Australia in the War of 1939–1945 is a 22-volume official history series covering Australian involvement in the Second World War. The series was published by the Australian War Memorial between 1952 and 1977, most of the volumes being edited by Gavin Long, who also wrote three volumes and the summary volume The Six Year War.
In contrast to the Official History of Australia in the War of 1914–1918, the series has a greater focus on the war's impact upon domestic events, including volumes on operations of the Australian Government and contributions made by Australian industry and science. Australia in the War of 1939–1945 includes a series on the history of the Australian military medical services and the problems encountered by these services during the war.
|Australia in the War of 1939–1945|
A. G. Butler (right), Gavin Long (centre) and Allan S. Walker (left) discuss a manuscript in the Australian War Memorial library in 1945
|Author||Gavin Long (general editor)
|Subject||Military history of Australia in World War II|
|Publisher||Australian War Memorial|
|Preceded by||Official History of Australia in the War of 1914–1918|
|Followed by||Australia in the Korean War 1950–53|
In April 1943 the Australian War Cabinet decided that an official history of Australia's involvement in World War II should be written. Gavin Long was appointed general editor of the prospective series on the recommendation of C.E.W. Bean, the editor of the Official History of Australia in the War of 1914–1918, in January 1943. Long presented a provisional plan of the series to the War Cabinet which approved it in July 1943. It was envisaged that the series would consist of 14 volumes, each of about 500 pages. Long's provisional plan stated that the series' purpose was
a. to crystallise the facts once and for all for any subsequent use
b. to establish a story that will carry conviction in other countries
c. to satisfy the men who took part that the history is an adequate memorial of their efforts and sacrifices.— Gavin Long, 1944
The War Cabinet approved a revised plan shortly after the end of the war and after further refinements in 1950, it was decided that the series would comprise 22 volumes. These works mainly covered the operations of the Australian armed forces and the only technical volumes covered medical services; sub-series on domestic politics and the war economy were included. Some senior officers advocated volumes covering military logistics and administration but without success. Long proposed a volume on Australian strategic policy, including negotiations with the British and United States governments but this was rejected by the Australian government on the grounds that it could be detrimental to postwar policy. In 1982 the Australian War Memorial jointly published David Horner's book High Command. Australia and Allied Strategy 1939–1945 which was marketed as being "the book which Prime Minister John Curtin directed the official historian not to write".
Gavin Long selected the authors of the series, and these appointments were approved by a government committee. Long required that the authors have "some or all of three positive qualifications: experience of the events, proved ability to write lucidly and engagingly, [and] training as a historian". It was also decided that authors would not be able to write on topics in which they had played a leading part during the war. Selecting and engaging authors took up much of Long's time, and some potential authors declined offers of appointment. A replacement author for Chester Wilmot's volume on the Siege of Tobruk and Battle of El Alamein also had to be found in 1954 after he was killed in a plane crash. Once selected by Long, authors were confirmed by a committee comprising the Prime Minister, two or three other ministers and the Leader of the Opposition. Long and the general editor of the medical series were salaried and the other authors signed contracts to complete their work within a specified time frame and were paid in instalments as parts of their work were delivered. Of the 13 principal authors, five were academics and five were journalists. The official historians were supported by salaried research assistants who were members of the Australian Public Service and the project was administered by the Department of the Interior. Long retired in 1963, and his assistant Bill Sweeting assumed the role of editor.
While the series was funded by the Australian Government, the authors were free to write on all topics other than technical secrets that were classified at the time, and were not otherwise censored. In line with a request by the US and British governments, the official historians in Australia, Britain, Canada, New Zealand and the US were not given access to Ultra intelligence gained from decrypting German codes. The vetting process for the volumes in the various series also sought to ensure that they did not disclose that German codes had been broken, as this was still classified at the time. Long may have not even been informed that German or Japanese codes had been broken. The authors were given unrestricted access to all other official records, and the Army, Navy and Air series were mainly based on these records and the hundreds of interviews Long had conducted with Australian military personnel during the war. German, Italian and Japanese records were also used to provide information on the enemies the Australian military fought. Draft chapters were sent for comment to the official historians in Britain, New Zealand and the United States.
The series was written to be read by a general audience. It aimed to provide the general populace with a comprehensive account of Australia's role in the war, including coverage of the 'home front' and industrial and medical aspects of the war. The series also had a nationalistic motivation, which was in line with Long's goal of it ensuring that Australia's role was not overshadowed by that of Britain and the United States. Long believed that this motivation was shared by the official historians for the other Dominion countries.
The 22 volumes were published by the Australian War Memorial between 1952 and 1977, with most books being completed and released in the 1950s and early 1960s. The publishing company Collins began a project to print the series with new introductions by modern scholars in the 1980s after the University of Queensland Press reprinted the Official History of Australia in the War of 1914–1918. The project was terminated after the first three volumes in the Army series and both volumes in the Navy series were reprinted.
The 22 volumes in Australia in the War of 1939–1945 were organised into five series. Gavin Long edited the Army, Navy, Air and Civil series and Allan S. Walker edited the Medical series and wrote most of the volumes on this topic. The series also included a concise history of Australia's role in the war, which was written by Long and titled The Six Years War.
G. Hermon Gill wrote both the volumes in the series on the Royal Australian Navy's activities. Gill was a journalist who had served in the RAN's Naval Intelligence Division and Naval Historical Records section during the war. He was more successful than most of the other authors in placing his subject in the global context in which it operated, though on occasions he exaggerated the RAN's importance in Australia's war effort. The two volumes in the naval series were published in 1957 and 1969.
Gill's account of the battle between HMAS Sydney and the German auxiliary cruiser Kormoran in November 1941 has been criticised by some authors who view it as being part of an official cover-up, but Gill reached his conclusions independently and without censorship and his account of the battle is generally considered to have been as accurate as possible given that little evidence was available on the events that led to Sydney being sunk with the loss of her entire crew. Naval historian and Anglican Bishop to the Australian Defence Force Tom Frame has argued that while Gill "was a man of integrity" and not influenced by the Navy, his account of the battle is "bad history" as it is contradictory and "went beyond the reliable and corroborated evidence which was available to him".
The Air series covers the operations of the Royal Australian Air Force during the war, including the experiences of thousands of members of the RAAF who were trained through the Empire Air Training Scheme (EATS) and served with the Royal Air Force. The series was written by Douglas Gillison who was regarded as Australia's leading aviation journalist and served in the RAAF during the war, George Odgers, a journalist who had served in the Army and Air Force and John Herrington, a trained historian who had served in RAF and RAAF maritime patrol squadrons. Odgers' volume covered only RAAF operations against Japan, Gillison and Herington covered the diverse experiences of the EATS graduates who served in over 500 British squadrons. Herington wrote a comprehensive short history of British air warfare, with a focus on the small number of Australian squadrons and the main activities of Australian personnel in RAF units. Gillison and Herington also wrote about how EATS operated and its implications for Australia. Herington's account of EATS is generally considered superior to that provided by Gillison, whose account is regarded as relatively uncritical of the scheme.
Long considered the inclusion of Ernest Scott's volume on Australia during the War to be an "unorthodox characteristic" of Bean's series, but by the time Long started planning the Second World War series there was no doubt that volumes on the "Home front" would be included. Like Scott's volume, these took the longest to write. The first, Paul Hasluck's The Government and the People, 1939–1941 appeared in 1952, but Hasluck was elected as the member for Curtin at the 1949 election, and served as a cabinet minister until 1969. His ministerial duties delayed the second volume, which was not published until after Hasluck became Governor-General. Hasluck's ability to provide an unbiased account when he was a Liberal politician did not escape critical comment, but historians tend to judge his work as "fair and accurate". In the end, Hasluck's biases tended to be personal rather than partisan. He admired John Curtin as a fellow Western Australian and Robert Menzies as a fellow Liberal, and clung to his belief in parliamentary democracy despite its near demise during the war.
The economic volumes by Sydney Butlin suffered a similar fate; after the first volume appeared in 1955, Butlin became increasing involved in administration at the University of Sydney. The second volume, co-authored with Boris Schedvin, finally appeared shortly before Butlin's death in 1977. The other volume of the series, David Mellor's The Role of Science and Industry, was the most unusual volume of all, and still stands unique in Australian official war histories in its subject, although Mellor was criticised for hewing too closely to the views of his sources, particularly Major General John O'Brien, the Deputy Master General of the Ordnance.
Allan S. Walker was a pathology specialist who served with Australian Army medical units in both world wars and taught at the University of Sydney. He declined Long's initial invitation to write the Medical series in 1944, but accepted it after Long's second choice, Rupert Downes, was killed in 1945. While Downes had intended to engage a number of specialist authors, Walker regarded this a being impractical and wrote the series himself. Walker wrote the first three volumes and completed much of the work for the final volume before ill-health forced him to resign in 1956 and the book was completed by other writers. The five chapters on the experiences of women in the Army Medical Services in Volume IV are significant as they cover the first time large numbers of female members of the Australian military had been posted overseas. The medical volumes were written primarily for the benefit of practitioners of military medicine, but have a wider appeal as they contain military detail not found in other volumes. The books proved relatively popular, and were reprinted in the years after publication.
The Six Years War was Gavin Long's short history of Australia's role in World War II. In 1943 Long proposed producing a short history of Australia's role in the war as soon as possible after the war ended. This did not eventuate, however, and The Six Years War was the second last volume to be published. Long began work on the book in 1945 and continued on it throughout the official history project. The Six Years War is "derived almost entirely" from the work of the 13 authors of the official history series, and these authors drafted substantial parts of the book. While Long completed the book's manuscript in 1967, its publication was delayed until 1973 while the second volumes in the Navy and Civil series were completed. As a result, Long did not live to see the book published as he died in October 1968.
Australia in the War of 1939–1945 had less of an impact on later Australian histories of World War II than the Official History of Australia in the War of 1914–1918 has had on histories of World War I. The series has been criticised as lacking the authority of Bean's work and some of the volumes on campaigns are regarded as over-detailed. The volumes dealing with government and politics and the war economy remain dominant in their fields, however. Bean's history has also out-sold the World War II series. While Gavin Long's achievement has not received the same degree of recognition as C.E.W. Bean's, both series are generally seen has having created an important tradition for Australian official histories which includes high standards of accuracy, comprehensiveness and literary skill.
The lack of footnotes to the official documents and other primary sources consulted by the official historians were identified as a shortcoming of the series by some reviewers. For instance, in a generally positive review of Royal Australian Air Force, 1939–1942 James C. Olson stated that "Although the author had access to official documents and obviously made extensive use of them, he seldom cites documentary sources- a serious shortcoming, particularly in the absence of a bibliography". Similarly, USAAF official historian Robert F. Futrell noted in his review of Air War Against Japan 1943–1945 that "While the author acknowledges the official collection of the RAAF War History Section as his principal source, the volume contains no bibliography, or essay on sources, and footnote citations are unusually sparse. This lack of exact documentation reduces the value of the history to serious military scholars, who may well wish to evaluate the author's facts in terms of their source". The next official military history series commissioned by the Australian Government, Australia in the Korean War 1950–53 (published between 1981 and 1985), included footnotes to primary sources.
The level of detail in the series was also considered excessive by some reviewers. While British official historian Stephen Roskill regarded Royal Australian Navy, 1942–1945 as being "well written, excellently illustrated and produced, and provided with a good index", he also stated that it was "perhaps too detailed for the general reader". In his unfavorable review of The Final Campaigns Louis Morton, who wrote a volume in the official history of the US Army in World War II, judged that "even the student of military affairs and of World War II will find this meticulous account of operations that had little bearing on the final outcome far too detailed". In 1992, Australian historian Peter Stanley suggested the New Guinea Offensives' length and highly detailed narrative may have contributed to the fighting in New Guinea during 1943 and 1944 being little known amongst the general public and neglected by other historians.
While much has been written on C.E.W. Bean and the other authors of the Official History of Australia in the War of 1914–1918, there has to date been little research published on how Australia in the War of 1939–1945 was written and the experiences of Long and the other authors.
The 2/22nd Battalion was an infantry battalion of the Australian Army. Raised as part of the Second Australian Imperial Force for service during World War II, the battalion formed part of the 23rd Brigade, attached to the 8th Division. It was captured by the Japanese during the Battle of Rabaul in 1942. After being captured, the battalion was not re-raised and a large number of its personnel died in captivity; those that did not were returned to Australia at the end of the war in 1945.ANZAC Squadron
The ANZAC Squadron, also called the Allied Naval Squadron, was an Allied naval warship task force which was tasked with defending northeast Australia and surrounding area in early 1942 during the Pacific Campaign of World War II. The squadron, consisting of cruisers and destroyers from the navies of Australia, New Zealand, and the United States was formed on February 12, 1942, under the command of Royal Navy Rear Admiral John Gregory Crace. The squadron was the primary fleet element operating in the ANZAC Area under the overall command of United States Navy Vice Admiral Herbert Fairfax Leary.
On 9 March, the squadron, as part of Task Force 11 known as Task Group 11.7, covered the Louisiade Archipelago, securing the right hand flank of Task Force 11 and Task Force 17 for the attack on Lae and Salamaua due to the Imperial Japanese invasion of Lae-Salamaua, New Guinea and also covering a Port Moresby reinforcement convoy. On April 22, 1942, the ANZAC Force was absorbed by the South West Pacific Area (command) under United States Army General Douglas MacArthur and the ANZAC Squadron was redesignated as Task Force 44. The New Zealand cruisers passed to the control of the South Pacific Area.Advisory War Council
The Advisory War Council (AWC) was an Australian Government body during World War II. The AWC was established on 28 October 1940 to draw all the major political parties in the Parliament of Australia into the process of making decisions on Australia's war effort and was disbanded on 30 August 1945.Allan S. Walker
Allan Seymour Walker (19 June 1887 – 8 January 1958) was an Australian Army officer who served in First and Second World Wars, a medical practitioner, and a military and medical historian who wrote the four medical volumes of the official history series Australia in the War of 1939–1945.Australian Commonwealth Naval Board
The Australian Commonwealth Naval Board was the governing authority over the Royal Australian Navy from its inception and through World Wars I and II. The board was established on 1 March 1911 and consisted of civilian members of the Australian government as well as naval officers.Australian home front during World War II
Although most Australian civilians lived far from the front line of World War II, the Australian home front during World War II played a significant role in the Allied victory and led to permanent changes to Australian society.
During the war the Australian Government greatly expanded its powers in order to better direct the war effort, and Australia's industrial and human resources were focused on supporting the Allied armed forces. While there were only a relatively small number of attacks on civilian targets, many Australians feared that the country would be invaded during the early years of the Pacific War.Battle of Noemfoor
The Battle of Noemfoor was a battle of World War II that took place on the island of Noemfoor, in Dutch New Guinea, between 2 July and 31 August 1944. United States and Australian forces attacked to capture Japanese bases on the island.Edward Milford
Major General Edward James Milford (10 December 1894 – 10 June 1972) was an Australian Army officer who fought in the First and the Second World Wars.
Born in Melbourne, Milford graduated from the Royal Military College in 1915. Commissioned as a lieutenant in the Australian Imperial Force, he served with the Field Artillery of the 2nd Division for most of the First World War. Remaining in the military for the interwar period, he held a number of postings in ordnance and artillery in Australia and England. During the early years of the Second World War, he served as master-general of the ordnance. He later commanded the 5th and 7th Divisions during the New Guinea and Borneo campaigns. He accepted the surrender of Japanese forces in Dutch Borneo on 8 September 1945. He retired from the army in 1948, due to an illness which was later found to be a misdiagnosis, and died in 1972 at the age of 77.First Australian Army
The First Australian Army was a field army of the Australian Army, during World War II. The formation's headquarters was raised in April 1942 from the existing 1st Australian Corps headquarters, assuming command of all Allied troops in Queensland. Initially, the formation was assigned a defensive role in anticipation of a possible Japanese invasion; however, this threat subsided and eventually the army was deployed to Lae, in New Guinea, in late 1944, where it co-ordinated Australian offensives around Aitape, in New Guinea, on New Britain and Bougainville, and around Madang. The formation was disbanded in February 1946, when it was redesignated as the 8th Military District.G. Hermon Gill
Commander George Hermon Gill, (8 March 1895 – 27 February 1973) was a Royal Australian Navy officer, mariner, journalist and naval historian who wrote the two volumes on the Royal Australian Navy in the official history series Australia in the War of 1939–1945.Gavin Long
Gavin Merrick Long (31 May 1901 – 10 October 1968) was an Australian journalist and military historian. He was the general editor of the official history series Australia in the War of 1939–1945 and the author of three of its 22 volumes.George Odgers
George James Odgers (1916–2008) was an Australian soldier, journalist and military historian. Odgers served in the Australian Army as a private soldier and non-commissioned officer; and later in the Royal Australian Air Force becoming a group captain. He was one of the authors of the official history of Australia in World War II, Australia in the War of 1939–1945.I Corps (Australia)
I Corps was an Australian Army corps, one of three that were raised by the Army during World War II. It was the main Australian operational corps for much of the war. Various Australian and other Allied divisions came under its control at different times. In 1940–1942, the corps was based in the Mediterranean and Middle Eastern theatres, and controlled forces in action against the Germans, Italians and later the Vichy French in North Africa, Greece and Syria–Lebanon.
In 1942, following Japan's entry into the war, I Corps was transferred to the South West Pacific Area. Forces assigned to the corps undertook garrison duties in Ceylon, and briefly deployed to the ill-fated defence of Java in 1942, before returning to Australia. Between late 1942 and 1945, the corps oversaw Allied frontline units fighting against the Japanese in New Guinea and then Borneo in 1945.Lionel Wigmore
Lionel Gage Wigmore (14 March 1899 – 8 November 1989) was an Australian journalist and military historian. He was an author of a number of books on aspects of Australian history, including one of the volumes of the official history series Australia in the War of 1939–1945.List of Royal Australian Air Force groups
This is a list of all the groups the Royal Australian Air Force has organised since it was established.List of Royal Australian Air Force wings
This is a list of the wings organised by the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF).No. 71 Wing RAAF
No. 71 Wing was a Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) wing of World War II. It was formed in February 1943 at Milne Bay, Papua New Guinea, as part of No. 9 Operational Group. The wing initially comprised two squadrons of P-40 Kittyhawks, one of Lockheed Hudsons, and one of Bristol Beauforts. The wing's mainstay soon became the Beaufort, which eventually equipped five squadrons attached to the formation. No. 71 Wing took part in the New Guinea campaign under the auspices of No. 9 Group, before transferring to No. 10 Operational Group for the Western New Guinea campaign during 1944. It then returned to the control of Northern Command (formerly No. 9 Group) to support Australian ground forces in the Aitape–Wewak campaign, and completed its final combat mission only hours before the Japanese surrender in August 1945. No. 71 Wing remained in New Guinea following the war and was disbanded in January 1946.Rupert Downes
Major General Rupert Major Downes, (10 February 1885 – 5 March 1945) was an Australian soldier, general, surgeon and historian in the first half of the 20th century. Downes attended the University of Melbourne, graduating with his medical degrees in 1907. He returned to the university to pursue a Doctor of Medicine degree, which was awarded in 1911.
The son of British Army officer Major Francis Downes, Downes joined the Army as a trumpeter while he was still at school. He was commissioned as a captain in the Australian Army Medical Corps in 1908, and joined the First Australian Imperial Force (AIF) in 1914 as its youngest lieutenant colonel. He served in the Gallipoli campaign, and was appointed Assistant Director of Medical Services (ADMS) of the newly formed ANZAC Mounted Division in 1916, which he combined with the post of ADMS AIF Egypt. In 1917, he became Deputy Director of Medical Services (DDMS) of the Desert Mounted Corps. After the war, he wrote articles on medical aspects of the Sinai and Palestine Campaign, and the section on the campaign for the official history.
Returning to Australia, Downes became an honorary consulting surgeon at the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne and Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, and honorary surgeon at Prince Henry's Hospital. He became a foundation fellow of the College of Surgeons of Australasia in 1927, and president of the Victorian branch of the British Medical Association in 1935. He lectured on medical ethics at the University of Melbourne, writing the course textbook. He was also Victorian State Commissioner of the St. John Ambulance Brigade, which he led for 25 years, and was president of the St John Ambulance Association for eight years.
In 1934 Downes became Director General of Medical Services, the Australian Army's most senior medical officer, with the rank of major general. He oversaw the construction of major military hospitals in the capital cities. In 1944 he accepted a commission to edit the medical series volumes of the Official History of Australia in the War of 1939–1945 but was never able to do so as he was killed in a plane crash in 1945.Second Australian Imperial Force
The Second Australian Imperial Force (Second, or 2nd, AIF) was the name given to the volunteer personnel of the Australian Army in World War II. Under the Defence Act (1903), neither the part-time Militia nor the full-time Permanent Military Force (PMF) could serve outside Australia or its territories unless they volunteered to do so. The Second AIF fought against Nazi Germany, Italy, Vichy France and Japan. After the war, Australia's wartime military structures were demobilised and the 2nd AIF was disbanded, although a small cadre of its personnel became part of the Interim Army that was established in 1947, and from which the Australian Regular Army was formed in 1948.