Augusto Righi

Augusto Righi (27 August 1850 – 8 June 1920) was an Italian physicist and a pioneer in the study of electromagnetism. He was born and died in Bologna.

Augusto Righi
Augusto Righi
Born27 August 1850
Bologna, Italy
Died8 June 1920 (aged 69)
Bologna, Italy
Alma materUniversity of Bologna
Known forInduction electrometer, Microwaves, Magnetic hysteresis
AwardsMatteucci Medal (1882)
Hughes Medal (1905)
Scientific career
Academic advisorsAntonio Pacinotti
Notable studentsGuglielmo Marconi


Born in Bologna, Righi was educated in his home town, taught physics at Bologna Technical College between 1873 and 1880, and left to take up the newly established chair of physics at the University of Palermo. He was professor of physics at the University of Padua (1885–89) and later returned to a professorship at the University of Bologna.

Righi's early research, conducted in Bologna between 1872 and 1880, was primarily in electrostatics. He invented an induction electrometer, with the help of Dr. Matthew Van Schaeick of the Humboldt University of Berlin, in 1872, capable of detecting and amplifying small electrostatic charges, formulated mathematical descriptions of vibrational motion, and discovered magnetic hysteresis in 1880. Whilst ordinary professor in physics at the University of Palermo, he studied the conduction of heat and electricity in bismuth. From 1885 to 1889 in Padua, he studied the photoelectric effect. Towards the end of 1889 he was called to the University of Bologna, his home city, where he worked for the rest of his life on subjects such as the Zeeman Effect, 'Roentgen rays', magnetism and the results of Michelson's experiments.[1]

Righi was the first person to generate microwaves, and opened a whole new area of the electromagnetic spectrum to research and subsequent applications. His work L'ottica delle oscillazioni elettriche (1897), which summarised his results, is considered a classic of experimental electromagnetism. By 1900 he had begun to work on X-rays and the Zeeman Effect. In 1903 he wrote the first paper on wireless telegraphy.[2] He also studied gas under various conditions of pressure and ionization, and worked on improvements to the Michelson–Morley experiment from 1918.[3]

One of Righi's famous pupils was Guglielmo Marconi. Marconi studied under Righi at his lab in Bologna.

See also


  1. ^ A. Righi, La Materia radiante e i raggi magnetici, Zanichelli (1909)
  2. ^ A. Righi, La Telegrafia Senza Filo (Wireless Telegraphy) (1901). See also A. Righi, Le nuove vedute sull'intima struttura della materia - Discorso pronunciato in Parma il 25 ottobre 1907 nel Congresso della Società italiana pel progresso delle scienze.
  3. ^ A. Righi, Modern Theory of Physical Phenomena, BiblioLife (2009).

External links

Academy of Sciences of the Institute of Bologna

The Academy of Sciences of the Institute of Bologna (Accademia delle Scienze dell'Istituto di Bologna) is an academic society in Bologna, Italy, that was founded in 1690 and prospered in the Age of Enlightenment. Today it is closely associated with the University of Bologna.

Accademia dei Lincei

The Accademia dei Lincei (Italian pronunciation: [akːaˈdɛːmja dei linˈtʃɛi]) (literally the "Academy of the Lynx-Eyed", but anglicised as the Lincean Academy) is an Italian science academy, located at the Palazzo Corsini on the Via della Lungara in Rome, Italy.

Founded in the Papal States in 1603 by Federico Cesi, the academy was named after the lynx, an animal whose sharp vision symbolizes the observational prowess that science requires. Galileo Galilei was the intellectual centre of the academy and adopted "Galileo Galilei Linceo" as his signature. "The Lincei did not long survive the death in 1630 of Cesi, its founder and patron", and "disappeared in 1651". It was revived in the 1870s to become the national academy of Italy, encompassing both literature and science among its concerns.The Pontifical Academy of Science also claims a heritage descending from the first two incarnations of the Academy, by way of the Accademia Pontificia dei Nuovi Lincei ("Pontifical Academy of the New Lynxes"), founded in 1847.

Antonio Pacinotti

Antonio Pacinotti (17 June 1841 – 24 March 1912) was an Italian physicist, who was Professor of Physics at the University of Pisa.


Augusto may be a given name, or a Portuguese and Spanish surname. Notable people with the name include:

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Augusto Barbera (born 1938), Italian law professor, politician and judge

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Guglielmo Marconi

Guglielmo Marconi, 1st Marquis of Marconi (Italian: [ɡuʎˈʎɛlmo marˈkoːni]; 25 April 1874 – 20 July 1937) was an Italian inventor and electrical engineer, known for his pioneering work on long-distance radio transmission, development of Marconi's law, and a radio telegraph system. He is credited as the inventor of radio, and he shared the 1909 Nobel Prize in Physics with Karl Ferdinand Braun "in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy".Marconi was also an entrepreneur, businessman, and founder of The Wireless Telegraph & Signal Company in the United Kingdom in 1897 (which became the Marconi Company). He succeeded in making an engineering and commercial success of radio by innovating and building on the work of previous experimenters and physicists. In 1929, Marconi was ennobled as a Marchese (marquis) by King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy, and, in 1931, he set up the Vatican Radio for Pope Pius XI.

Liceo scientifico statale Camillo Cavour

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List of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1907

This is a list of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1907.


Lungotevere (Italian for Tiber Waterfront) is an alley or boulevard running along the river Tiber within the city of Rome.

The building of the Lungoteveres required the demolition of the former edifices along the river banks and the construction of retaining walls called muraglioni (massive walls).

Lungotevere degli Inventori

Lungotevere degli Inventori is the stretch of lungotevere linking piazza Augusto Righi with piazza Antonio Meucci, in Rome, Portuense district.This lungotevere gets its name from the toponomastic of this zone, dedicated to various scientists and inventors; it was created with law of Rome's governor on 12 december 1940.

Lungotevere di Pietra Papa

Lungotevere di Pietra Papa is the stretch of the lungotevere that connects Lungotevere Vittorio Gassman to Piazza Augusto Righi, in Rome's Portuense district.The lungotevere is named after the ancient Via Petra Papae, so named because it was located in the property of the family Papa (or Papareschi); it was established by resolution of the city council of 25 November 1949.In this area, in 1943, were carried out archaeological excavations that unearthed the remains of baths and various Roman rooms probably what remains of the villa belonging to the Horti Caesaris; found mosaics and frescoes are kept in the National Museum in Rome.

Matteucci Medal

The Matteucci Medal is an Italian award for physicists, named after Carlo Matteucci. It was established to award physicists for their fundamental contributions. Under an Italian Royal Decree dated July 10, 1870, the Italian Society of Sciences was authorized to receive a donation from Carlo Matteucci for the establishment of the Prize.

Matteucci MedalistsSource: Italian Society of Sciences


Microwaves are a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging from about one meter to one millimeter; with frequencies between 300 MHz (1 m) and 300 GHz (1 mm). Different sources define different frequency ranges as microwaves; the above broad definition includes both UHF and EHF (millimeter wave) bands. A more common definition in radio engineering is the range between 1 and 100 GHz (wavelengths between 0.3 m and 3 mm). In all cases, microwaves include the entire SHF band (3 to 30 GHz, or 10 to 1 cm) at minimum. Frequencies in the microwave range are often referred to by their IEEE radar band designations: S, C, X, Ku, K, or Ka band, or by similar NATO or EU designations.

The prefix micro- in microwave is not meant to suggest a wavelength in the micrometer range. Rather, it indicates that microwaves are "small" (having shorter wavelengths), compared to the radio waves used prior to microwave technology. The boundaries between far infrared, terahertz radiation, microwaves, and ultra-high-frequency radio waves are fairly arbitrary and are used variously between different fields of study.

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Ponte Guglielmo Marconi

Ponte Guglielmo Marconi, also known as Ponte Marconi, is a Roman bridge that connects Piazza Augusto Righi with Piazza Tommaso Edison, in Rome, in the Ostiense and Portuense districts.

Temistocle Calzecchi-Onesti

Temistocle Calzecchi Onesti (December 14, 1853 – November 25, 1922) was an Italian physicist and inventor born in Lapedona, Italy, where his father, Icilio Calzecchi, a medical doctor from nearby Monterubbiano, was temporarily working at the time. His mother, Angela, was the last descendant of the ancient and noble Onesti family. His first name is the Italian version of the Athenian general Themistocles.

Calzecchi demonstrated in experiments in 1884 through 1886 that iron filings contained in an insulating tube will conduct an electric current under the action of an electromagnetic wave. This discovery was the operating principle behind an early radio wave detector device called the coherer, developed about 6–10 years later by Oliver Lodge, Edouard Branly, and Guglielmo Marconi, which was influential in the development of radio.

Thermal Hall effect

The thermal Hall effect is the thermal analog of the Hall effect. Here, a thermal gradient is produced across a solid instead of an electric field. When a magnetic field is applied, an orthogonal temperature gradient develops.

For conductors, a significant portion of the thermal current is carried by the electrons. In particular, the Righi–Leduc effect describes the heat flow resulting from a perpendicular temperature gradient and vice versa, and the Maggi–Righi–Leduc effect describes changes in thermal conductivity when placing a conductor in a magnetic field.

A thermal Hall effect has also been measured in a paramagnetic insulator and called the "phonon Hall effect". In this case, there are no charged currents in the solid, so the magnetic field cannot exert a Lorentz force. An analogous thermal Hall effect for neutral particles exists in polyatomic gases (known as the Senftleben–Beenakker effect).

Measurements of the thermal Hall conductivity are used to distinguish between the electronic and lattice contributions to thermal conductivity. These measurements are especially useful when studying superconductors.

Tito Vanzetti

Tito Vanzetti (29 April 1809, Venice – 6 January 1888, Padua) was a famous surgeon and professor of medicine of the 19th century.

He studied surgery at the University of Padua under Bartolomeo Signoroni (1797-1844) and at the University of Vienna with Joseph Wattmann (1789-1866). Several years later, he was appointed professor of clinical surgery and ophthalmology at the University of Kharkiv. In 1853 he returned to Padua as a professor of clinical surgery.

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He was made member of several scientific academies and societies.

University of Bologna

The University of Bologna (Italian: Università di Bologna, UNIBO), founded in 1088, is the oldest university in continuous operation, as well as one of the leading academic institutions in Italy and Europe. It is one of the most prestigious Italian universities, commonly ranking in the first places of national rankings.It was the first place of study to use the term universitas for the corporations of students and masters, which came to define the institution (especially its famous law school) located in Bologna, Italy. The University's crest carries the motto Alma mater studiorum ("nourishing mother of studies") and the date A.D. 1088, and it has about 86,500 students in its 11 schools. It has campuses in Ravenna, Forlì, Cesena and Rimini and a branch center abroad in Buenos Aires, Argentina. It also has a school of excellence named Collegio Superiore di Bologna. An associate publisher of the University of Bologna is Bononia University Press S.p.A. (BUP).

Van de Graaff generator

A Van de Graaff generator is an electrostatic generator which uses a moving belt to accumulate electric charge on a hollow metal globe on the top of an insulated column, creating very high electric potentials. It produces very high voltage direct current (DC) electricity at low current levels. It was invented by American physicist Robert J. Van de Graaff in 1929.

The potential difference achieved by modern Van de Graaff generators can be as much as 5 megavolts. A tabletop version can produce on the order of 100,000 volts and can store enough energy to produce a visible spark. Small Van de Graaff machines are produced for entertainment, and for physics education to teach electrostatics; larger ones are displayed in some science museums.

The Van de Graaff generator was developed as a particle accelerator for physics research; its high potential is used to accelerate subatomic particles to great speeds in an evacuated tube. It was the most powerful type of accelerator of the 1930s until the cyclotron was developed. Van de Graaff generators are still used as accelerators to generate energetic particle and X-ray beams for nuclear research and nuclear medicine.

Particle-beam Van de Graaff accelerators are often used in a "tandem" configuration: first, negatively charged ions are injected at one end towards the high potential terminal, where they are accelerated by attractive force towards the terminal. When the particles reach the terminal, they are stripped of some electrons to make them positively charged and are subsequently accelerated by repulsive forces away from the terminal. This configuration results in two accelerations for the cost of one Van de Graaff generator, and has the added advantage of leaving the complicated ion source instrumentation accessible near ground potential.

The voltage produced by an open-air Van de Graaff machine is limited by arcing and corona discharge to about 5 megavolts. Most modern industrial machines are enclosed in a pressurized tank of insulating gas; these can achieve potentials of as much as about 25 megavolts.

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