Aulacigastridae

Aulacigastridae is a very small family of flies known as sap flies. The family Stenomicridae used to be included within this family, but was moved by Papp in 1984. They are found in all the Ecoregions.

Aulacigastridae

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Scientific classification
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Phylum:
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Aulacigastridae

Duda, 1921
Genera

Aulacigaster Macquart, 1835

Synonyms

Aulacigastreridae

Description

For terms see Morphology of Diptera.

Aulacigastrids are small black flies.The head is rounded. Postvertical bristles and ocellar bristles are absent, there are two orbital bristles on each side of frons, the anterior orbital bristle directed forward and towards median line. Vibrissae are well developed.On the mesonotum there are two pairs of dorsocentral bristles. The costa is interrupted near the subcosta (which reaches the costa).The posterior basal wing cell and discoidal wing cell are fused and the anal vein does not reach the margin of the wings.

Biology

The larvae of sap flies feed on the sap of deciduous and coniferous trees (sap runs) and feed on micro-organisms within the sap. Adults feed on nectar, and other fermenting substances.

Species Lists

Identification

  • Duda. 1934. Aulacigastridae. In Lindner, In: Lindner, E. (Ed.). Die Fliegen der palaearktischen Region 6,1,58c, 1-5. Keys to Palaearctic species but now needs revision (in German).
  • Shtakel'berg, A.A. Family Aulacigastridae in Bei-Bienko, G. Ya, 1988 Keys to the insects of the European Part of the USSR Volume 5 (Diptera) Part 2 English edition.Keys to Palaearctic species but now needs revision.

Phylogeny

  Opomyzoidea  

 Clusioinea (Clusiidae[1])

 Agromyzoinea (Odiniidae+Fergusoninidae+Agromyzidae)

 Opomyzoinea (Opomyzidae+Anthomyzidae)

  Asteioinea  

 Neurochaetidae+Aulacigastridae+Periscelididae

 Teratomyzidae

 Xenasteiidae

 Asteiidae

References

  1. ^ Nello schema di McAlpine, i Clusiidae sono in relazione con il genere Acartophthalmus, che secondo l'analisi cladistica di Buck (2006) va collocato nel clade dei Carnoidea. Vedi Acartophthalmidae.
  • Mathis, W. N., Freidberg, A. A, 1994 Revision of the Nearctic Aulacigaster Macquart with notes on A. leucopeza (Meigen) from the Palearctic Region (Diptera, Aulacigastridae) Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 96 :583–598 online

External links

Acalyptratae

The Acalyptratae or Acalyptrata are a subsection of the Schizophora, which are a section of the order Diptera, the "true flies". In various contexts the Acalyptratae also are referred to informally as the acalyptrate muscoids, or acalyptrates, as opposed to the Calyptratae. All forms of the name refer to the lack of calypters in the members of this subsection of flies. An alternative name, Acalypterae is current, though in minority usage. It was first used by Justin Pierre Marie Macquart in 1835 for a section of his tribe Muscides; he used it to refer to all acalyptrates plus scathophagids and phorids, but excluding Conopidae.

The confusing forms of the names stem from their first usage; Acalyptratae and Acalyptrata actually are adjectival forms in New Latin. They were coined in the mid 19th century in contexts such as "Muscae Calyptratae and Acalyptratae" and "Diptera Acalyptrata", and the forms stuck.The Acalyptratae are a large assemblage, exhibiting very diverse habits, with one notable and perhaps surprising exception: no known acalyptrates are obligate blood-feeders (hematophagous), though blood feeding at various stages of the life history is common throughout other Dipteran sections.

Asilomorpha

The Brachyceran infraorder Asilomorpha is a large and diverse group of flies, containing the bulk of the nonmuscoid Brachycera. The larvae of asilomorphs are extremely diverse in habits, as well.

Asteiidae

Asteiidae is a small but widespread family of acalyptrate flies or Diptera. About 130 species in 10 genera have been described worldwide. They are rarely collected.

Calyptratae

Calyptratae is a subsection of Schizophora in the insect order Diptera, commonly referred to as the calyptrate muscoids (or simply calyptrates). It consists of those flies which possess a calypter that covers the halteres, among which are some of the most familiar of all flies, such as the house fly.

About 18,000 described species are in this group, or about 12% of all the flies yet described.

Carnoidea

Carnoidea are a superfamily of Acalyptratae flies.

Chironomoidea

The Chironomoidea are a superfamily within the order Diptera, suborder Nematocera, infraorder Culicomorpha. This superfamily contains the families Chironomidae, Ceratopogonidae, Simuliidae, and Thaumaleidae. One of the more important characteristics used to define them is the form of the larval mouthparts.

Culicoidea

The Culicoidea are a superfamily within the order Diptera. The following families are included within the Culicoidea:

Dixidae – meniscus midges

Corethrellidae – frog-biting midges

Chaoboridae – phantom midges

Culicidae – mosquitoes

Culicomorpha

The Culicomorpha are an infraorder of Nematocera, including mosquitoes, black flies, and several extant and extinct families of insects.

Lauxanioidea

The Lauxanioidea are a superfamily of flies that includes the two large families, the Lauxaniidae and Chamaemyiidae, and the small family Celyphidae. Generally, they are small to medium, densely populated, coloured flies. The Chamaemyiidae and Cremifaniidae live as parasites on insects. The family Celyphidae look like beetles.

Some authors also recognize the family Cremifaniidae, but most place this in the Chamaemyiidae.

Muscoidea

Muscoidea is a superfamily of flies in the subsection Calyptratae. Muscoidea, with approximately 7000 described species, is nearly 5% of the known species level diversity of the Diptera, the true flies. Most muscoid flies are saprophagous, coprophagous or necrophagous as larvae, but some species are parasitic, predatory, or phytophagous.

Oestroidea

Oestroidea is a superfamily of Calyptratae including the blow flies, bot flies, flesh flies, and their relatives.The superfamily includes the families:

Calliphoridae

Mesembrinellidae (formerly included in Calliphoridae)

Mystacinobiidae

Oestridae

Rhiniidae (formerly included in Calliphoridae)

Rhinophoridae

Sarcophagidae

Tachinidae

Ulurumyiidae

Opomyzoidea

The Opomyzoidea are a superfamily of flies.

Periscelididae

Periscelididae is a family of flies.

Sciaroidea

Sciaroidea is a superfamily in the infraorder Bibionomorpha. There are about 16 families and more than 15,000 described species in Sciaroidea. Most of its constituent families are various gnats.

Sciomyzoidea

Sciomyzoidea is a superfamily of Acalyptratae flies.

The families placed here are:

Coelopidae – seaweed flies

Dryomyzidae

Helcomyzidae

Helosciomyzidae

Heterocheilidae

Ropalomeridae

Sepsidae – scavenger flies

Sciomyzidae – marsh flies, snail-killing flies (including Huttoninidae, Phaeomyiidae, Tetanoceridae)

Tabanoidea

Superfamily Tabanoidea are insects in the order Diptera.

Tephritoidea

The Tephritoidea are a superfamily of flies. The following families are included:

Pallopteridae — flutter flies

Piophilidae — skippers

Platystomatidae — signal flies

Pyrgotidae

Richardiidae

Tephritidae — fruit flies

Ulidiidae (Otitidae) — picture-winged fliesThe Tachiniscinae, formerly ranked as the family Tachiniscidae, are now included in the Tephritidae.

Tipuloidea

Tipuloidea is a superfamily of flies containing the living families Cylindrotomidae, Limoniidae, Pediciidae and Tipulidae, and the extinct families Architipulidae and Eolimnobiidae.At least 15,300 species of crane flies have been described, most of them (75%) by the specialist Charles Paul Alexander.

Tipulomorpha

The Tipulomorpha are an infraorder of Nematocera, containing the crane flies, a very large group, and allied families.

One recent classification based largely on fossils splits this group into a series of extinct superfamilies (below), and includes members of other infraorders, but this has not gained wide acceptance.

Extant Diptera families

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