Australian Oxford Dictionary

The Australian Oxford Dictionary, sometimes abbreviated as AOD, is a dictionary of Australian English published by Oxford University Press.[1]

The AOD combines elements of the previous Oxford publication, The Australian National Dictionary (sometimes abbreviated as AND), which was a comprehensive, historically based record of 10,000 words and phrases representing Australia's contribution to English. However, The Australian National Dictionary was not a full dictionary, and could not be used as one in the normal sense. The AOD borrowed its scholarship both from the AND and from The Oxford English Dictionary, and competed with the Macquarie Dictionary when it was released in 1999.[1]

Like the Macquarie, the AOD combines elements of a normal dictionary with those of an encyclopaedic volume.[2] It is a joint effort of Oxford University and the Australian National University.[3]

The AOD's current editor is Bruce Moore. Its content is largely sourced from the databases of Australian English at the Australian National Dictionary Centre and The Oxford English Dictionary. It also draws on the latest research into International English.

The second edition contains more than 110,000 headwords and more than 10,000 encyclopaedic entries.[4]


Australian Oxford Dictionary

  • First edition ():
  • Second edition (Australian Oxford Dictionary Second Edition) (ISBN 0-19-551796-2/ISBN 978-0-19-551796-5): Includes over 110,000 headwords.
  • ?th impression (2004-12-06)

Australian Oxford Paperback Dictionary

  • Second edition (ISBN 0-19-554026-3/ISBN 978-0-19-554026-0):
  • ?th impression (1996-12-01)
  • Fourth (fifth?) edition (): Includes over 70,000 headwords.
  • ISBN 0-19-557863-5/ISBN 978-0-19-557863-8 (includes 12 months free access to the Online Australian Dictionary & Thesaurus)
  • ?th impression (2011-11-07)
  • ?th impression (2012-04-05)


  1. ^ a b Warden, Ian "Some Balltearers For The Scrabble Board" 27 October 1999 Canberra Times P7
  2. ^ Lockwood, Kim. "A New Aussie Monolith" 27 October 1999 Herald Sun p 31
  3. ^ "Reading between the lines". 28 October 1999 The Advertiser p 19
  4. ^ Australian Oxford Dictionary, Oxford University Press web site Archived October 6, 2010, at the Wayback Machine

External links

Australian English vocabulary

Australian English is a major variety of the English language spoken throughout Australia. Most of the vocabulary of Australian English is shared with British English, though there are notable differences. The vocabulary of Australia is drawn from many sources, including various dialects of British English as well as Gaelic languages, some Indigenous Australian languages, and Polynesian languages.One of the first dictionaries of Australian slang was Karl Lentzner's Dictionary of the Slang-English of Australia and of Some Mixed Languages in 1892. The first dictionary based on historical principles that covered Australian English was E. E. Morris's Austral English: A Dictionary of Australasian Words, Phrases and Usages (1898). In 1981, the more comprehensive Macquarie Dictionary of Australian English was published. Oxford University Press published their own Australian Oxford Dictionary in 1999, as a joint effort with the Australian National University. Oxford University Press also published The Australian National Dictionary.

Broad and colourful Australian English has been popularised over the years by 'larrikin' characters created by Australian performers such as Chips Rafferty, John Meillon, Paul Hogan, Barry Humphries, Greig Pickhaver and John Doyle, Michael Caton, Steve Irwin, Jane Turner and Gina Riley. It has been claimed that, in recent times, the popularity of the Barry McKenzie character, played on screen by Barry Crocker, and in particular of the soap opera Neighbours, led to a "huge shift in the attitude towards Australian English in the UK", with such phrases as "chunder", "liquid laugh" and "technicolour yawn" all becoming well-known as a result.


Bogan ( BOHG-ən) is Australian and New Zealand slang for a person whose speech, clothing, attitude and behaviour are considered unrefined or unsophisticated. Depending on the context, the term can be pejorative or self-deprecating. The prevalence of the term bogan has also been associated with changing social attitudes towards social class in Australia. Specifically, the term has been related to the decline of masculine conceptions of meritocracy in Australia, and a growing ambivalence towards traditional sites of working class culture.Since the 1980s, the bogan has become a very well-recognised subculture, often as an example of bad taste. It has antecedents in the Australian larrikin and ocker, and various localised names exist that describe the same or very similar people to the bogan.


Chaps ( or ) are sturdy coverings for the legs consisting of leggings and a belt. They are buckled on over trousers with the chaps' integrated belt, but unlike trousers they have no seat and are not joined at the crotch. They are designed to provide protection for the legs and are usually made of leather or a leather-like material. Their name is a shortened version of the Spanish word "chaparreras." Chaparreras were named after the chaparral (thick, thorny, low brush) from which they were designed to protect the legs while riding on horseback. Like much of western horse culture the origin of chaparreras was in Nueva España/Mexico and has been assimilated into cowboy culture of the American west. They are a protective garment to be used when riding a horse through brushy terrain. In the modern world, they are worn for both practical work purposes and for exhibition or show use. Chaps have also been adopted for use on motorcycles, particularly by Harley riders and other cruiser style motorcycle riders.

Confectionery store

A confectionery store (more commonly referred to as a sweet shop in the United Kingdom, a candy store in North America, or a lolly shop in Australia) sells confectionery and the intended market is usually children. Most confectionery stores are filled with an assortment of sweets far larger than a grocer or convenience store could accommodate. They often offer a selection of old-fashioned treats and sweets from different countries. Very often unchanged in layout since their inception, confectioneries are known for their warming and nostalgic feel.

The village of Pateley Bridge claims to have the oldest confectionery store in England.


Melaleuca () is a genus of nearly 300 species of plants in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae, commonly known as paperbarks, honey-myrtles or tea-trees (although the last name is also applied to species of Leptospermum). They range in size from small shrubs that rarely grow to more than 1 m (3 ft) high, to trees up to 35 m (100 ft). Their flowers generally occur in groups, forming a “head” or “spike” resembling a brush used for cleaning bottles, containing up to 80 individual flowers. They are superficially like Banksia species, which also have their flowers in a spike, but the structures of individual flowers in the two genera are very different.

Second only to members of the family Proteaceae, melaleucas are an important food source for nectarivorous insects, birds, and mammals. Many are popular garden plants, either for their attractive flowers or as dense screens; and a few have economic value for producing fencing and oils such as “tea tree” oil. Most melaleucas are endemic to Australia, with a few also occurring in Malesia. Seven are endemic to New Caledonia, and one is found only on (Australia's) Lord Howe Island. Melaleucas are found in a wide variety of habitats. Many are adapted for life in swamps and boggy places, while others thrive in the poorest of sandy soils or on the edge of saltpans. Some have a wide distribution and are common, whilst others are rare and endangered. Land clearing, exotic myrtle rust, and especially draining and clearing of swamps threaten many species.

National Trust of Australia

The National Trust of Australia, officially the Australian Council of National Trusts (ACNT), is the Australian national peak body for community-based, non-government non-profit organisations committed to promoting and conserving Australia's indigenous, natural and historic heritage.Incorporated in 1965, it federates the eight autonomous National Trusts in each Australian state and internal self-governing territory, providing them with a national secretariat and a national and international presence.Collectively, the constituent National Trusts own or manage over 300 heritage places (the majority held in perpetuity), and manage a volunteer workforce of 7,000 while also employing about 350 people nationwide. Around 1,000,000 visitors experience the properties and their collections in Australia each year.

New Oxford American Dictionary

The New Oxford American Dictionary (NOAD) is a single-volume dictionary of American English compiled by American editors at the Oxford University Press.

NOAD is based upon the New Oxford Dictionary of English (NODE), published in the United Kingdom in 1998, although with substantial editing, additional entries, and the inclusion of illustrations. It is based on a corpus linguistics analysis of Oxford's 200 million word database of contemporary American English.

NOAD includes a diacritical respelling scheme to convey pronunciations, as opposed to the Gimson phonemic IPA system that is used in NODE.

Oxford American Dictionary

The Oxford American Dictionary (OAD) is a single-volume dictionary of American English. It was the first dictionary published by the Oxford University Press to be prepared by American lexicographers and editors.

The work was based on the Oxford Paperback Dictionary, published in 1979. It is no longer in print and has been superseded by the New Oxford American Dictionary.


Resupination is derived from the Latin word resupinus, meaning "bent back

with the face upward" or "on the back". "Resupination" is the noun form of the adjective "resupine" which means "being upside-down, supine or facing upward".The word "resupinate" is generally only used in a botanical context - in everyday language, "supine" has a similar meaning. In botany, resupination refers to the "twisting" of flowers or leaves through about 180° as they open. Resupinate leaves have the petiole or "stalk" twisted - respuinate flowers twist as they open.

Theater (structure)

A theater, theatre or playhouse, is a structure where theatrical works or plays are performed, or other performances such as musical concerts may be produced. While a theater is not required for performance (as in environmental theater or street theater), a theater serves to define the performance and audience spaces. The facility is traditionally organized to provide support areas for performers, the technical crew and the audience members.

There are as many types of theaters as there are types of performance. Theaters may be built specifically for a certain types of productions, they may serve for more general performance needs or they may be adapted or converted for use as a theater. They may range from open-air amphitheaters to ornate, cathedral-like structures to simple, undecorated rooms or black box theaters. Some theaters may have a fixed acting area (in most theaters this is known as the stage), while some theaters, such as black box theaters, may not, allowing the director and designers to construct and acting area suitable for A production.

Verticordia argentea

Verticordia argentea is a flowering plant in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae and is endemic to the south-west of Western Australia. It is an erect, open shrub with almost circular leaves and scented, pink and white flowers. It usually grows in sand and is found near Eneabba.

Verticordia attenuata

Verticordia attenuata is a flowering plant in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae and is endemic to the south-west of Western Australia. It is a shrub with a single main stem, small leaves and pink to purple flowers which fade to white as they age. It usually grows in sand in areas that are wet in winter, often amongst grasses and is found in coastal areas near Bunbury.

Verticordia auriculata

Verticordia auriculata is a flowering plant in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae and is endemic to the south-west of Western Australia. It is a small, multi-branched shrub with small leaves and spikes of pink to magenta-coloured flowers in late spring to early summer and it is widespread in the wheatbelt.

Verticordia bifimbriata

Verticordia bifimbriata is a flowering plant in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae and is endemic to the south-west of Western Australia. It is an open shrub with small leaves and spikes of pink flowers.

Verticordia blepharophylla

Verticordia blepharophylla is a flowering plant in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae and is endemic to the south-west of Western Australia. It is an erect, open shrub with a single main stem, leaves with hairy margins and pale to deep mauve-pink flowers and which occurs in an area between Perth and Geraldton.

Verticordia brachypoda

Verticordia brachypoda is a flowering plant in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae and is endemic to the south-west of Western Australia. It is an irregularly branched shrub with narrow leaves crowded on side-branches, and cream-coloured or white flowers with pink, cream or white centres.

Verticordia brevifolia

Verticordia brevifolia is a flowering plant in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae and is endemic to the south-west of Western Australia. It is a small shrub with shortly cylindrical leaves and bright yellow flowers which turn red as they age. There are two subspecies, both of which have limited distributions and a priority conservation rating.

Verticordia chrysantha

Verticordia chrysantha, commonly known as yellow featherflower or yellow Morrison, is a flowering plant in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae and is endemic to Western Australia. It is a small, slow-growing, rather bushy shrub with bright yellow flowers which often turn reddish-brown as they age. It is widespread in the south-west of the state.

Verticordia comosa

Verticordia comosa is a flowering plant in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae and is endemic to the south-west of Western Australia. It is an openly branched shrub with small, broad, almost round leaves and spikes of flowers that are pale yellow, sometimes with a white or pale pink centre.

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