missions. The current Chief of Navy is Vice Admiral Michael Noonan.

Wilbraham Ford

Admiral Sir Wilbraham Tennyson Randle Ford, (19 January 1880 – 16 January 1964) was a senior officer in the Royal Navy. He was the Rear Admiral Commanding His Majesty's Australian Squadron from April 1934 to April 1936.

Wilfred Custance

Rear Admiral Wilfred Neville Custance CB (25 June 1884 – 13 December 1939) was a senior officer in the Royal Navy. He was the Rear Admiral Commanding HM Australian Squadron from April 1938 to September 1939.

Wilfrid Patterson

Admiral Sir Wilfrid Rupert Patterson (20 November 1893 – 15 December 1954) was a senior officer in the Royal Navy. He was the Commodore Commanding His Majesty's Australian Squadron from September to November 1939. He participated in the naval battle that sunk the German battleship Bismarck.

United Kingdom Named squadrons of the Royal Navy

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