Australian Secret Intelligence Service

Coordinates: 35°18′35.49″S 149°07′50.04″E / 35.3098583°S 149.1305667°E

Asisgov
Agency overview
Formed13 May 1952
HeadquartersCanberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia
Annual budgetA$468.5 million (2016–17)[1]
Minister responsible
Agency executive
Parent agencyDepartment of Foreign Affairs and Trade
Websitewww.asis.gov.au

The Australian Secret Intelligence Service (ASIS; /ˈeɪsɪs/) is Australia's foreign intelligence agency. ASIS was formed in 1952, but its existence remained secret even within the Government until 1972. ASIS is part of the Australian Intelligence Community responsible for the collection of foreign intelligence, including both counter-intelligence and liaising with the intelligence agencies of other countries. In these roles, ASIS is comparable to the British Secret Intelligence Service (MI6), Canada's Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS) and the American Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).

According to its website, the mission of ASIS is to "protect and promote Australia's vital interests through the provision of unique foreign intelligence services as directed by the Australian Government."[2]

ASIS is part of the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade portfolio and its head, the Director-General, is directly responsible to the Minister for Foreign Affairs. The headquarters of ASIS is within DFAT's headquarters in Canberra. Its current Director-General is Paul Symon.[3]

Ac.dfat
R. G. Casey House houses the headquarters of the Australian Secret Intelligence Service

History

On 13 May 1952, in a meeting of the Executive Council, Prime Minister Robert Menzies established ASIS by executive order under s 61 of the Constitution, appointing Alfred Deakin Brookes as the first Director-General of ASIS.[4] The existence of ASIS remained secret even within the Government until 1972.

Its Charter of 15 December 1954 described ASIS's role as "to obtain and distribute secret intelligence, and to plan for and conduct special operations as may be required".[5] ASIS was expressly required to "operate outside Australian territory." A Ministerial Directive of 15 August 1958 indicated that its special operations role included conducting "special political action."[6] It also indicated that the organisation would come under the control and supervision of the Minister for External Affairs rather than the Minister for Defence. At the time, ASIS was substantially modeled on the United Kingdom Secret Intelligence Service, also known as MI6. ASIS was at one time referred to as MO9.

On 1 November 1972, the existence of ASIS was sensationally exposed by The Daily Telegraph which ran an exposé regarding recruitment of ASIS agents from Australian universities for espionage activities in Asia.[7] Soon after The Australian Financial Review published a more in-depth piece on the Australian Intelligence Community (ASIO, ASIS, the Joint Intelligence Organisation (JIO) [now the Defence Intelligence Organisation (DIO)], the Defence Signals Division (DSD) [formerly the Defence Signals Directorate, now the Australian Signals Directorate] and the Office of National Assessments (ONA)). It stated that "[t]he ASIS role is to collect and disseminate facts only. It is not supposed to be in the analytical or policy advising business though this is clearly difficult to avoid at times."[8] The Ministerial Statement of 1977 stated that the "main function" of ASIS was to "obtain, by such means and subject to such conditions as are prescribed by the Government, foreign intelligence for the purpose of the protection or promotion of Australia or its interests."[9]

On 21 August 1974, Prime Minister Gough Whitlam established the First Hope Commission (1974-77) to investigate the country's intelligence agencies. On 25 October 1977, Prime Minister Malcolm Fraser publicly announced the existence of ASIS and its functions on a recommendation of the Hope Royal Commission.[9]

In 1992 two reports were prepared on ASIS by officers within the Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet and Office of National Assessments for the Secretaries Committee on Intelligence and Security (SCIS) and the Security Committee of Cabinet (SCOC). The Richardson Report in June examined the roles and relationships of the collection agencies (ASIO, ASIS and DSD) in the post Cold War era. The Hollway Report in December examined shortfalls in Australia's foreign intelligence collection. Both reports endorsed the structure and roles of the organisations and commended the performance of ASIS.

The Intelligence Services Act 2001 (ISA) converted ASIS to a statutory body. The Act set out the functions of ASIS and the limits on those functions. Use of weapons by ASIS were prohibited (except for self-defence). Conduct of violent or para-military operations was also curtailed. The Act authorised the responsible minister to issue directions to the agency. Ministerial authorisation is required for intelligence collection activities involving Australians but limited the circumstances in which this could be done. The Act requires the responsible minister to make rules regulating the communication and retention of intelligence information concerning Australian persons, and provides for the establishment of a parliamentary oversight committee, then called the Parliamentary Joint Committee on ASIO, ASIS and DSD.[10]

The Intelligence Services Amendment Act 2004[11] removed ISA prohibitions on ASIS operatives carrying firearms, but only for protection; and allows ASIS to work with foreign intelligence agencies (such as the CIA or MI6) in the planning of paramilitary and violent operations provided ASIS is not involved in the execution of the operations.

Royal Commissions examining ASIS

Three Royal Commissions have examined, among other things, ASIS and its operations: in 1974 and 1983 (the Hope Royal Commissions), and in 1994 (the Samuels and Codd Royal Commission).

First Hope Royal Commission

On 21 August 1974, the Whitlam Government appointed Justice Robert Hope to conduct a Royal Commission into the structure of Australian security and intelligence services, the nature and scope of the intelligence required and the machinery for ministerial control, direction and coordination of the security services. The Hope Royal Commission delivered eight reports, four of which were tabled in Parliament on 5 May 1977 and 25 October 1977. Aside from the observation that ASIS was 'singularly well run and well managed', the report(s) on ASIS were not released. Results from the other reports included the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation Act 1979 and the establishment of the Office of National Assessments (ONA) and the passage of the Office of National Assessments Act 1977.[4]

Second Hope Royal Commission

On 17 May 1983 the Hawke Government reappointed Justice Hope to conduct a second Royal Commission into ASIS, ASIO, ONA, DSD (now ASD) and JIO (now DIO). The inquiry was to examine progress in implementing the previous recommendations; arrangements for developing policies, assessing priorities and coordinating activities among the organisations; ministerial and parliamentary accountability; complaints procedures; financial oversight and the agencies' compliance with the law. As with the first Hope Royal Commission, the reports on ASIS and DSD, which included draft legislation on ASIS, were not made public.[4]

Samuels and Codd Royal Commission

In response to a Four Corners program aired on 21 February 1994, on 23 February 1994, the Minister for Foreign Affairs Gareth Evans announced a 'root and branch' review of ASIS. The Government appointed Justice Gordon Samuels and Mike Codd to inquire into the effectiveness and suitability of existing arrangements for control and accountability, organisation and management, protection of sources and methods, and resolution of grievances and complaints. The Royal Commission reported in March 1995.

Four Corners reporter Ross Coulthart made allegations regarding intelligence held by ASIS on Australians. He claimed that 'ASIS secretly holds tens of thousands of files on Australian citizens, a database completely outside privacy laws'.[12] This allegation was investigated and denied by Samuels and Codd (see below),[13] but the Minister did acknowledge that ASIS maintained files. The Minister said: 'ASIS does have some files, as one would expect in an organisation of that nature, even though its brief extends to activities outside the country rather than inside. They are essentially of an administrative nature.'[14]

However, Samuels and Codd did find that certain grievances of the former officers were well founded. They appeared to support the officers' concerns regarding the grievance procedures:

Bearing in mind the context in which the members of ASIS work, it is not surprising that there should develop a culture which sets great store by faithfulness and stoicism and tends to elevate conformity to undue heights and to regard the exercise of authority rather than consultation as the managerial norm.[15]

However, Samuels and Codd observed that the information published in the Four Corners program was 'skewed towards the false',[16] that 'the level of factual accuracy about operational matters was not high',[17] and, quoting an aphorism, that 'what was disturbing was not true and what was true was not disturbing'.[17] They concluded that the disclosure of the information was unnecessary and unjustifiable and had damaged the reputation of ASIS and Australia overseas. The commissioners stated that 'evidence presented to us of action and reaction in other countries satisfies us that the publication was damaging':[16] They rejected any suggestion that ASIS was unaccountable or 'out of control'. They said, 'its operational management is well structured and its tactical decisions are thoroughly considered and, in major instances, subject to external approval'.[17] They recommended that complaints regarding ASIS operations continue to be handled by the Inspector-General of Intelligence and Security (IGIS) but that staff grievances be handled by the Administrative Appeals Tribunal.[18]

In addition to their recommendations, Samuels and Codd put forward draft legislation to provide a statutory basis for ASIS and to protect various information from disclosure. The Samuels and Codd Bill, like the bulk of the reports, was not made public.

Controversies

ASIS in Chile 1973

An ASIS intelligence station was established in Chile out of the Australian embassy in July 1971 at the request of the CIA and authorised by then Liberal Party Foreign Minister William McMahon. New Labor Prime Minister Gough Whitlam was informed of the operation in February 1973 and signed a document ordering the closure of the operation several weeks later. It appears, however, the last ASIS agent did not leave Chile until October 1973, one month after the CIA-backed 1973 Chilean coup d'état had brought down the Allende Government. There were also two officers of ASIO based in Santiago, working as migration officers during this period.[19][20]

It is one of the incidents that has been associated with a confrontation between Prime Minister Gough Whitlam and Bill Robertson, the Director-General of ASIS, resulting in Robertson's sacking on 21 October 1975, with effect on 7 November, just 4 days before Whitlam's own dismissal in the 1975 Australian constitutional crisis. Whitlam accused Robertson of disobeying instructions by delaying the closure of the ASIS station in Chile, although Robertson disputes the details in documents lodged with the National Archives in 2009.[21]

The Favaro Affair

During the lead up to Indonesia’s invasion of East Timor in 1975, the Australian Secret Intelligence Service (ASIS) paid a Dili-based Australian businessman Frank Favaro for information on local political developments. The leaking of his identity in late 1975 led to a confrontation between the then Labor Prime Minister Gough Whitlam and Bill Robertson, the head of ASIS, resulting in the sacking of the intelligence agency director on 21 October 1975, to take effect on 7 November.[22][23] Bill Robertson disputes the reason for his dismissal in documents lodged with the National Archives in 2009.[24]

The Sheraton Hotel incident

On 30 November 1983, ASIS garnered unwanted negative attention when a training operation held at the Sheraton Hotel, now the Mercure (Spring Street), in Melbourne went wrong. The exercise was to be a mock surveillance and hostage rescue of foreign intelligence officers. In March 1983, ASIS had begun training a covert team of civilians, including a female, at Swan Island in Victoria whose role was to protect or release Australians who may be threatened or captured by terrorists overseas. The military in 1981 had established a counter terrorist unit for operations only in Australia. The personnel involved in the training operation included ten operators, four ASIS officers and six ASIS civilian trainees, and two commandos from the Army Reserve 1st Commando Regiment with only the sergeant participating as an observer in the hotel foyer.

The training operation involved junior officers who had undergone three weeks prior training and who were given considerable leeway in planning and executing the operation. The mock hostage rescue was staged on the 10th floor of the hotel without the permission of the hotel's owner or staff. When ASIS operators were refused entry into a hotel room, they broke down the door with sledgehammers. The hotel manager, Nick Rice, was notified of a disturbance on the 10th floor by a hotel guest. When he went to investigate, he was forced back into the lift by an ASIS operator who rode the lift down to the ground floor and forcibly ejected Rice into the lobby. Believing a robbery was in progress, Rice called the police. When the lift started returning to the ground floor, ASIS operators emerged wearing masks and openly brandishing 9mm Browning pistols and Heckler & Koch MP5 submachine guns, two of them with silencers. They forced their way through the lobby to the kitchen, where two getaway cars were waiting outside the kitchen door. Police stopped one of the cars and arrested the occupants, two ASIS officers and three ASIS civilian trainees, who refused to produce any form of identification.[25]

Within two days the Minister for Foreign Affairs Bill Hayden announced that an "immediate and full" investigation would be conducted under the auspices of the second Hope Royal Commission on Australian Security and Intelligence Agencies, which was still in progress. A report was prepared and tabled by February 1984. It described the exercise as being 'poorly planned, poorly supervised and poorly run'[26] and recommended that measures be taken in training to improve planning and eliminate adverse impacts on the public.

The Victoria Police conducted their own investigation but were frustrated because the Director General of ASIS, John Ryan, refused to cooperate. Bill Hayden offered to provide the real names of the seven officers involved in confidence. Premier of Victoria John Cain told Hayden that "as far as the police were concerned, there was no such thing as information in confidence".[27]

Following the incident, The Sunday Age disclosed the names, or the assumed names, of five of the operators involved. The journalist noted that 'according to legal advice taken by The Sunday Age there is no provision that prevents the naming of an ASIS agent'.[28] While not included within the public version of the report, the Royal Commission headed by Mr Justice Hope did prepare an appendix which would appear to have dealt with the possible security and foreign relations consequences of disclosure of participants' names by The Sunday Age. Subsequently, in A v Hayden, the High Court held that the Commonwealth owed no enforceable duty to ASIS officers to maintain confidentiality of their names or activities.[29]

At the time of the Sheraton Hotel incident, the extant Ministerial Directive permitted ASIS to undertake 'covert action', including 'special operations' which, roughly described, comprised 'unorthodox, possibly para-military activity, designed to be used in case of war or some other crisis'.[30] Following the incident and the recommendations of the Royal Commission, the covert action function was apparently abolished. The functions of ASIS can be found in section 6 of the Intelligence Services Act, as can those functions which are proscribed by the act.[31]

Ultimately, in executing the operation, the operators were found to have used considerable force, menacing a number of the staff and guests with weapons and physically assaulting the hotel manager.[32] Hope found Ryan to be at fault for authorising the training operation in a public place using concealed weapons. Ryan resigned in February 1984. Hope said it was not part of his Terms of Reference to make findings or recommendations on whether any individual had committed any offence. However he did note that the individuals could potentially be prosecuted by the State of Victoria with a long list of criminal offences, including possession of firearms without a licence, possession of prohibited implements (including machine guns, silencers and housebreaking tools), aggravated burglary in possession of a firearm, common assault, wilful damage to property, possession of a disguise without lawful excuse and numerous motor vehicle offences. More than a year after the raid, the Victorian Director of Public Prosecutions concluded that while certain offences had been committed, including criminal damage and assault with a weapon, there was insufficient evidence to charge any person with a specific offence.[33]

Victorian Holdings Ltd, the company managing the hotel, subsequently took legal action against the Commonwealth on behalf of itself and 14 hotel staff. The matter was settled out of court with the hotel being offered $300,000 in damages.[34] The total payout to the hotel and staff was $365,400.[35]

Involvement in Papua New Guinea

Between 1989 and 1991 ASIS came under scrutiny following allegations relating to its role and activities in Papua New Guinea. It was alleged that ASIS had been involved in training Papua New Guinean troops to suppress independence movements in Irian Jaya[36] and Bougainville.[37] (In 1997 it was alleged that ASIS and DSD had failed to collect, or the Government had failed to act upon, intelligence regarding the role and presence of Sandline contractors in relation to the independence movement in Bougainville.[38])

Four Corners program

Towards the end of 1993 ASIS became the subject of media attention after allegations were made by former ASIS officers that ASIS was unaccountable and out of control. One newspaper alleged that 'ASIS regularly flouted laws, kept dossiers on Australian citizens ... and hounded agents out of the service with little explanation'. In particular it alleged that agents were being targeted in a purge by being threatened with criminal charges relating to their official conduct, reflecting a pattern which suggested to some that ASIS or a senior ASIS officer had been 'turned' by a foreign intelligence service.[39]

On 21 February 1994 Four Corners ran a program which aired the key allegations. Two former ASIS officers made claims regarding cultural and operational tensions between ASIS and the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT). They claimed that embassy staff had maliciously or negligently compromised activities involving the running of foreign informants and agents and the defection of foreign agents to Australia. They claimed that their grievances were ignored and that they were 'deserted in the field' and made scapegoats by ASIS.

The officers and the reporter Ross Coulthart also made brief claims regarding operational activities and priorities. The officers personally claimed that ASIS advice had been ignored by DFAT. The reporter repeated claims regarding ASIS operations aimed at destabilising the Aquino Government in the Philippines. He also made claims regarding ASIS assistance to MI6 in the Falkland conflict, in Hong Kong and in Kuwait for the benefit of British interests (including commercial interests) and potentially to the detriment of Australian interests.

The bulk of the personal statements by the officers concerned their private grievances. They raised two issues of public interest regarding the effect of secrecy on the operation of grievance procedures and the extent to which the Minister for Foreign Affairs and Trade was aware of or in control of ASIS operations. The reporter directly raised the issue of the appropriateness of ASIS operations particularly with respect to priority setting in overseas postings and operations, cooperation with foreign intelligence services, and the privacy of Australian persons and organisations. By implication, the program queried the extent to which ASIS is or should be accountable to the Minister, to Government and to Parliament.

The following day, the Shadow Minister for Foreign Affairs called for an independent judicial inquiry into the allegations. He expressed particular concern about the nature of ASIS cooperation with foreign agencies and the defects in ASIS grievance procedures.[40] He later called for the inquiry to examine the 'poisoned relationship between ASIS and DFAT'.[41] The Democrats spokeswoman called for a standing parliamentary committee.[42]

Two days after the program aired, the Samuels and Codd Royal Commission was formed by Minister for Foreign Affairs Gareth Evans.

Alleged management and staffing problems

In 2005, The Bulletin ran an article based on allegations by serving ASIS officers that alluded to gross mismanagement of intelligence operations, staff assignments, and taskings, particularly with respect to the war on terrorism.

The unnamed officers pointed out various problems within the agency that were plaguing the organisation's ability to collect vital and timely intelligence, such as the pitting of "...young mostly white university educated agents with limited language skills and little knowledge of Islam against poor, zealous extremists intent on becoming suicide bombers", the "inappropriate" assignment of "...young female IOs (Intelligence Officers) against Islamic targets...", poor staff retention rates, and general lack of officers possessing meaningful field experience.

The officers also cite a lack of proper support given to IOs tasked against terrorist targets, and the doctoring of intelligence by ASIS management, as also contributing to the lack of progress of the agency in the war on terrorism.[43]

Statutory basis

Intelligence Services Act 2001

ASIS was created in 1952 by executive order and was converted to a statutory body by the Intelligence Services Act 2001, headed by the Director-General. The Act sets out the functions of ASIS and the limits on those functions.

Use of weapons by ASIS was prohibited (except for self-defence). Conduct of violent or para-military operations was also curtailed. The Act authorised the responsible minister to issue directions to the agency. Ministerial authorisation is required for intelligence collection activities involving Australians but limited the circumstances in which this could be done. The Act requires the responsible minister to make rules regulating the communication and retention of intelligence information concerning Australian persons, and provides for the establishment of a parliamentary oversight committee, then called the Parliamentary Joint Committee on ASIO, ASIS and DSD.[44]

Intelligence Services Amendment Act 2004

The Intelligence Services Amendment Act 2004 passed Parliament on 1 April 2004,[45] and removes ISA prohibitions on ASIS operatives carrying firearms, but only for protection; and allows ASIS to work with foreign intelligence agencies (such as the CIA or MI6) in the planning of paramilitary and violent operations provided ASIS is not involved in the execution of the operations.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ ASIS Entity Resources and Planned Performance (PDF) (Report). DFAT. p. 139. Retrieved 23 September 2016.
  2. ^ "Mission and Values". The Australian Secret Intelligence Service. Archived from the original on 26 April 2006. Retrieved 21 December 2016.
  3. ^ "Spy agency reshuffle: Nick Warner the supremo, new heads for ASIS and ASD | The Mandarin". The Mandarin. 1 December 2017.
  4. ^ a b c Parliament of Australia Bills Digest No. 11 of 2001–02 Archived 6 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine of Intelligence Services Act 2001. This document contains numerous references upon which this article is based.
  5. ^ Toohey & Pinwill (1989), p. 288
  6. ^ Toohey & Pinwill (1989), pp. 291–292
  7. ^ Richard Farmer, 'School for Aust. spies: Top-Secret Espionage Ring Exposed', The Daily Telegraph, 1 November 1972. See also Max Suich, 'Untangle the intelligence web', The Australian Financial Review, 3 November 1972
  8. ^ Max Suich, 'Untangle the intelligence web', The Australian Financial Review, 3 November 1972, p. 3
  9. ^ a b Mr Malcolm Fraser, 'Royal Commission on Intelligence and Security', Ministerial Statement, House of Representatives, Debates, 25 October 1977, p. 2339
  10. ^ "Intelligence Services Act 2001, No. 152, 2001". Commonwealth Numbered Acts. Australasian Legal Information Institute. Retrieved 8 July 2009.
  11. ^ "Intelligence Services Amendment Act 2004 NO. 57, 2004 Notes". Commonwealth Numbered Acts. Australasian Legal Information Institute. Retrieved 8 July 2009.
  12. ^ Statement by Ross Coulthard in Four Corners program of 21 February 1994
  13. ^ '[ASIS] does not maintain 'tens of thousands of files' containing dossiers about Australian citizens, as alleged in the media'; Samuels & Codd (1995), p. xxiii
  14. ^ The Minister said: 'ASIS does have some files, as one would expect in an organisation of that nature, even though its brief extends to activities outside the country rather than inside. They are essentially of an administrative nature': Senator Gareth Evans, Answer to Question Without Notice, Senate, Debates, 22 February 1994, p. 859
  15. ^ Samuels & Codd (1995), p. xxxi
  16. ^ a b Samuels & Codd (1995), p. xx
  17. ^ a b c Samuels & Codd (1995), p. xxiii
  18. ^ Samuels & Codd (1995), pp. xxiii–xxiv
  19. ^ "Forty years after the military coup which brought down Chilean President Salvador Allende, refugees in Australia are still raising questions about the country's involvement in the affair". SBS. 11 September 2013. Retrieved 30 October 2016.
  20. ^ Florencia Melgar and Pablo Leighton. "ASIS and ASIO in Chile". Cambridge Scholars Publishing. Retrieved 30 October 2016. pp78-92, 2015 in 40 Years are Nothing: History and memory of the 1973 coups d’état in Uruguay and Chile Edited by Pablo Leighton and Fernando López, ISBN 1443876429
  21. ^ Suich, Max (20 March 2010). "Spymaster stirs spectre of covert foreign activities". The Australian. Retrieved 30 October 2016.
  22. ^ "ASIS – Favaro affair". Nautilus Institute. Retrieved 30 October 2016.
  23. ^ "Intelligence boss showed strength". The Age. 15 January 2011. Retrieved 30 October 2016.
  24. ^ Suich, Max (20 March 2010). "Spymaster stirs spectre of covert foreign activities". The Australian. Retrieved 30 October 2016.
  25. ^ P N Grabosky (1989). Wayward governance: illegality and its control in the public sector. Australian Institute of Criminology. pp. 129–142. ISBN 0-642-14605-5.
  26. ^ Royal Commission on Australia's Security and Intelligence Agencies, Report on the Sheraton Hotel incident, February 1984, p. 68
  27. ^ "Police to step up ASIS raid inquiry". Sydney Morning Herald. 8 December 1983.
  28. ^ Paul Daley, 'The Sheraton Shambles', The Sunday Age, 7 November 1993
  29. ^ (1984) 156 CLR 532
  30. ^ Royal Commission on Australia's Security and Intelligence Agencies, Report on the Sheraton Hotel incident, February 1984, p. 17
  31. ^ Samuels & Codd (1995), p. 2
  32. ^ Royal Commission on Australia's Security and Intelligence Agencies, Report on the Sheraton Hotel incident, February 1984, p. 26 and 28
  33. ^ "ASIS raid: Vic won't prosecute". Sydney Morning Herald. 22 December 1984.
  34. ^ "Hotel staff offered $300,000". The Age. 22 May 1984.
  35. ^ "Payout for ASIS raid now $365,400". Sydney Morning Herald. 3 October 1984.
  36. ^ Comments by Brian Toohey on Late Night Live program of 28 September 1989
  37. ^ Comments by Brian Toohey on Late Night Live program of 12 February 1990
  38. ^ Comments by Warren Reed, former ASIS intelligence officer in Four Corners program of 14 July 1997
  39. ^ Brad Crouch, 'ASIS "Like the KGB"', The Sunday Telegraph, 26 December 1993
  40. ^ Hon. Andrew Peacock, MP, 'ASIS', Press Release by Hon. Andrew Peacock, MP Shadow Minister for Foreign Affairs, 22 February 1994
  41. ^ Hon. Andrew Peacock, MP, 'ASIS Inquiry Must Address Relations with DFAT', Press Release by Hon. Andrew Peacock, MP Shadow Minister for Foreign Affairs, 23 February 1994
  42. ^ Senator Vicki Bourne, 'Four Corners: ASIS Out of Control', News Release, No. 94/41, 22 February 1994
  43. ^ "Lack of qualified spies in ASIS: agent". 9news. ninemsn.com.au. 11 October 2005. Archived from the original on 17 May 2009. Retrieved 5 July 2009.
  44. ^ "Intelligence Services Act 2001, No. 152, 2001". Commonwealth Numbered Acts. Australasian Legal Information Institute. Retrieved 8 July 2009.
  45. ^ "Intelligence Services Amendment Act 2004 NO. 57, 2004 Notes". Commonwealth Numbered Acts. Australasian Legal Information Institute. Retrieved 8 July 2009.

References

Credit

A large portion of the history of ASIS was adapted from the Parliament of Australia Bills Digest No. 11 of 2001–02 of Intelligence Services Act 2001

External links

Alfred Deakin Brookes

Alfred Deakin Brookes (11 April 1920 – 19 June 2005) was the first head of the Australian Secret Intelligence Service, the intelligence agency of the Australian government that collects foreign intelligence. He was appointed in 1952 by Robert Menzies the prime minister at that time.

Allan Taylor (diplomat)

Allan Robert Taylor AM (23 August 1941 – 19 June 2007) was an Australian diplomat, who is best known for his service as Director-General of the Australian Secret Intelligence Service from 1998 to 2003.

Australian Intelligence Community

The Australian Intelligence Community (AIC) and the National Intelligence Community (NIC) or National Security Community of the Australian Government are the collectives of statutory intelligence agencies, policy departments, and other government agencies concerned with protecting and advancing the national security and national interests of the Commonwealth of Australia. The intelligence and security agencies of the Australian Government have evolved since the Second World War and the Cold War and saw transformation and expansion during the Global War on Terrorism in response to current international and domestic security issues such as terrorism, violent extremism, cybersecurity, transnational crime, counter-proliferation, support to military operations, and Pacific regional instability.The National Security Committee of Cabinet (NSC) is a Cabinet committee and the peak Australian Government decision-making body for national security, intelligence, foreign policy, and defence matters. It is chaired by the Prime Minister and is composed of the Deputy Prime Minister, Attorney-General, Treasurer, Minister for Foreign Affairs, Minister for Defence, and Minister for Home Affairs.

Bill Robertson (Australian intelligence officer)

William ("Bill") Thomas Robertson (2 February 1917 – 2 January 2011) was one of the founders of the Australian Secret Intelligence Service (ASIS), formed in 1952 though its existence was kept secret, and served as the agency's fourth Director-General from 1968 until he was sacked by Prime Minister Gough Whitlam in controversial circumstances in 1975. He also served in World War II as an infantry officer and the chief of staff of an Australian and two British divisions.

DSMA-Notice

A DSMA-Notice (Defence and Security Media Advisory Notice) — formerly a DA-Notice (Defence Advisory Notice), and before that called a Defence Notice (D-Notice) until 1993—is an official request to news editors not to publish or broadcast items on specified subjects for reasons of national security. The system is still in use in the United Kingdom.

David Irvine (diplomat)

David Taylor Irvine (born 10 January 1947) is an Australian diplomat, who from March 2009 to September 2014 was the Director-General of Security, the head of the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation. Prior to his appointment to ASIO, he was Director-General of the Australian Secret Intelligence Service (ASIS) from 2003 to 2009.Irvine was born in Perth, Western Australia and studied at Hale School and The University of Western Australia, graduating with honours in Elizabethan history. He worked as a journalist in Perth, and joined the Department of External Affairs (the Australian foreign service) in 1970, and served as Australian High Commissioner to Papua New Guinea (1996–1999) and Australian Ambassador to China (2000–2003).He has written two books about Indonesia: a 1990 English translation of Bisma: Warrior Priest of the Mahabharata by Satyagraha Hurip, and Leather Gods & Wooden Heroes: Java's Classical Wayang (1996; about Indonesian Wayang shadow puppets).

Director-General of the Australian Secret Intelligence Service

The Director-General of the Australian Secret Intelligence Service is the executive officer of the Australian Secret Intelligence Service (ASIS), Australia's foreign intelligence agency.

The Director-General of ASIS is directly responsible to the Minister for Foreign Affairs, and regularly meets with the Minister to brief them on ASIS activities. The current Director is Paul Symon AO.

Ian Kennison

Ian James Stodart Kennison (19 December 1920 – May 2000) was an Australian intelligence officer, soldier and public servant, who was Director-General of the Australian Secret Intelligence Service from 1975 to 1981.

Inspector-General of Intelligence and Security (Australia)

The Inspector-General of Intelligence and Security (IGIS) is an independent statutory office holder in the Commonwealth of Australia responsible for reviewing the activities of the six intelligence agencies which collectively comprise the Australian Intelligence Community (AIC). With own motion powers in addition to considering complaints or requests from ministers, IGIS is a key element of the accountability regime for Australia’s intelligence and security agencies.

The current Inspector-General of Intelligence and Security, since 24 August 2015, is Justice Margaret Stone, formerly a judge of the Federal Court.There are currently six intelligence and security agencies which form the AIC, namely:

Australian Geospatial-Intelligence Organisation (AGO)

Australian Secret Intelligence Service (ASIS)

Australian Security Intelligence Organisation (ASIO)

Australian Signals Directorate (ASD)

Defence Intelligence Organisation (DIO)

Office of National Assessments (ONA)

Intelligence Services Act 2001

The Intelligence Services Act 2001 (ISA) is an Act of the Parliament of Australia, which made significant changes to the Australian Intelligence Community (AIC). The bill was introduced into Parliament on 27 June 2001 by then Minister for Foreign Affairs Alexander Downer. The Act was passed by Parliament on 29 September 2001 and came into effect on 29 October 2001.

The Act introduced three main reforms:

it provided a statutory basis for the Australian Secret Intelligence Service (ASIS) and the Australian Signals Directorate (at the time called the Defence Signals Directorate, DSD), both of which had been previously established by and operated under executive order.

increased powers for the Australian Security Intelligence Organisation (ASIO), ASIS and DSD.

established the Parliamentary Joint Committee on ASIO, ASIS and DSD to replace the former Parliamentary Joint Committee on ASIO (which was established in 1988) and the Joint Select Committee on the Intelligence Services. The Committee was appointed in March 2002. The Committee's purview was expanded from 1 July 2004 to include DIO, DIGO and ONA, following the recommendations of the Flood Inquiry. On 2 December 2005, the name of the Committee was changed to the Parliamentary Joint Committee on Intelligence and Security (PJCIS).

Intelligence Services Amendment Act 2004

The Intelligence Services Amendment Act 2004 was passed by the Parliament of Australia on 1 April 2004 as an amendment to the Intelligence Services Act 2001 (ISA) to grant controversial new powers to the Australian Secret Intelligence Service. The bill reverses ISA prohibitions on ASIS operatives carrying firearms and allows ASIS to work with foreign intelligence agencies to carry out paramilitary and violent activities provided ASIS is not involved in the execution of the operations.

The Intelligence Services Amendment Bill 2003 was introduced into Parliament on 15 October 2003 by Foreign Minister Alexander Downer, as an amendment to ISA. The Bill sought to amend ISA to allow ASIS to be involved in the planning and undertaking of paramilitary or violent activities by others, and provide, train with, and use weapons and self-defence techniques in certain circumstances (that is, where the responsible minister deems the circumstances suitable). The Bill proposed to allow ASIS to work with other organisations (such as the CIA or MI6) in paramilitary operations, provided ASIS staff and agents were not personally involved in carrying them out.

Jim Furner

Brigadier James Osmond Furner, (25 November 1927 – 17 September 2007) was an Australian military intelligence officer, who was the longest serving Director-General of the Australian Secret Intelligence Service (ASIS) from 1984 to 1992.

John Ryan (diplomat)

John Edmund Ryan (13 March 1923 – 9 February 1987) was an Australian diplomat and public servant.

Nick Warner

Nicholas Peter Warner (born 22 May 1950 in Singapore) is an Australian diplomat, intelligence official, public servant, and the Director-General of the Office of National Intelligence since 20 December 2018.Warner served as the Director-General of the Office of National Assessments from December 2017 to December 2018, the Director-General Australian Secret Intelligence Service (ASIS) from August 2009 to December 2017, and the Secretary of the Australian Department of Defence from December 2006 to August 2009. He is best known and highly respected for his role in "RAMSI" as the Special Coordinator of the Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands.

Parliamentary Joint Committee on Intelligence and Security

The Parliamentary Joint Committee on Intelligence and Security (PJCIS) is a joint committee of the Parliament of Australia which oversees Australia's primary agencies of the Australian Intelligence Community: Australian Security Intelligence Organisation (ASIO), the Australian Secret Intelligence Service (ASIS), the Australian Signals Directorate (ASD), the Defence Intelligence Organisation (DIO), the Australian Geospatial-Intelligence Organisation (DIGO), and the Office of National Assessments (ONA).

The Committee, then called the Parliamentary Joint Committee on ASIO, ASIS and DSD, was established pursuant to the Intelligence Services Act 2001 and was first appointed in March 2002.

Paul Symon

Major General Paul Bruce Symon, (born 1960) is the Director-General of the Australian Secret Intelligence Service since 18 December 2017. A retired senior Australian Army officer, Symon served as Director of the Defence Intelligence Organisation from 2011 to 2014 and as Deputy Chief of Army from 2009 to 2011.

Rex Stevenson

Rex Kenneth Stevenson (born 16 October 1942) is an Australian company director and former intelligence officer, who was the Director-General of the Australian Secret Intelligence Service from 1992 to 1998.

Born in Melbourne, Stevenson attended Northcote High School, and then studied a Bachelor of Arts with Honours and a Master of Arts at Monash University. His 1970 masters thesis, Cultivators and administrators: British educational policy towards the Malays, 1875–1906, was published as a book by Oxford University Press in 1975.Stevenson began his career as an intelligence officer in 1973, and by 1990 he was the Deputy Director-General of the Australian Secret Intelligence Service (ASIS). On 25 November 1992, he was promoted to acting Director-General and was officially appointed to the role two weeks later on 9 December.After his retirement from ASIS in 1998, Stevenson co-founded the security consulting firms Signet Group and Spectrum Consultancy.

Special forces of Australia

The special forces of the Australian Defence Force are units of Special Operations Command and associated units of the Royal Australian Navy and the Royal Australian Air Force that conduct and or support special operations to advance and protect the national security of the Commonwealth of Australia. The special forces of Australia have a lineage to a variety of units raised in the Second World War such as the Independent and Commando Companies, Z Special Unit, Navy Beach Commandos, and the Coastwatchers. Australian special forces have most recently been deployed to Iraq in Operation Okra as the Special Operations Task Group, as the Special Operations Task Group in Afghanistan, in Afghanistan in support of the Australian Secret Intelligence Service and regularly for counter-terrorism pre-deploy to locations of major domestic events throughout Australia in readiness to support law enforcement such as the 2014 G20 Brisbane summit.

Walter Cawthorn

Major General Sir Walter Joseph Cawthorn, (11 June 1896 – 4 December 1970) was an Australian soldier and diplomat, commonly known as a former head of the Australian Secret Intelligence Service (ASIS).

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