The House of Representatives is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of Australia, the upper house being the Senate. Its composition and powers are established in Chapter I of the Constitution of Australia.
The term of members of the House of Representatives is a maximum of three years from the date of the first sitting of the House, but on only one occasion since Federation has the maximum term been reached. The House is almost always dissolved earlier, usually alone but sometimes in a double dissolution of both Houses. Elections for members of the House of Representatives are often held in conjunction with those for the Senate. A member of the House may be referred to as a "Member of Parliament" ("MP" or "Member"), while a member of the Senate is usually referred to as a "Senator". The government of the day and by extension the Prime Minister must achieve and maintain the confidence of this House in order to gain and remain in power.
The House of Representatives currently consists of 150 members, elected by and representing single member districts known as electoral divisions (commonly referred to as "electorates" or "seats"). The number of members is not fixed but can vary with boundary changes resulting from electoral redistributions, which are required on a regular basis. The most recent overall increase in the size of the House, which came into effect at the 1984 election, increased the number of members from 125 to 148. It reduced to 147 at the 1993 election, returned to 148 at the 1996 election, has been 150 since the 2001 election, and will increase to 151 at the 2019 Australian federal election.
Each division elects one member using full-preference Instant-runoff voting. This was put in place after the 1918 Swan by-election, which Labor unexpectedly won with the largest primary vote and the help of vote splitting in the conservative parties. The Nationalist government of the time changed the lower house voting system from first-past-the-post to full-preference preferential voting, effective from the 1919 general election. This system has remained in place since, allowing the Coalition parties to safely contest the same seats.
House of Representatives
|2 July 2016|
|18 May 2019|
|House of Representatives Chamber|
Canberra, Australian Capital Territory
|House of Representatives|
The Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act (Imp.) of 1900 established the House of Representatives as part of the new system of dominion government in newly federated Australia. The House is presided over by the Speaker. Members of the House are elected from single member electorates (geographic districts, commonly referred to as "seats" but officially known as "Divisions of the Australian House of Representatives"). One vote, one value legislation requires all electorates to have approximately the same number of voters with a maximum 10% variation. However, the baseline quota for the number of voters in an electorate is determined by the number of voters in the state in which that electorate is found. Consequently, the electorates of the smallest states and territories have more variation in the number of voters in their electorates, with larger seats like Fenner containing more than double the electors of smaller seats like Lingiari. Meanwhile, all the states except Tasmania have electorates approximately within the same 10% tolerance, with most electorates holding 85,000 to 105,000 voters. Federal electorates have their boundaries redrawn or redistributed whenever a state or territory has its number of seats adjusted, if electorates are not generally matched by population size or if seven years have passed since the most recent redistribution. Voting is by the 'preferential system', also known as instant-runoff voting. A full allocation of preferences is required for a vote to be considered formal. This allows for a calculation of the two-party-preferred vote.
Under Section 24 of the Constitution, each state is entitled to members based on a population quota determined from the "latest statistics of the Commonwealth." These statistics arise from the census conducted under the auspices of section 51(xi). Until its repeal by the 1967 referendum, section 127 prohibited the inclusion of Aboriginal people in section 24 determinations as including the Indigenous peoples could alter the distribution of seats between the states to the benefit of states with larger Aboriginal populations. Section 127, along with section 25 (allowing for race-based disqualification of voters by states) and the race power, have been described as racism built into Australia's constitutional DNA, and modifications to prevent lawful race-based discrimination have been proposed.
The parliamentary entitlement of a state or territory is established by the Electoral Commissioner dividing the number of the people of the Commonwealth by twice the number of Senators. This is known as the "Nexus Provision". The reasons for this are twofold, to maintain a constant influence for the smaller states and to maintain a constant balance of the two Houses in case of a joint sitting after a double dissolution. The population of each state and territory is then divided by this quota to determine the number of members to which each state and territory is entitled. Under the Australian Constitution all original states are guaranteed at least five members. The Federal Parliament itself has decided that the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory should have at least one member each.
According to the Constitution, the powers of both Houses are nearly equal, with the consent of both Houses needed to pass legislation. The difference mostly relates to taxation legislation. In practice, by convention, the person who can control a majority of votes in the lower house is invited by the Governor-General to form the Government. In practice that means that the leader of the party (or coalition of parties) with a majority of members in the House becomes the Prime Minister, who then can nominate other elected members of the government party in both the House and the Senate to become ministers responsible for various portfolios and administer government departments. Bills appropriating money (supply bills) can only be introduced in the lower house and thus only the party with a majority in the lower house can govern. In the current Australian party system, this ensures that virtually all contentious votes are along party lines, and the Government usually has a majority in those votes.
The Opposition party's main role in the House is to present arguments against the Government's policies and legislation where appropriate, and attempt to hold the Government accountable as much as possible by asking questions of importance during Question Time and during debates on legislation. By contrast, the only period in recent times during which the government of the day has had a majority in the Senate was from July 2005 (following the 2004 election) to December 2007 (following the Coalition's defeat at the federal election that year). Hence, votes in the Senate are usually more meaningful. The House's well-established committee system is not always as prominent as the Senate committee system because of the frequent lack of Senate majority.
In a reflection of the United Kingdom House of Commons, the predominant colour of the furnishings in the House of Representatives is green. However, the colour was tinted slightly in the new Parliament House (opened 1988) to suggest the colour of eucalyptus trees. Also, unlike the House of Commons, the seating arrangement of the crossbench is curved, similar to the curved seating arrangement of the United States House of Representatives. This suggests a more collaborative, and less oppositional, system than in the United Kingdom parliament (where all members of parliament are seated facing the opposite side).
Australian parliaments are notoriously rowdy, with MPs often trading colourful insults. As a result, the Speaker often has to use the disciplinary powers granted to him or her under Standing Orders.
From the beginning of Federation until 1918, first-past-the-post voting was used in order to elect members of the House of Representatives but since the 1918 Swan by-election which Labor unexpectedly won with the largest primary vote due to vote splitting amongst the conservative parties, the Nationalist Party government, a predecessor of the modern-day Liberal Party of Australia, changed the lower house voting system to voting system to Instant-runoff voting, which in Australia is known as full preferential voting, as of the subsequent 1919 election. This system has remained in place ever since, allowing the Coalition parties to safely contest the same seats. Full-preference preferential voting re-elected the Hawke government at the 1990 election, the first time in federal history that Labor had obtained a net benefit from preferential voting.
Following the full allocation of preferences, it is possible to derive a two-party-preferred figure, where the votes have been allocated between the two main candidates in the election. In Australia, this is usually between the candidates from the Coalition parties and the Australian Labor Party.
Under the Constitution, the Governor-General has the power to appoint and dismiss "Ministers of State" who administer government departments. In practice, the Governor-General chooses ministers in accordance with the traditions of the Westminster system that the Government be drawn from the party or coalition of parties that has a majority in the House of Representatives, with the leader of the largest party becoming Prime Minister.
These ministers then meet in a council known as Cabinet. Cabinet meetings are strictly private and occur once a week where vital issues are discussed and policy formulated. The Constitution does not recognise the Cabinet as a legal entity; it exists solely by convention. Its decisions do not in and of themselves have legal force. However, it serves as the practical expression of the Federal Executive Council, which is Australia's highest formal governmental body. In practice, the Federal Executive Council meets solely to endorse and give legal force to decisions already made by the Cabinet. All members of the Cabinet are members of the Executive Council. While the Governor-General is nominal presiding officer, The Governor-General is bound by convention to follow the advice of the Executive Council on almost all occasions, giving it de facto executive power. A senior member of the Cabinet holds the office of Vice-President of the Executive Council and acts as presiding officer of the Executive Council in the absence of the Governor-General. The Federal Executive Council is the Australian equivalent of the Executive Councils and privy councils in other Commonwealth realms such as the Queen's Privy Council for Canada and the Privy Council of the United Kingdom.
A minister is not required to be a Senator or Member of the House of Representatives at the time of their appointment, but their office is forfeited if they do not become a member of either house within three months of their appointment. This provision was included in the Constitution (section 64) to enable the inaugural Ministry, led by Edmund Barton, to be appointed on 1 January 1901, even though the first federal elections were not scheduled to be held until 29 and 30 March.
The provision was also used after the disappearance and presumed death of the Liberal Prime Minister Harold Holt in December 1967. The Liberal Party elected John Gorton, then a Senator, as its new leader, and he was sworn in as Prime Minister on 10 January 1968 (following an interim ministry led by John McEwen). On 1 February, Gorton resigned from the Senate to stand for the 24 February by-election in Holt's former House of Representatives electorate of Higgins due to the convention that the Prime Minister be a member of the lower house. For 22 days (2 to 23 February inclusive) he was Prime Minister while a member of neither house of parliament.
On a number of occasions when Ministers have retired from their seats prior to an election, or stood but lost their own seats in the election, they have retained their Ministerial offices until the next government is sworn in.
In addition to the work of the main chamber, the House of Representatives also has a large number of committees which deal with matters referred to them by the main House. They provide the opportunity for all Members to ask questions of ministers and public officials as well as conduct inquiries, examine policy and legislation. Once a particular inquiry is completed the members of the committee can then produce a report, to be tabled in Parliament, outlining what they have discovered as well as any recommendations that they have produced for the Government to consider.
The ability of the Houses of Parliament to establish committees is referenced in Section 49 of the Constitution, which states that, "The powers, privileges, and immunities of the Senate and of the House of Representatives, and of the members and the committees of each House, shall be such as are declared by the Parliament, and until declared shall be those of the Commons House of Parliament of the United Kingdom, and of its members and committees, at the establishment of the Commonwealth."
Parliamentary committees can be given a wide range of powers. One of the most significant powers is the ability to summon people to attend hearings in order to give evidence and submit documents. Anyone who attempts to hinder the work of a Parliamentary committee may be found to be in contempt of Parliament. There are a number of ways that witnesses can be found in contempt. These include refusing to appear before a committee when summoned, refusing to answer a question during a hearing or to produce a document, or later being found to have lied to or misled a committee. Anyone who attempts to influence a witness may also be found in contempt. Other powers include, the ability to meet throughout Australia, to establish subcommittees and to take evidence in both public and private hearings.
Proceedings of committees are considered to have the same legal standing as proceedings of Parliament, they are recorded by Hansard, except for private hearings, and also operate under Parliamentary privilege. Every participant, including committee members and witnesses giving evidence, are protected from being prosecuted under any civil or criminal action for anything they may say during a hearing. Written evidence and documents received by a committee are also protected.
Types of committees include:
Standing Committees, which are established on a permanent basis and are responsible for scrutinising bills and topics referred to them by the chamber; examining the government's budget and activities and for examining departmental annual reports and activities.
Select Committees, which are temporary committees, established in order to deal with particular issues.
Domestic Committees, which are responsible for administering aspects of the House's own affairs. These include the Selection Committee that determines how the House will deal with particular pieces of legislation and private members business and the Privileges Committee that deals with matters of Parliamentary Privilege.
Legislative Scrutiny Committees, which examine legislation and regulations to determine their impact on individual rights and accountability.
Joint Committees are also established to include both members of the House of Representatives and the Senate.
The Federation Chamber is a second debating chamber that considers relatively uncontroversial matters referred by the House. The Federation Chamber cannot, however, initiate or make a final decision on any parliamentary business, although it can perform all tasks in between.
The Federation Chamber was created in 1994 as the Main Committee, to relieve some of the burden of the House: different matters can be processed in the House at large and in the Federation Chamber, as they sit simultaneously. It is designed to be less formal, with a quorum of only three members: the Deputy Speaker of the House, one government member, and one non-government member. Decisions must be unanimous: any divided decision sends the question back to the House at large.
The Federation Chamber was created through the House's Standing Orders: it is thus a subordinate body of the House, and can only be in session while the House itself is in session. When a division vote in the House occurs, members in the Federation Chamber must return to the House to vote.
The Federation Chamber is housed in one of the House's committee rooms; the room is customised for this purpose and is laid out to resemble the House chamber.
Due to the unique role of what was then called the Main Committee, proposals were made to rename the body to avoid confusion with other parliamentary committees, including "Second Chamber" and "Federation Chamber". The House of Representatives later adopted the latter proposal.
The concept of a parallel body to expedite Parliamentary business, based on the Australian Federation Chamber, was mentioned in a 1998 British House of Commons report, which led to the creation of that body's parallel chamber Westminster Hall.
The outcome of the 2016 double dissolution election in the 150-seat House of Representatives saw the one-term incumbent Liberal/National Coalition government re-elected with a reduced 76 seats, a bare one-seat majority government − the closest federal majority result since the 1961 election. Resulting from the national two-party swing against the Turnbull Government, the Shorten Labor opposition picked up a significant number of previously government-held seats − totalling 69 seats. On the crossbench the Australian Greens, Centre Alliance, Katter's Australian Party, and independents Andrew Wilkie and Cathy McGowan won a seat each.
Two by-elections were held in December 2017, after Barnaby Joyce was disqualified and John Alexander resigned due to the 2017–18 Australian parliamentary eligibility crisis. Both Joyce and Alexander regained their seats of New England and Bennelong respectively for the Liberal Party. In March 2018, a by-election was held in Batman after David Feeney resigned, also for citizenship reasons, with Labor holding the seat.
A two-party system has existed in the Australian House of Representatives since the two non-Labor parties merged in 1909. The 1910 election was the first to elect a majority government, with the Australian Labor Party concurrently winning the first Senate majority. Prior to 1909 a three-party system existed in the chamber. A two-party-preferred vote (2PP) has been calculated since the 1919 change from first-past-the-post to preferential voting and subsequent introduction of the Coalition. ALP = Australian Labor Party, L+NP = grouping of Liberal/National/LNP/CLP Coalition parties (and predecessors), Oth = other parties and independents.
|Primary vote||2PP vote||Seats|
|13 April 1910 election||50.0%||45.1%||4.9%||–||–||42||31||2||75|
|31 May 1913 election||48.5%||48.9%||2.6%||–||–||37||38||0||75|
|5 September 1914 election||50.9%||47.2%||1.9%||–||–||42||32||1||75|
|5 May 1917 election||43.9%||54.2%||1.9%||–||–||22||53||0||75|
|13 December 1919 election||42.5%||54.3%||3.2%||45.9%||54.1%||25||38||2||75|
|16 December 1922 election||42.3%||47.8%||9.9%||48.8%||51.2%||29||40||6||75|
|14 November 1925 election||45.0%||53.2%||1.8%||46.2%||53.8%||23||50||2||75|
|17 November 1928 election||44.6%||49.6%||5.8%||48.4%||51.6%||31||42||2||75|
|12 October 1929 election||48.8%||44.2%||7.0%||56.7%||43.3%||46||24||5||75|
|19 December 1931 election||27.1%||48.4%||24.5%||41.5%||58.5%||14||50||11||75|
|15 September 1934 election||26.8%||45.6%||27.6%||46.5%||53.5%||18||42||14||74|
|23 October 1937 election||43.2%||49.3%||7.5%||49.4%||50.6%||29||43||2||74|
|21 September 1940 election||40.2%||43.9%||15.9%||50.3%||49.7%||32||36||6||74|
|21 August 1943 election||49.9%||23.0%||27.1%||58.2%||41.8%||49||19||6||74|
|28 September 1946 election||49.7%||39.3%||11.0%||54.1%||45.9%||43||26||5||74|
|10 December 1949 election||46.0%||50.3%||3.7%||49.0%||51.0%||47||74||0||121|
|28 April 1951 election||47.6%||50.3%||2.1%||49.3%||50.7%||52||69||0||121|
|29 May 1954 election||50.0%||46.8%||3.2%||50.7%||49.3%||57||64||0||121|
|10 December 1955 election||44.6%||47.6%||7.8%||45.8%||54.2%||47||75||0||122|
|22 November 1958 election||42.8%||46.6%||10.6%||45.9%||54.1%||45||77||0||122|
|9 December 1961 election||47.9%||42.1%||10.0%||50.5%||49.5%||60||62||0||122|
|30 November 1963 election||45.5%||46.0%||8.5%||47.4%||52.6%||50||72||0||122|
|26 November 1966 election||40.0%||50.0%||10.0%||43.1%||56.9%||41||82||1||124|
|25 October 1969 election||47.0%||43.3%||9.7%||50.2%||49.8%||59||66||0||125|
|2 December 1972 election||49.6%||41.5%||8.9%||52.7%||47.3%||67||58||0||125|
|18 May 1974 election||49.3%||44.9%||5.8%||51.7%||48.3%||66||61||0||127|
|13 December 1975 election||42.8%||53.1%||4.1%||44.3%||55.7%||36||91||0||127|
|10 December 1977 election||39.7%||48.1%||12.2%||45.4%||54.6%||38||86||0||124|
|18 October 1980 election||45.2%||46.3%||8.5%||49.6%||50.4%||51||74||0||125|
|5 March 1983 election||49.5%||43.6%||6.9%||53.2%||46.8%||75||50||0||125|
|1 December 1984 election||47.6%||45.0%||7.4%||51.8%||48.2%||82||66||0||148|
|11 July 1987 election||45.8%||46.1%||8.1%||50.8%||49.2%||86||62||0||148|
|24 March 1990 election||39.4%||43.5%||17.1%||49.9%||50.1%||78||69||1||148|
|13 March 1993 election||44.9%||44.3%||10.7%||51.4%||48.6%||80||65||2||147|
|2 March 1996 election||38.7%||47.3%||14.0%||46.4%||53.6%||49||94||5||148|
|3 October 1998 election||40.1%||39.5%||20.4%||51.0%||49.0%||67||80||1||148|
|10 November 2001 election||37.8%||43.0%||19.2%||49.0%||51.0%||65||82||3||150|
|9 October 2004 election||37.6%||46.7%||15.7%||47.3%||52.7%||60||87||3||150|
|24 November 2007 election||43.4%||42.1%||14.5%||52.7%||47.3%||83||65||2||150|
|21 August 2010 election||38.0%||43.3%||18.7%||50.1%||49.9%||72||72||6||150|
|7 September 2013 election||33.4%||45.6%||21.0%||46.5%||53.5%||55||90||5||150|
|2 July 2016 election||34.7%||42.0%||23.3%||49.6%||50.4%||69||76||5||150|
Parliamentary committees of the Australian House of Representatives are groups of Members of Parliament, appointed by the House of Representatives, to undertake certain specified tasks. They comprise government and non-government Members and have considerable powers to undertake work on behalf of the Parliament.Christopher Pyne
Christopher Maurice Pyne (born 13 August 1967) is an Australian politician who was the Liberal member for the House of Representatives seat of Sturt from the 1993 election through 11 April 2019.
Upon the ascendancy of the Abbott Government at the 2013 election, Pyne entered the Cabinet of Australia and became Leader of the House and Minister for Education, renamed Minister for Education and Training from December 2014. Upon the ascendancy of the Turnbull Government at the 2015 Liberal leadership ballot, Pyne remained Leader of the House and became Minister for Industry, Innovation and Science. With the reelection of the government in 2016, Pyne became the Minister for Defence Industry. Upon the installment of the Morrison Ministry in August 2018, he became the Minister for Defence.
On 2 March 2019 Pyne announced that he would retire from politics at the next federal election.Divisions of the Australian House of Representatives
In Australia, electoral districts for the Australian House of Representatives are called divisions or more commonly referred to as electorates or seats. There are currently 150 single-member electorates for the Australian House of Representatives.Janelle Saffin
Janelle Anne Saffin (born 1 November 1954) is an Australian Labor Party politician. She has been the Member for Lismore in the New South Wales Legislative Assembly since 23 March 2019. She was the Member for Page in the Australian House of Representatives from 2007 to 2013, and a Member of the New South Wales Legislative Council from 1995 to 2003.Josh Frydenberg
Joshua Anthony Frydenberg (born 17 July 1971) is an Australian politician who has been Treasurer of Australia and Deputy Leader of the Liberal Party since 24 August 2018. He has been a member of the Australian House of Representatives for the seat of Kooyong since August 2010.
Frydenberg served in various roles in the Abbott and Turnbull Governments from 2013 to 2018, including as Minister for Resources and Northern Australia, and as Minister for the Environment and Energy. On 24 August 2018, he was elected Deputy Leader of the Liberal Party following a leadership spill, which saw Scott Morrison elected as Leader. Morrison subsequently appointed Frydenberg Treasurer of Australia.Kate Ellis
Katherine Margaret Ellis (born 22 September 1977) is an Australian politician, who represented the Division of Adelaide in the Australian House of Representatives for the Australian Labor Party from 2004 until 2019. She served in multiple portfolios in the outer ministry of the 2007–13 federal Labor government and has been in shadow cabinet since. In March 2017 Ellis announced that she would step down from shadow cabinet as of the next reshuffle and leave parliament at the 2019 federal election.Kelly O'Dwyer
Kelly Megan O'Dwyer (born 31 March 1977) is an Australian politician and Cabinet Minister. She is the Minister for Jobs and Industrial Relations and the Minister for Women. O'Dwyer was the member for the Division of Higgins in the Australian House of Representatives, elected as a member of the Liberal Party on 5 December 2009 at the 2009 Higgins by-election, to succeed a former Treasurer, Peter Costello. In 2018 she was listed as one of BBC's 100 Women. On 19 January 2019, O'Dwyer announced that she would not be contesting the upcoming election.List of longest-serving members of the Parliament of Australia
This article lists the longest-serving members of the Parliament of Australia.Melissa Price (politician)
Melissa Lee Price (born 12 December 1963) is an Australian Liberal Party politician serving as Environment Minister in the Morrison Government and Member of the Australian House of Representatives for the Division of Durack since 2013. Price served as the Assistant Minister for the Environment from 20 December 2017 to 27 August 2018. Price was appointed to the Cabinet in the Morrison Ministry on 28 August 2018 as Minister for the Environment.
Born in Kalgoorlie in 1963, Price's grandfather, David Dellar, and uncle, Stan Dellar, were both Australian Labor Party members of the Western Australian Legislative Council. Prior to entering Parliament, Price was Vice President of Legal and Business Development for Crosslands Resources, an entity of Mitsubishi Developments which control the major Western Australian Jack Hills Iron Ore Mine and is currently a director for Cancer Council Western Australia.
Price previously unsuccessfully contested the state seat of Kalgoorlie at the 2013 state election.Price caused controversy in her role as Environment Minister by allegedly telling Anote Tong, the former president of Kiribati and climate change advocate, "I know why you’re here. It is for the cash. For the Pacific it's always about the cash. I have my chequebook here. How much do you want?"Members of the Australian House of Representatives
Following are lists of members of the Australian House of Representatives:
Members of the Australian House of Representatives, 1901–1903
Members of the Australian House of Representatives, 1903–1906
Members of the Australian House of Representatives, 1906–1910
Members of the Australian House of Representatives, 1910–1913
Members of the Australian House of Representatives, 1913–1914
Members of the Australian House of Representatives, 1914–1917
Members of the Australian House of Representatives, 1917–1919
Members of the Australian House of Representatives, 1919–1922
Members of the Australian House of Representatives, 1922–1925
Members of the Australian House of Representatives, 1925–1928
Members of the Australian House of Representatives, 1928–1929
Members of the Australian House of Representatives, 1929–1931
Members of the Australian House of Representatives, 1931–1934
Members of the Australian House of Representatives, 1934–1937
Members of the Australian House of Representatives, 1937–1940
Members of the Australian House of Representatives, 1940–1943
Members of the Australian House of Representatives, 1943–1946
Members of the Australian House of Representatives, 1946–1949
Members of the Australian House of Representatives, 1949–1951
Members of the Australian House of Representatives, 1951–1954
Members of the Australian House of Representatives, 1954–1955
Members of the Australian House of Representatives, 1955–1958
Members of the Australian House of Representatives, 1958–1961
Members of the Australian House of Representatives, 1961–1963
Members of the Australian House of Representatives, 1963–1966
Members of the Australian House of Representatives, 1966–1969
Members of the Australian House of Representatives, 1969–1972
Members of the Australian House of Representatives, 1972–1974
Members of the Australian House of Representatives, 1974–1975
Members of the Australian House of Representatives, 1975–1977
Members of the Australian House of Representatives, 1977–1980
Members of the Australian House of Representatives, 1980–1983
Members of the Australian House of Representatives, 1983–1984
Members of the Australian House of Representatives, 1984–1987
Members of the Australian House of Representatives, 1987–1990
Members of the Australian House of Representatives, 1990–1993
Members of the Australian House of Representatives, 1993–1996
Members of the Australian House of Representatives, 1996–1998
Members of the Australian House of Representatives, 1998–2001
Members of the Australian House of Representatives, 2001–2004
Members of the Australian House of Representatives, 2004–2007
Members of the Australian House of Representatives, 2007–2010
Members of the Australian House of Representatives, 2010–2013
Members of the Australian House of Representatives, 2013–2016
Members of the Australian House of Representatives, 2016–2019Members of the Australian House of Representatives, 1901–1903
This is a list of the members of the Australian House of Representatives in the First Australian Parliament, which was elected on 29 and 30 March 1901. There were 75 members, as required by the Constitution, as near as possible to twice the number of Senators which was then 36. South Australia and Tasmania had not been divided into electoral divisions in 1901 which resulted in the particular state voting as a single electorate, with each elector casting seven votes. The seven candidates with the highest votes
were elected.Members of the Australian House of Representatives, 1913–1914
This is a list of the members of the Australian House of Representatives in the Fifth Australian Parliament, which was elected on 31 May 1913.Members of the Australian House of Representatives, 2016–2019
This is a list of members of the Australian House of Representatives of the 45th Parliament of Australia (2016–2019).
The 45th Parliament, elected on 2 July 2016, was sworn in on its opening on 30 August 2016.Nicola Roxon
Nicola Louise Roxon (born 1 April 1967) is an Australian politician, who was a member of the Australian House of Representatives representing the seat of Gellibrand in Victoria for the Australian Labor Party from the 1998 federal election until her retirement in August 2013. Between 2011 and 2013, Roxon was the Attorney-General of Australia. Roxon is currently an Adjunct Professor at Victoria University.Philip Ruddock
Philip Maxwell Ruddock (born 12 March 1943 in Canberra) is an Australian politician who is currently mayor of Hornsby Shire. He previously was a Liberal member of the House of Representatives from 1973 to 2016. First elected in a 1973 by-election, by the time of his retirement he was the last parliamentary survivor of the Whitlam and Fraser Governments. He was both the Father of the House and the Father of the Parliament from 1998 to his retirement. He is the second longest-serving parliamentarian in the history of the Australian Parliament (only Billy Hughes served longer). Ruddock served continuously in federal cabinet during the Howard Government, as Minister for Immigration and Multicultural Affairs from 1996 to 2003, and then Attorney-General from 2003 to 2007. He is also the Vice Chair of the Global Panel Foundation Australasia - with Sir Donald Charles McKinnon as Chair.Speaker of the Australian House of Representatives
The Speaker of the House of Representatives is the presiding officer of the House of Representatives, the lower house of the Parliament of Australia. The presiding officer in the upper house is the President of the Senate. The office of Speaker was created by section 35 of the Constitution of Australia. The authors of the Constitution intended that the House of Representatives should as nearly as possible be modelled on the House of Commons of the United Kingdom.
The Speaker is the presiding officer of House of Representatives debates, determining which members may speak. The Speaker is also responsible for maintaining order during debate, and may punish members who break the rules of the House.
The office of Speaker is currently held by Tony Smith (Liberal) since 10 August 2015. The Deputy Speaker is Kevin Hogan (National), who was elected Deputy Speaker on 26 March 2018. If the Speaker is absent the Deputy Speaker becomes the Acting Speaker. The Second Deputy Speaker is Rob Mitchell (Labor).Tanya Plibersek
Tanya Joan Plibersek (born 2 December 1969) is an Australian politician who has been a member of the House of Representatives since 1998, representing the Labor Party. She has been the party's deputy leader since 2013, and served as a minister in the Rudd and Gillard Governments.
Plibersek was born in Sydney to Slovenian immigrant parents. She has degrees from the University of Technology Sydney and Macquarie University, and before entering parliament worked as a staffer for Senator Bruce Childs. Plibersek was elected to the Division of Sydney at the 1998 federal election, aged 28. She was added to the Shadow Cabinet in 2004, and when Labor won the 2007 election was made Minister for Housing and Minister for the Status of Women. In a cabinet reshuffle in 2010, Plibersek was instead made Minister for Human Services and Minister for Social Inclusion. She was promoted to Minister for Health the following year, and held that position until Labor's defeat at the 2013 election. Plibersek was elected deputy leader to Bill Shorten in the election's aftermath. She is a member of the Labor Left faction.Tony Smith (Victorian politician)
Anthony David Hawthorn Smith (born 13 March 1967) is an Australian politician who is the 30th and current Speaker of the House of Representatives, assuming office on 10 August 2015. He has been a Liberal Party member of the House of Representatives since 2001, representing the Division of Casey, Victoria.Warren Snowdon
Warren Edward Snowdon (born 20 March 1950) is an Australian politician. He is a Labor member of the Australian House of Representatives. He represented the Division of Northern Territory from July 1987 to March 1996, and from October 1998 to November 2001. Since November 2001, he has represented the Division of Lingiari. This electorate includes all the towns and communities in the Northern Territory outside Darwin, as well as Christmas Island and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands in the Indian Ocean. He is the last serving MP who was first elected in the 1980s, and who served in Old Parliament House.
Snowdon was the Minister for Defence Science and Personnel, Minister for Veterans' Affairs, Minister for Indigenous Health, and Minister Assisting the Prime Minister on the Centenary of ANZAC in the second Rudd ministry.
Snowdon is a member of the Left faction of the Labor Party.
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