Aulus Bucius Lappius Maximus

Aulus Bucius Lappius Maximus was a Roman senator who flourished during the Flavian dynasty; Brian W. Jones considers him one of Domitian's amici or advisors.[1] He held the consulate twice. He is primarily known through inscriptions.

The polyonymy of his name indicates an adoption; according to Olli Salomies, he was born a Lappius Maximus adopted by an Aulus Bucius. Salomies also notes that "all A. Lappii seem to have something to do with the senator".[2] Ronald Syme notes the gentilicum "'Lappius' is very rare."[3]

The career of Lappius Maximus included being proconsular governor of Bithynia et Pontus during 83/84[4] prior to being consul for the first time for the nundinium September–December 86 with Gaius Octavius Tidius Tossianus Lucius Javolenus Priscus as his colleague.[5] Then he was consular legate of Germania Inferior during 87 to 89,[6] during which time he assisted in crushing the revolt of Lucius Antonius Saturninus in the adjacent province of Germania Superior. Afterwards he was immediately assigned to the consular legateship of Syria from 89 to 92,[7] before holding the fasces a second time for the nundinium May–August 95 with Publius Ducenius Verus as his colleague.[8]

Salomies writes that Lappia A.f. Tertulla, mentioned in a Roman inscription (CIL VI, 31106) "is probably this man's daughter".[2]


  1. ^ Jones, The Emperor Domitian (London: Routlege, 1993), p. 59
  2. ^ a b Salomies, Adoptive and polyonymous nomenclature in the Roman Empire (Helsinki: Societas Scientiarum Fenica, 1992), p. 95
  3. ^ Syme, Tacitus (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1958), p. 647
  4. ^ Werner Eck, "Jahres- und Provinzialfasten der senatorischen Statthalter von 69/70 bis 138/139", Chiron, 12 (1982), pp. 307f
  5. ^ Paul Gallivan, "The Fasti for A. D. 70-96", Classical Quarterly, 31 (1981), pp. 190, 216
  6. ^ Eck, "Jahres- und Provinzialfasten", p. 314
  7. ^ Eck, "Jahres- und Provinzialfasten", pp. 316-319
  8. ^ Gallivan, "The Fasti", pp. 192, 218
Political offices
Preceded by
Sextus Octavius Fronto,
and Tiberius Julius Candidus Marius Celsus

as Suffect consuls
Suffect consul of the Roman Empire
with Gaius Octavius Tidius Tossianus Lucius Javolenus Priscus
Succeeded by
Domitian XIII,
and Lucius Volusius Saturninus

as Ordinary consuls
Preceded by
Lucius Neratius Marcellus,
and Titus Flavius Clemens

as Ordinary consuls
Suffect consul of the Roman Empire
with Publius Ducenius Verus
Succeeded by
Quintus Pomponius Rufus,
and Lucius Baebius Tullus

as Suffect consuls

Domitian (; Latin: Titus Flavius Caesar Domitianus Augustus; 24 October 51 – 18 September AD 96) was Roman emperor from 81 to 96. He was the younger brother of Titus and the son of Vespasian, his two predecessors on the throne, and the last member of the Flavian dynasty. During his reign, the authoritarian nature of his rule put him at sharp odds with the senate, whose powers he drastically curtailed.

Domitian had a minor and largely ceremonial role during the reigns of his father and brother. After the death of his brother, Domitian was declared emperor by the Praetorian Guard. His 15-year reign was the longest since that of Tiberius. As emperor, Domitian strengthened the economy by revaluing the Roman coinage, expanded the border defenses of the empire, and initiated a massive building program to restore the damaged city of Rome. Significant wars were fought in Britain, where his general Agricola attempted to conquer Caledonia (Scotland), and in Dacia, where Domitian was unable to procure a decisive victory against king Decebalus. Domitian's government exhibited strong authoritarian characteristics; he saw himself as the new Augustus, an enlightened despot destined to guide the Roman Empire into a new era of brilliance. Religious, military, and cultural propaganda fostered a cult of personality, and by nominating himself perpetual censor, he sought to control public and private morals. As a consequence, Domitian was popular with the people and army, but considered a tyrant by members of the Roman Senate.

Domitian's reign came to an end in 96 when he was assassinated by court officials. He was succeeded the same day by his advisor Nerva. After his death, Domitian's memory was condemned to oblivion by the Roman Senate, while senatorial authors such as Tacitus, Pliny the Younger, and Suetonius propagated the view of Domitian as a cruel and paranoid tyrant. Modern revisionists instead have characterized Domitian as a ruthless but efficient autocrat whose cultural, economic, and political programs provided the foundation of the peaceful second century.

Gaius Octavius Tidius Tossianus Lucius Javolenus Priscus

Gaius Octavius Tidius Tossianus Lucius Javolenus Priscus was a Roman senator and jurist who flourished during the Flavian dynasty. Many of his judgments are quoted in the Digest. Priscus served as suffect consul for the nundinium (period) September–December 86 AD as the colleague of Aulus Bucius Lappius Maximus.

List of Roman governors of Germania Inferior

This is a list of Roman governors of Germania Inferior (and Germania Secunda from 395 until the deposition of Romulus Augustulus in 476). Capital and largest city of Germania Inferior was Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium (CCAA), modern-day Cologne.

List of Roman governors of Syria

This is a list of governors of the Roman province of Syria. From 27 BC, the province was governed by an imperial legate of praetorian rank. The province was merged with Roman Judaea in 135 AD to form Syria Palaestina until 193 AD when it was divided into Syria Coele and Syria Phoenicia. In c. 415 AD, Syria Coele was divided into Syria Prima and Syria Secunda. During the reign of Theodosius I (379 – 395), Syria Phoenicia was divided into Phoenicia Maritima and Phoenicia Libanensis.

Lucius Neratius Marcellus

Lucius Neratius Marcellus (fl. 1st century – 2nd century AD) was an imperial Roman military officer and senator who held a number of posts in the Emperor's service. Marcellus was elected consul twice, first under Domitian in 95 AD and again under Hadrian in 129. His life provides several examples of how patronage operated in early Imperial Rome.

He was a consul in 95 AD, succeeding the Emperor Domitian, and again in 129. He served as a military tribune with the Legio XII Fulminata. He is the first person attested to have held the position of recorder of the minutes of the Senate. He was Governor of Britannia from 101 to 104. This was a period when the under-garrisoned province was under pressure from restless tribes. Marcellus supervised a stabilisation of the situation which included a withdrawal from the Antonine Wall to what was later to become the line of Hadrian's Wall.

Lucius Volusius Saturninus (consul 87)

Lucius Volusius Saturninus was a Roman Senator who lived in the 1st century. He served as an ordinary consul in 87, as the colleague of the emperor Domitian. He is known entirely from inscriptions.

Saturninus was a patrician status, one of three known children of Quintus Volusius Saturninus and his wife Nonia Torquata; the others included Quintus Volusius Saturninus, consul of 92, and Volusia Torquata. According to inscriptional evidence, his wife was a patrician named Licinia Cornelia. Licinia and Saturninus had a son called Lucius Volusius Torquatus.

Quintus Pomponius Rufus

Quintus Pomponius Rufus was a Roman senator active in the imperial service; he was governor during the reigns of the emperors Domitian and Trajan. Rufus was also suffect consul for the nundinium September-December AD 95 as the colleague of Lucius Baebius Tullus. Pomponius Rufus is known primarily from inscriptions.

Sextus Octavius Fronto

Sextus Octavius Fronto was a Roman senator and a military figure, who held a number of offices in the emperor's service. He was suffect consul in the nundinium of May-August 86 with Tiberius Julius Candidus Marius Celsus as his colleague. Martial addressed one of his epigrams to Fronto, wherein he describes Fronto as "an ornament of military and civil life".Only fragments of the cursus honorum of Fronto are known. For the praetorian portion of his career, he is known to have been legatus or commander of Legio I Adiutrix, while for the consular portion Fronto is known to have been governor of Lower Moesia; Werner Eck dates his tenure from the year 89 to 93.

Tiberius Julius Candidus Marius Celsus

Tiberius Julius Candidus Marius Celsus was a Roman senator who lived during the Flavian dynasty. Contemporary sources, such as the Fasti Ostienses, the Acta Arvalia and a letter of Pliny the Younger (Ep. V.20.5), refer to him as Tiberius Julius Candidus. He was twice consul.

Ronald Syme argues that Candidus, although said to be from Narbonensis, was in fact from Asia Minor, and the "Tiberius Julius" portion of his name suggests that an ancestor acquired Roman citizenship between AD 4 and 37. "Thus a co-eval of Candidus: Ti. Julius Celsus Polemnus of Sardis, consul suffect in 92." The remainder of Candidus' name, "Marius Celsus", Syme explains as evidence that either he was born as Marius Celsus and adopted by a Julius Candidus, or born a Julius Candidus whose father married into the family of the Marii Celsi; Syme appears to favor the latter explanation. Olli Salomies sets forth the evidence in his monograph on Roman naming practices, but provides no interpretation beyond stating that "it is obvious that Iulius Candidus had something to do with A. Marius Celsus, cos. suff. in 69".The first record of Candidus is as a member of the Arval Brethren, which he may have been made a member in AD 72, or as late as 75, and appears at each ceremony until 81. From his absence from the activities of the Arval Brethren starting in January and May 86, Syme speculates Candidus was in the company of the Emperor Domitian during his military campaigns. Later that year, in the nundinium of May-August he served as suffect consul as the colleague of Sextus Octavius Fronto. Three years later, Candidus was selected to be governor of the important province of Cappadocia-Galatia and completed his term in 92. More recently Peter Weiß has published a military diploma which attests to Candidus' appointment as governor of an undetermined province (most likely one of the Germanies or Dacias) at some point between July 96 and the beginning of January 97. He was appointed consul a second time in 105, as ordinary consul with Gaius Antius Aulus Julius Quadratus, who also enjoyed a second consulship.Candidus lived many years after his second consulship. He is mentioned as present in the Acta Arvalia in AD 110 and 111; another inscription attests he was a flamen for the Brethren in 118.

Titus Flavius Clemens (consul)

For the early Christian theologian, see Pope Clement I.Titus Flavius T. f. T. n. Clemens was a nephew of the Roman Emperor Vespasian. He was the son of Titus Flavius Sabinus, consul suffectus in AD 69, and a brother of Titus Flavius Sabinus, consul in AD 82. The emperors Titus and Domitian were his cousins.

As a child, Clemens was besieged along with his family in the capitol, when the soldiers of his uncle, Vespasian, were approaching Rome. His father was captured and slain by the forces of Vitellius, who burnt the capitol, but the rest of the family escaped.

Clemens' brother was consul with Domitian, shortly after the latter's accession, but the emperor put his cousin to death on the pretext that the herald proclaiming him consul had called him Imperator. In fact, the emperor was more likely motivated by his love for his cousin's wife, Julia Flavia (who, as the daughter of his brother Titus, was also his niece).Clemens also married one of his cousins, Flavia Domitilla, daughter of Vespasian's daughter, Domitilla, who was thus also a niece of Domitian. They had two sons, whom Domitian intended to succeed him in the empire, renaming one of them Vespasian and the other Domitian. However, in AD 95, when Clemens and the emperor were consuls, Domitian had his cousin put to death.According to Cassius Dio, Clemens was put to death on a charge of atheism, for which, he adds, many others who went over to the Jewish opinions were executed. This may imply that Clemens had converted to Judaism or Christianity, the former being more likely, and accompanied by circumcision. For the same reason, his wife was banished to Pandataria.To this Clemens in all probability is dedicated the Basilica of San Clemente al Laterano, on the Caelian hill, which is believed to have been built originally in the fifth century, although its site is now occupied by a more recent, though very ancient, structure. In the year 1725 Cardinal Annibal Albani found under this church an inscription in honour of Flavius Clemens, martyr, which is described in a work called T. Flavii Clementis Viri Consularis et Martyris Tumulus illustratis. Some connect Clemens with Clemens Romanus, perhaps the author of the Epistle to the Corinthians.

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