Augustynolophus

Augustynolophus is an extinct genus of herbivorous saurolophine hadrosaur dinosaur which was discovered in the Moreno Formation in California,[1] dating to the late Maastrichtian age, making it one of the last dinosaurs known from the fossil record before the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event.[2]

Augustynolophus
Temporal range: Late Cretaceous, 70–66 Ma
Saurolophus morrisi
Holotype skull
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Clade: Dinosauria
Order: Ornithischia
Suborder: Ornithopoda
Family: Hadrosauridae
Subfamily: Saurolophinae
Genus: Augustynolophus
Prieto-Márquez et al., 2014
Species:
A. morrisi
Binomial name
Augustynolophus morrisi
Prieto-Márquez et al., 2014
Synonyms

Saurolophus morrisi (Prieto-Márquez, 2013)

History of discovery

Augustynolophus limbs
Pectoral and limb elements

The generic name derives from a combination of the Augustyn family, who helped support the Los Angeles County Museum, and the suffix "-lophus," referring to its relation to Saurolophus. The specific name refers to palaeontologist William Morris.[3] It was originally described as a species of Saurolophus, S. morrisi.[4][5] However, when a more in-depth study took place, the end results revealed that its cranial structure was vastly different when it was juxtaposed with the other known members of the tribe Saurolophini, most notably Saurolophus osborni[6][7][8] and Saurolophus angustirostris[9][10] and Prosaurolophus maximus[11] and therefore, it was determined to be a separate genus.

All known specimens of Augustynolophus have been found only in California, which was a part of Laramidia, arguably one of the best known locations for dinosaur fossils.[12] There are currently two known specimens of Augustynolophus. The holotype, LACM/CIT 2852, was unearthed in 1943. It consisted of the majority of the skull (including the dentary and predentary), vertebrae, and bones of the limb and hand. The second specimen was designated LACM/CIT 2760. Discovered in 1939, it was made up of elements of the skull and limbs. Due to its smaller size, it may have been a juvenile.[5][13] It is one of three known dinosaurs from western coast of the United States, the other two being the Campanian Aletopelta coombsi[14] and an undescribed species of tyrannosaur from Washington state.[15] However, indeterminate hadrosaur remains have been found throughout California and similar areas.[16][17]

In September 2017, Augustynolophus was declared the official state dinosaur of California.[18]

Paleobiology

Augustynolophus NT
Restoration

Like all species of hadrosaur, Augustynolophus morrisi was a herbivorous dinosaur which had a diet consisting of the plant life in the area, it was specialized to chew its food since hadrosaurs were one of the few known species of dinosaur that chewed its food.[19]

Paleoecology

Augustynolophus favcial and mandubular elements
Facial and mandibular elements

Very is little is known about the fauna found in the coastal states of Laramida,[20] which is a stark similarity to the neighboring island continent of Appalachia which was on the opposite side of the Western Interior Seaway, when juxtaposed to the western United States which has a history for of rich fossil finds, most notable examples include the Hell Creek Formation and the Two Medicine Formation.[21] However, like with Appalachia, where as the land fauna, most notably the dinosaurs, is not well studied and are not well known thanks to the vast majority of vegetation the covers the eastern United States[22] and some of the fossil formations were destroyed by glaciation during the Pleistocene ice age, though some of the fossil formations present in Appalachia have revealed what types of dinosaurs lived in that environment, but a lot of fossils of the marine life that inhabited the Western Interior Seaway, and other examples of prehistoric marine life, have been unearthed in large quantities in the eastern United States.[23][24][25][26]

However, despite the fact that dinosaur fossils are rare in California, the Moreno Formation is one of the more well studied Mesozoic geological formations in California and like Appalachia, it is more well known for the large amount of marine fossils as mentioned earlier.[27][28][29][30] While ammonite fossils are completely absent from the Moreno Formation, crustacean, algae and a multitude of diatom fossils have also been unearthed in Moreno Formation.[31][32][33][34][35]

See also

References

  1. ^ Sues, H.D.; Bell, P.R.; Evans, D.C. (2010). "Revision of the status of Saurolophus (Hadrosauridae) from California, USA". Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 47 (11): 1417–1426. doi:10.1139/e10-062.
  2. ^ Lehman, T.M. (1987). "Late Maastrichtian paleoenvironments and dinosaur biogeography in the western interior of North America". Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 60: 189–217. doi:10.1016/0031-0182(87)90032-0.
  3. ^ Prieto-Márquez, Albert; Wagner, Jonathan R.; Bell, Phil R.; Chiappe, Luis M. (2014). "The late-surviving 'duck-billed' dinosaur Augustynolophus from the upper Maastrichtian of western North America and crest evolution in Saurolophini". Geological Magazine. 152 (2): 225–241. doi:10.1017/S0016756814000284.
  4. ^ Morris, W.J. (1982). "California dinosaurs". In Bottjer, DJ; Colburn, IP; Cooper, JD (eds.). Late Cretaceous Depositional Environments and Paleogeography, Santa Ana Mountains, Southern California. Los Angeles: Pacific Section, Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists.
  5. ^ a b Prieto-Márquez, A.; Wagner, J.R. (2013). "A new species of saurolophine hadrosaurid dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous of the Pacific coast of North America". Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 58 (2): 255–268. doi:10.4202/app.2011.0049.
  6. ^ Brown, B. (1912). "A crested dinosaur from the Edmonton Cretaceous". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History: 131–136.
  7. ^ Brown, B. (1913). "The skeleton of Saurolophus, a crestedduck-billed dinosaur from the Edmonton Cretaceous". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 32: 387–393.
  8. ^ Bell, P.R. (February 2011). "Redescription of the skull of Saurolophus osborni Brown 1912 (Ornithischia: Hadrosauridae)". Cretaceous Research. 32 (1): 30–44. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2010.10.002.
  9. ^ Bell, P.R. (3 February 2012). "Standardized terminology and potential taxonomic utility for hadrosaurid skin impressions: a case study for Saurolophus from Canada and Mongolia". PLOS ONE. 7 (2): e31295. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0031295. PMC 3272031. PMID 22319623.
  10. ^ Bell, P.R. (2011). "Cranial Osteology and Ontogeny of Saurolophus angustirostris from the late Cretaceous of Mongolia with comments on Saurolophus osborni from Canada". Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 56 (4): 703–722. doi:10.4202/app.2010.0061.
  11. ^ McGarrity, Christopher T.; Campione, Nicolas E.; Evans, David C. (27 March 2013). "Cranial anatomy and variation in Prosaurolophus maximus (Dinosauria: Hadrosauridae)". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 167 (4): 531–568. doi:10.1111/zoj.12009.
  12. ^ Scott D. Sampson; Mark A. Loewen; Andrew A. Farke; Eric M. Roberts; Catherine A. Forster; Joshua A. Smith; Alan L. Titus (2010). Stepanova, Anna (ed.). "New Horned Dinosaurs from Utah Provide Evidence for Intracontinental Dinosaur Endemism". PLoS ONE. 5 (9): e12292. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0012292. PMC 2929175. PMID 20877459.
  13. ^ Hilton, Richard (2003). Dinosaurs and Other Mesozoic Reptiles of California. University of California Press. p. 264.
  14. ^ Ford, T.L. (1 October 2001). 12. Carlsbad Ankylosaur (Ornithischia, Ankylosauria): An Ankylosaurid and Not a Nodosaurid.= (1st ed.). Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press. pp. 239–258. ISBN 978-0253339645. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
  15. ^ Peecook, Brandon; Sidor, Christian (May 2015). "The First Dinosaur from Washington State and a Review of Pacific Coast Dinosaurs from North America". PLoS ONE. 10 (5): e0127792. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0127792. PMC 4439161. PMID 25993090. Retrieved 22 September 2016.
  16. ^ Morris, W.J. (May 1973). "A review of Pacific coast hadrosaurs". Journal of Paleontology. 47 (3): 551–561.
  17. ^ HARPER, HILLIARD (20 May 1987). "Dinosaur Skeleton Found at Carlsbad Site". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 24 September 2016.
  18. ^ Blume, Howard (23 September 2017). "California gets its own official state dinosaur". Los Angeles Times.
  19. ^ Galton, P.M. (1973). "The cheeks of ornithischian dinosaurs". Lethaia. 6 (1): 67–89. doi:10.1111/j.1502-3931.1973.tb00873.x.
  20. ^ Tan, X.; Kodama, K.P. (1998). "Compaction‐corrected inclinations from southern California Cretaceous marine sedimentary rocks indicate no paleolatitudinal offset for the Peninsular Ranges terrane". Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth. 103 (B11): 27169–27192. Bibcode:1998JGR...10327169T. doi:10.1029/98jb02343.
  21. ^ Switek, Brian (2016-05-17). "The Dinosaurs of California's Lost World". KCET. Retrieved 17 May 2016.
  22. ^ Longrich, Nicholas R. (2016). "A ceratopsian dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous of eastern North America, and implications for dinosaur biogeography". Cretaceous Research. 57: 199–207. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2015.08.004.
  23. ^ Lindgren, J.; Siverson, M. (2004). "The first record of the mosasaur Clidastes from Europe and its palaeogeographical implications". Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 49: 219–234.
  24. ^ Kiernan, Caitlin R (2002). "Stratigraphic distribution and habitat segregation of mosasaurs in the Upper Cretaceous of western and central Alabama, with an historical review of Alabama mosasaur discoveries". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 22 (1): 91–103. doi:10.1671/0272-4634(2002)022[0091:sdahso]2.0.co;2.
  25. ^ Kear, Benjamin P. "The relationships of Alabama halisaurine mosasaurs". Academia.edu. 4th Triennial International Mosasaur Meeting, Program & Abstracts. Retrieved 17 October 2016.
  26. ^ Bardet N, Suberbiola P, Iarochene M, Bouyahyaoui F, Bouya B, Amaghzaz M (2002). "A new species of Halisaurus from the Late Cretaceous phosphates of Morocco, and the phylogenetical relationships of the Halisaurinae (Squamata: Mosasauridae)". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 143 (3): 447–472. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2005.00152.x. Retrieved 2009-02-10.
  27. ^ Ford, K.W. (2006). "Stratigraphic positions of marine reptile and dinosaur specimens in the Moreno Formation, in the Tumey Hills and Panoche Hills, Fresno County, California". New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin. 35: 407–410.
  28. ^ Popenoe, W.P. (1973). "Southern California Cretaceous formations and faunas with especial reference to the Simi Hills and Santa Monica Mountains". Cretaceous Stratigraphy of the Santa Monica Mountains and Simi Hills, Southern California. Pacific Section, SEPM, Geological Guidebook, los Angeles, California: 15–20.
  29. ^ Reeside, J.B. (1957). "Paleoecology of the Cretaceous seas of the Western Interior of the United States". Geological Society of America Memoirs. 67: 505–542.
  30. ^ Stock, C. (1939). "Occurrence of Cretaceous reptiles in the Moreno shales of the Southern Coast Ranges, California" (PDF). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 25 (12): 617–620. doi:10.1073/pnas.25.12.617.
  31. ^ Nyborg, T.; Ossó, A.; Vega, F.J. (2013). "A new species of icriocarcinid crab (Crustacea, Portunoidea) from the uppermost Cretaceous of California, USA: paleobiological implications". Proceedings of the 5th Symposium on Mesozoic and Cenozoic Decapod Crustaceans, Krakow, Poland: 83–93.
  32. ^ Hanna, G.D. (1927). "Cretaceous diatoms from California".
  33. ^ Hanna, G.D. (September 1934). "Additional notes on diatoms from the Cretaceous of California". Journal of Paleontology. 8 (3): 352–355.
  34. ^ Long, J.A.; Fuge, F.D.; Smith, James (March 1946). "Diatoms of the Moreno Shale". Journal of Paleontology. 20 (2): 89–118.
  35. ^ Lipps, J. H.; Wetmore, K. L. (1993). "Transfers of algal, microfossil, plant, and vertebrate materials to the University of California Museum of Paleontology". Journal of Paleontology. 67 (5): 894–898. doi:10.1017/s0022336000037161.
Aralosaurini

Aralosaurini is a tribe of basal lambeosaurine hadrosaurs endemic to Eurasia. It currently contains Aralosaurus (from the Aral sea of Kazakhstan) and Canardia (from Toulouse, Southern France).

Canardia

Canardia is an extinct genus of aralosaurin lambeosaurine dinosaur known from the Late Cretaceous Marnes d’Auzas Formation (late Maastrichtian stage) of Toulouse, Haute-Garonne Department, southern France. The type species Canardia garonnensis was first described and named by Albert Prieto-Márquez, Fabio M. Dalla Vecchia, Rodrigo Gaete and Àngel Galobart in 2013.

Elasmaria

Elasmaria is a clade of iguanodont ornithopods known from Cretaceous deposits in South America, Antarctica, and Australia.

Huxleysaurus

Huxleysaurus (meaning "Huxley's lizard") is a genus of herbivorous styracosternan ornithopod dinosaur.

Iguanodontia

Iguanodontia (the iguanodonts) is a clade of herbivorous dinosaurs that lived from the Middle Jurassic to Late Cretaceous. Some members include Camptosaurus, Dryosaurus, Iguanodon, Tenontosaurus, and the hadrosaurids or "duck-billed dinosaurs". Iguanodontians were one of the first groups of dinosaurs to be found. They are among the best known of the dinosaurs, and were among the most diverse and widespread herbivorous dinosaur groups of the Cretaceous period.

Jaxartosaurus

Jaxartosaurus is a genus of hadrosaurid dinosaur similar to Corythosaurus which lived during the Late Cretaceous. Its fossils were found in Kazakhstan.

Jeyawati

Jeyawati is a genus of hadrosauroid dinosaur which lived during the Turonian stage of the Late Cretaceous. The type species, J. rugoculus, was described in 2010, based on fossils recovered in the U.S. state of New Mexico.The holotype, MSM P4166, was discovered in the Moreno Hill Formation. A cladistic analysis indicates that Jeyawati was more plesiomorphic (ancestral) than Shuangmiaosaurus, Telmatosaurus, and Bactrosaurus, but more derived (less like the common ancestor) than Eolambia, Probactrosaurus, and Protohadros.

Laiyangosaurus

Laiyangosaurus ("Laiyang lizard") is a genus of saurolophine hadrosaurid from the Late Cretaceous of China. It is known from one species, L.youngi, found in the Laiyang Basin within the province of Shandong.

Lapampasaurus

Lapampasaurus is an extinct genus of hadrosaurid known from the Late Cretaceous Allen Formation (late Campanian or early Maastrichtian stage) of La Pampa Province, Argentina. It contains a single species, Lapampasaurus cholinoi.The generic name refers to the Argentine province of La Pampa. The specific name honours the late collector José Cholino. The material includes cervical, dorsal, sacral and caudal vertebrae, the forelimb girdle, and the partial hindlimb.

Moreno Formation

The Moreno Formation is a Mesozoic geologic formation. Dinosaur remains diagnostic to the genus level are among the fossils that have been recovered from the formation.

Osmakasaurus

Osmakasaurus is a genus of herbivorous iguanodontian dinosaur. It is a basal iguanodontian which lived during the lower Cretaceous period (Valanginian age) in what is now Buffalo Gap of South Dakota, United States. It is known from the Chilson Member of the Lakota Formation. This genus was named by Andrew T. McDonald in 2011 and the type species is Osmakasaurus depressus. O. depressus was previously referred to as Camptosaurus depressus, and was first described in 1909 by Charles W. Gilmore.

Pareisactus

Pareisactus (from the Greek "pareisaktos", meaning "intruder", referring to being represented as a single element among hundreds of hadrosaurid bones) is a genus of rhabdodontid ornithopod dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous Conquès Member of the Tremp Formation in the Southern Pyrenees of Spain. The type and only species is P. evrostos, known only from a single scapula.

Plesiohadros

Plesiohadros is an extinct genus of hadrosauroid dinosaur. It is known from a partial skeleton including the skull collected at Alag Teg locality, from the Campanian Djadochta Formation of southern Mongolia. The type species is Plesiohadros djadokhtaensis.

Sahaliyania

Sahaliyania (from "black" in Manchu, a reference to the Amur/Heilongjiang River) is a genus of lambeosaurine hadrosaurid dinosaur (crested duckbilled dinosaur) from the Late Cretaceous of Heilongjiang, China.

Saurolophini

Saurolophini is a tribe of saurolophine hadrosaurid native to the Americas and Asia. It includes Saurolophus (from Canada and Mongolia), Augustynolophus (from the United States), and Prosaurolophus (from Alberta, Canada, and Montana, U.S.). Kerberosaurus and Kundurosaurus may also be members. Bonapartesaurus, a hadrosaurid from Argentina, also has been identified as a member of this tribe.Fossils of saurolophins have been found in Canada, the United States and Asia, with the North American fossils being older than the Asian, suggesting saurolophins migrated intra-continentally.

Saurolophus

Saurolophus (; meaning "lizard crest") is a genus of large saurolophine hadrosaurid dinosaurs that lived about 70.0–66 million years ago, in the Late Cretaceous of North America and Asia; it is one of the few genera of dinosaurs known from multiple continents. It is distinguished by a spike-like crest which projects up and back from the skull. Saurolophus was a herbivorous dinosaur which could move about either bipedally or quadrupedally.

The type species, S. osborni, was described by Barnum Brown in 1912 from Canadian fossils. A second valid species, S. angustirostris, is represented by numerous specimens from Mongolia, and was described by Anatoly Konstantinovich Rozhdestvensky.

Shantungosaurus

Shantungosaurus, meaning "Shandong Lizard", is a genus of saurolophine hadrosaurid dinosaurs found in the Late Cretaceous Wangshi Group of the Shandong Peninsula in China. The stratigraphic interval of Shantungosaurus ranges from the top of the Xingezhuang Formation to the middle of the Hongtuya Formation, middle to late Campanian in age. Shantungosaurus is so far the largest hadrosauroid taxon in the world: the greatest length of its femur is about 1.7 m, and the greatest length of its humerus is about 0.97 m.

Tsintaosaurini

Tsintaosaurini is a tribe of basal lambeosaurine hadrosaurs native to Eurasia. It currently contains only Tsintaosaurus (from China) and Pararhabdodon (from Spain ).Koutalisaurus, also known from late Cretaceous Spain and formerly referred to Pararhabdodon

, may also be a tsintaosaurin because of its association with the latter genus; some recent work also suggests it may indeed be referrable to Pararhabdodon.

Xuwulong

Xuwulong is a genus of hadrosauroid dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous period. It lived during the early Cretaceous period (Aptian-Albian age) in what is now Yujingzi Basin in the Jiuquan area, Gansu Province of northwestern China. It is known from the holotype – GSGM F00001, an articulated specimen including a complete cranium, almost complete axial skeleton, and complete left pelvic girdle from Xinminpu Group. Xuwulong was named by You Hailu, Li Daqing and Liu Weichang in 2011 and the type species is Xuwulong yueluni.

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