Augustinians

The term Augustinians, named after Augustine of Hippo (354–430), applies to two distinct types of Catholic religious orders, dating back to the first millennium but formally created in the 13th century,[1][2][3] and some Anglican religious orders, created in the 19th century, though technically there is no "Order of St. Augustine" in Anglicanism. Within Anglicanism the Rule of St. Augustine is followed only by women, who form several different communities of Augustinian nuns in the Anglican Communion.

Within Roman Catholicism, Augustinians may be members of either one of two separate and distinct types of Order:

  • Several mendicant Orders of friars, who lived a mixed religious life of contemplation and apostolic ministry and follow the Rule of St. Augustine, a brief document providing guidelines for living in a religious community. The largest and most familiar, originally known as the Hermits of St. Augustine (OESA; Ordo Eremitarum sancti Augustini) and also known as the Austin friars in England, is now simply referred to as the Order of St. Augustine (OSA). Two other Orders, the Order of Augustinian Recollects and the Discalced Augustinians, were once part of the Augustinian Order under a single Prior General. The Recollect friars, founded in 1588 as a reform movement of the Augustinian friars in Spain, became autonomous in 1612 with their first Prior General, Enrique de la Sagrada. The Discalced friars became an independent congregation with their own Prior General in 1592, and were raised to the status of a separate mendicant order in 1610.[4]
  • Various congregations of clerics known as Canons Regular who also follow the Rule of St. Augustine, embrace the evangelical counsels and lead a semi-monastic life, while remaining committed to pastoral care appropriate to their primary vocation as priests. They generally form one large community which might serve parishes in the vicinity, and are organized into autonomous congregations, which normally are distinct by region.
Pce Wik S5000806
Ruins of Jasienice Abbey, a former Augustinian priory in Jasienica, Police, Poland (14th century)

Charism

In a religious community, "charism" is the particular contribution that each religious order, congregation or family and its individual members embody.[5] The teaching and writing of Augustine, the Augustinian Rule, and the lives and experiences of Augustinians over sixteen centuries help define the ethos (principles) and special charism of the order.

As well as telling his disciples to be "of one mind and heart on the way towards God",[6] Augustine of Hippo taught that "Nothing conquers except truth and the victory of truth is love" (Victoria veritatis est caritas),[7] and the pursuit of truth through learning is key to the Augustinian ethos, balanced by the injunction to behave with love towards one another. It does not unduly single out the exceptional, especially favour the gifted, nor exclude the poor or marginalised. Love is not earned through human merit, but received and given freely by God's free gift of grace, totally undeserved yet generously given. These same imperatives of affection and fairness have driven the order in its international missionary outreach.[8] This balanced pursuit of love and learning has energised the various branches of the order into building communities founded on mutual affection and intellectual advancement. The Augustinian ideal is inclusive.

Augustine spoke passionately of God's "beauty so ancient and so new",[9] and his fascination with beauty extended to music. He taught that "whoever sings prays twice" (Qui cantat, bis orat)[10] and music is also a key part of the Augustinian ethos. Contemporary Augustinian musical foundations include the famous Augustinerkirche in Vienna, where orchestral masses by Mozart and Schubert are performed every week, as well as the boys' choir at Sankt Florian in Austria, a school conducted by Augustinian canons, a choir now over 1,000 years old.

Augustinians have also produced a formidable body of scholarly works.[11]

Orders, groups, and societies

Canons Regular

The Canons Regular follow the more ancient form of religious life which developed toward the end of the first millennium and thus predates the founding of the friars.[12] They represent a clerical adaptation of monastic life, as it grew out of an attempt to organize communities of clerics to a more dedicated way of life, as St. Augustine himself had done. Historically it paralleled the lay movement of monasticism or the eremetical life from which the friars were later to develop. In their tradition, the canons added the commitment of religious vows to their primary vocation of pastoral care. As the canons became independent of the diocesan structures, they came to form their own monastic communities. The official name of the Order is the Canons Regular of St. Augustine (CRSA).[13]

Coulaures église vitrail (8)
Peter Fourier, leader of the reform of the Canons Regular in the former Duchy of Lorraine, wearing the sarozium

Like the Order of St. Benedict, it is not one legal body, but a union of various independent congregations. Though they also follow the Rule of St. Augustine, they differ from the friars in not committing themselves to corporate poverty, which is a defining element of the mendicant orders. Unlike the friars and like monks, the canons are generally organized as one large community to which they are attached for life with a vow of stability. Their houses are given the title of an abbey, from which the canons then tend to various surrounding towns and villages for spiritual services. The religious superior of their major houses is titled an abbot. Smaller communities are headed by a prior or provost.

The distinctive habit of canon regulars is the rochet, worn over a cassock or tunic, which is indicative of their clerical origins. This has evolved in various ways among different congregations, from wearing the full rochet to the wearing of a white tunic and scapular. The Austrian congregation, as an example, wears a sarozium, a narrow band of white cloth—a vestige of the scapular—which hangs down both front and back over a cassock for their weekday wear. For more solemn occasions, they wear the rochet under a violet mozzetta.

Communities of canons served the poor and the sick throughout Europe, through both nursing and education. They include the canons of the Great St. Bernard Hospice at Great St. Bernard Pass in the Alps on the border of Switzerland, where they have served travelers since the mid-11th century. This community is the one which developed the familiar breed of St. Bernard to assist the canons in their ability to find travelers buried by avalanches.[14] The Congregation of the Great St. Bernard is a member of the Confederation of the Canons Regular of St. Augustine.[15]

The Canons Regular of the New Jerusalem are a newly founded Tridentine rite congregation.

Augustinian Friars

GNM - Luther als Mönch
Martin Luther (1483–1546), in the habit of the Augustinian Order. Luther was an Augustinian friar from 1505 until his excommunication in 1520. Luther would later renounce his religious vows and marry Katharina von Bora in 1525.
Gregor Mendel Monk
Abbot Gregor Mendel (1822–1884)

The 2008 Constitutions of the Order of St. Augustine[16] states that the Order of Saint Augustine is composed of the following:

a) friars, whether professed or novices, who are members of the various Circumscriptions of the Order (meaning a Province, Vicariate, or Delegation).
b) the contemplative nuns belonging to the monasteries of the Order.
c) the members of the Augustinian Secular Fraternities, legitimately established by the Prior General.

In addition to these three branches, the Augustinian family also includes other groups: a) religious institutes, both male and female, formally aggregated to the Order by a decree of the Prior General (this would include the Augustinians of the Assumption, the Sisters of St. Rita, etc.); b) other groups of lay Augustinians; c) lay faithful affiliated to the Order.[17]

The Augustinian, or Austin, friars (OSA), are a mendicant order.[18] As consecrated religious, they pray the Liturgy of the Hours throughout the day. This Latin Rite Order, while a contemplative Order, differs from traditional monastic Orders in three ways. 1) They do not take vows of stability, meaning that they can live in one house (called a friary or sometimes a monastery) typically for several years before being moved into a different community of the Order. 2) They are engaged in apostolic activity, such as mission work, education, prison ministries, etc. The Order is under the supervision of a Prior General in Rome, and as an international Order they are divided into various Provinces throughout the world, with each Province being led by a Prior Provincial. (3) As an Order, they have a special commitment to corporate poverty as opposed to simply the poverty professed by the individual friar. While this is not currently legislated as it was in the origins of the Order, this is to be a distinguishing mark of their lives as a community.

As consecrated religious, Augustinians profess the evangelical counsels of chastity, poverty, and obedience. They follow the Rule of St. Augustine, written sometime between 397 and 403 for a monastic community Augustine founded in Hippo (modern day Algeria), and which takes as its inspiration the early Christian community described in the Acts of the Apostles, particularly Acts 4:32: "The community of believers was of one heart and mind, and no one claimed that any of his possessions was his own, but they had everything in common." (NAB).

By decree of the Holy See, the Augustinian Order is granted exempt status, which places it under the direct dependence on the Pope, meaning that bishops have no jurisdiction with regards to the internal affairs of the Order.[19]

History of the Friars

The Augustinian friars originated after the older Canons Regular. The friars represented part of the mendicant movement of the 13th century, a new form of religious life which sought to bring the religious ideals of monastic life into an urban setting which allowed the religious to serve the needs of the People of God in an apostolic capacity. At this time a number of eremitical groups lived in such diverse places as Tuscany, Latium, Umbria, Liguria, England, Switzerland, Germany, and perhaps France. In 1243 the Tuscan hermits petitioned Pope Innocent IV to unite them all as one group. On 16 December 1243 Innocent IV issued the bull Incumbit Nobis, an essentially pastoral letter which, despite its brevity, basically served as the magna carta initiating the foundation of the Order as it is known today. This papal bull exhorted these hermits to adopt "the Rule and way of life of the Blessed Augustine, to profess this Augustinian manner of life in a way that they themselves would decide with regards to their specific charism and apostolate, and to elect a Prior General. The bull also appointed Cardinal Riccardo Annibaldi as their supervisor and legal guide. The importance of this man in the foundation of the Order cannot be overstated.[20]

As decreed by the Bull Praesentium Vobis, the Tuscan hermits came together for a general chapter in March 1244, a chapter presided over by Cardinal Annibaldi. At this chapter the Order formally adopted the Rule of St. Augustine and determined to follow the Roman office with the Cistercian psalter, and to hold triennial elections of the Prior General. The first Prior General was Friar Matthew, followed by Adjutus and Philip. In the Papal Bull Pia desideria, issued on 31 March 1244, Pope Innocent IV formally approved the foundation of the Order.

In 1256 Innocent's successor Alexander IV called together various other hermit groups from around the Catholic world and ultimately joined them to this existing Augustinian Order. From June to July 1255 he issued 22 bulls of instruction, encouragement, and protection of the young Order. His bull Cum Quaedam Salubria summoned all the hermits of St. Augustine and St. William to send two representatives to Rome for a General Chapter, again to be held under the supervision of his nephew, Cardinal Annibaldi. During this Chapter the following groups of hermits, inter alia, were amalgamated to the Order, which up to then had only consisted of the groups of the Tuscan hermits:

This historical union has subsequently been termed the Grand Union of 1256. At this Chapter Lanfranc Settala, the leader of the Bonites, was elected Prior General.[21] The 12-year-old religious Order of friars now consisted of 100 or more houses.

On 22 August 1256 the Italian Williamites, unhappy with the arrangement of the Grand Union, left the Order and adopted the Rule of St. Benedict.[21]

The early years in the order's history featured a great devotion to learning, to study, to prayer, to service of the poor, and to defense of the Pope and the Church – a particular charism of the Order rooted in the fact that it is the only Order in the history of the Church to be founded directly by a Pope. In his work The Life of the Brothers, the 14th-century Augustinian historian and friar Jordan of Saxony writes:

It is certain that in its modern state the Order is principally founded on spiritual works, those that pertain to the contemplative life. These are as follows: the singing of the divine office; the service of the altar; prayer; psalm singing; devotion to reading or study of sacred scripture; teaching and preaching the word of God; hearing confessions of the faithful; bringing about the salvation of souls by word and example.[22]

The Augustinians count among their number over a dozen saints and numerous members declared blessed by the Church.[23]

Organization of the order

The Augustinian Hermits, while following the rule known as that of St. Augustine, are also subject to the Constitutions, first drawn up by Augustinus Novellus (d. 1309), Prior General of the Order from 1298 to 1300, and by Clement of Osimo. A revision was made at Rome in 1895. The Constitutions were revised again and published at Rome in 1895, with additions in 1901 and 1907.[21] Today, the Order follows the Constitutions approved in the Ordinary General Chapter of 2007.

The government of the order is as follows: At the head is the Prior General, elected every six years by the General Chapter. The Prior General is aided by six assistants and a secretary, also elected by the General Chapter. These form the Curia Generalitia. Each province is governed by a Prior Provincial, each commissariat by a Commissary General, each of the two congregations by a Vicar General, and every monastery by a Prior (only the Czech monastery of Alt-Brunn in Moravia is under an abbot) and every college by a Rector. The members of the Order number both priests and lay brothers. The Augustinians, like most religious orders, have a Cardinal Protector.

The choir and outdoor dress of the friars is a tunic of black woolen material, with long, wide sleeves, a black leather girdle, and a large shoulder cape to which is attached a long, pointed hood reaching to the girdle . The indoor dress consists of a black tunic and scapular, over which the shoulder cape is worn. In many monasteries. white was formerly the color worn in areas where there were no Dominicans. In hot climates Augustinians tend to wear white habits as they are easily distinguishable with the Dominicans (i.e. without long scapular, rosary, etc.).

The Augustinians follow the rule of St. Augustine which is divided into 8 chapters (purpose and basis of common life, prayer, moderation and self-denial, safeguarding chastity and fraternal correction, the care of community goods and treatment of sick, asking for pardon and forgiving others, governance and obedience, and observance of the rule).[24] The Augustinians also use the charism or "gift from the Holy Spirit" to guide the communal life.

Charism of the Order of St. Augustine

Like the rule it has three parts: spirituality (searching for God – during prayer Augustine found himself, God, and his brothers); fraternity (community life – the Augustinians encounter God through fraternity; peace and harmony among the brothers is a sign from the Holy Spirit that is dwelling within the Augustinians and constitutes a testimony to the whole church, "Be of one mind and heart"); and ministry (service to the church – the Augustinians make themselves available to the church to announce and live the reign of God).

Discalced and Recollect friars

The Discalced Augustinians were formed in 1588 in Italy as a reform movement of the Order and have their own constitutions, differing from those of the other Augustinians. Their fasts are more rigorous and their other ascetic practices stricter. They wear sandals, not shoes, a practice which accounts for their name (scalzo or "barefoot"). In an effort to preserve their roots in the hermit life, the Discalced Augustinians practice strict silence and have in every province a house dedicated to recollection situated in some retired place, to which friars striving after greater perfection can retire in order to practice severe penance, living only on water, bread, fruits, olive oil and wine.

The Augustinian Recollects developed in Spain in 1592 with the same goal. Currently, though, they are primarily found serving in pastoral care.

The Augustinians in North America

The North American foundation of the Order took place in 1796, when Irish friars arrived in Philadelphia.[25] Michael Hurley was the first American to join the Order, the following year. The friars established schools throughout the Americas, including the two Augustinian institutions of higher learning in the United States: Villanova University in Pennsylvania and Merrimack College in Massachusetts.

The following high schools were also established: Malvern Preparatory School in Pennsylvania (1842); Augustinian Academy, Staten Island, NY (1899 – closed in 1969). St. Rita of Cascia High School in Chicago (1909); St. Augustine High School in San Diego, California (1922); Villanova Preparatory School in Ojai, California (1925); Cascia Hall Preparatory School in Tulsa, Oklahoma (1926); Monsignor Bonner High School in Drexel Hill, Pennsylvania (1953); St. Augustine College Preparatory School in South Jersey (1959); Austin Preparatory School in Reading, Massachusetts (1961); Augustinian Academy, St. Louis, Missouri (1961, closed 1972); Providence Catholic High School, Diocese of Joliet in Illinois (1962); St. Thomas of Villanova College in King City, Ontario (1999); Austin Catholic High School, Diocese of Detroit in Michigan (2011).

Aggregated communities

Rita-ret
Rita of Cascia (1381–1457)

Other orders and groups belong within the Augustinian family either because they follow the Rule of Augustine,[26] exist as independent societies,[27] or have been formally aggregated through their constitutions into the worldwide Augustinian Order.[28] These are not counted comprehensively in this article only because the Catholic Church's system of governance and accounting makes just the numbers of ordained clerics relatively accessible and verifiable. Some of these include:

Provinces of Augustinians throughout the world

Abbey of Brno

Delegations of Central America (Costa Rica)

Province of England and Scotland

Vicariate of Antilles (Puerto Rico)

Vicariate of Apurimac (Peru)

Vicariate of Argentina

Province of Belgium

Province of Bolivia

Delegation of Brazil (Castille)

Vicariate of Brazil (Holy Name)

Vicariate of Brazil (Mother of Consolation)

Province of Cebu (Philippeans)

Province of California

Province of Canada

Province of Castille (Spain)

Province of Chicago

Province of Chile

Vicariate of Chulucanas (Peru)

Province of Colombia

Vicariate of the Congo

Delegation of Cuba

Province of Germany

Province of Ireland

Province of Spain

Province of Holland

Delegation of India

Vicariate of Iquitos (Peru)

Province of Italy

Vicariate of Japan

Delegation of Kenya

Delegation of Korea

Province of Madrid

Province of Mechoacan (Mexico)

Province of Malta

Province of Mexico

Province of Nigeria

Vicariate of the Orient (Pacific Ocean islands)

Vicariate of Panama

Delegation of Indonesia

Province of Peru

Province of the Most Holy Name of Jesus of the Philippines

Province of Santo Niño de Cebu, Philippines

Province of Poland

Province of Quito (Ecuador)

Delegation of Tanzania

Vicariate of Venezuela

Vicariate of Vienna

Province of Villanova (United States)

Augustinian lay societies

The lay societies are voluntary groups, generally made up of people who are either married or single and have sympathy with, and interest in, the Augustinian approach to life. These lay people do not take monastic vows, but offer support to the work of the Augustinian Order in voluntary work, gifts of money and goods, and of study and promotion of St. Augustine and Augustinian teaching.

The primary among these are the Third Orders associated with the various branches of the mendicant Orders. These are the Augustinian Lay Community[31] and the Secular Augustinian Recollects. They make a formal and public commitment as laity to follow as best as possible the life and charism of the Order.

Other associations which support the spirit and work of the friars and Sisters include: the Brotherhood of the Virgin Mary of the Belt[32] in Italy, the Friends of Augustine in the Philippines, and the Augustinian Friends[33] in Australia.

See also

References

  1. ^ http://www.new Archived 2016-08-19 at the Wayback Machine advent.org/ cathen/02079b.htm
  2. ^ Jean Besse, "Rule of St. Augustine." THE CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA. Vol. 2. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1907.
  3. ^ Also see: "Rule of St. Augustine," Richard Mc Brien. The HarperCollins Encyclopedia of Catholicism (1995). p.112.
  4. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-03-26. Retrieved 2012-08-03.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  5. ^ "The Augustinians", Province of St. Thomas of Villanova Archived February 17, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
  6. ^ Augustine of Hippo The Rule of St. Augustine Constitutiones Ordinis Fratrum S. Augustini (Rome 1968) Chapter I
  7. ^ Augustine of Hippo Sermons 358,1 "Victoria veritatis est caritas"
  8. ^ "San Agustín". 2008-02-14. Archived from the original on 2008-02-14. Retrieved 2017-12-12.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  9. ^ Augustine of Hippo,Confessions 10, 27
  10. ^ Augustine of Hippo Sermons 336, 1 PL 38, 1472
  11. ^ "Collection Items: Contributions from Augustinian Theologians and Scholars". digital.library.villanova.edu. Retrieved 2017-12-12.
  12. ^ "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Canons and Canonesses Regular". www.newadvent.org. Retrieved 2017-12-12.
  13. ^ "Site is Down". newsite.augustiniancanons.org. Retrieved 2017-12-12.
  14. ^ "Congregation founded by St. Bernard of Menthon", Congregation of the Great Saint Bernard Archived 2014-10-18 at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ "Confederation of the Canons Regular of St. Augustine", Augustinian Canons
  16. ^ "Augustinians - Order of Saint Augustine". augustinians.net. Retrieved 2017-12-12.
  17. ^ Rule and Constitutions, Order of St. Augustine, Rome, Augustinian General Curia, 2008
  18. ^ "Charism - Order of Saint Augustine". augustinians.net. Retrieved 2017-12-12.
  19. ^ See BONIFATIUS PP. VIII, Sacer Ordo vester, 21.I.1298; Inter sollicitudines nostras, 16.I.1302, en Bullarium, 44–45. 50–52. CLEMENS PP. VI, Ad fructus uberes, 19.VIII.1347, Ibid., 64–65. Lumen Gentium 45.
  20. ^ Rano, Balbino, Augustinian Origins, Charism, and Spirituality, Villanova, Augustinian Press, 1994, 29
  21. ^ a b c "CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Hermits of St. Augustine". www.newadvent.org. Retrieved 2017-12-12.
  22. ^ "Jordan of Saxony", Augnet Archived October 6, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  23. ^ "Augustinian Saints, Blesseds, and Feast Days". Midwest Augustinians. Retrieved 2017-12-12.
  24. ^ "Roots of Augustinian Spirituality". Midwest Augustinians. Retrieved 2017-12-12.
  25. ^ Taylor, Thomas. "Our History". Midwest Augustinians. Province of Our Mother of Good Counsel. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
  26. ^ "Home Page". 2011-11-23. Archived from the original on 2011-11-23. Retrieved 2017-12-12.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  27. ^ Nicholas, Friar Shane. "Our History". www.aihmfriars.net. Retrieved 2017-12-12.
  28. ^ "The Society of St. Augustine". The Society of St. Augustine. Retrieved 2017-12-12.
  29. ^ "Soeurs - Augustine de la miséricorde de Jésus". www.augustines.org. Retrieved 2017-12-12.
  30. ^ The Rule of Saint Augustine and the Constitutions of the Order of the Incarnate Word and Blessed Sacrament, New York: Schwartz, Kirwin, and Fauss, 1893, pp. 33–35.
  31. ^ "Augustinian Lay Groups - Lay Community". augustinians.org.au. 19 August 2006. Archived from the original on 19 August 2006.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  32. ^ "Basilica di Santa Rita da Cascia: The Brotherhood". santaritadacascia.org. 18 July 2007. Archived from the original on 18 July 2007.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
  33. ^ "Augustinian Lay Groups – Augustinian Friends". augustinians.org.au. 19 August 2006. Archived from the original on 19 August 2006.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)

Bibliography

  • Bibliography for the Augustinian official website
  • Augustine of Hippo, The Rule of St Augustine Constitutiones Ordinis Fratrum S. Augustini (Rome 1968)
  • The Augustinians (1244–1994): Our History in Pictures. Pubblicazioni Agostiniane, Roma, Italy.
  • Canning; R. (1984). The Rule of St Augustine. Darton, Longman and Todd.
  • Ebsworth, Rev. Walter (1973). Pioneer Catholic Victoria. Polding Press. ISBN 0-85884-096-0.
  • Eckermann, Karl W. (1999), "Augustinians", in Fahlbusch, Erwin (ed.), Encyclopedia of Christianity, 1, Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans, pp. 164–165, ISBN 0-8028-2413-7
  • Hackett; Michael Benedict (2002). A Presence in the Age of Turmoil: English, Irish and Scottish Augustinians in the Reformation and Counter-Reformation. Augustinian Historical Institute, Villanova University, Pennsylvania. ISBN 1-889542-27-X.
  • Hickey, P. J. (1981). A History of the Catholic Church in Northern Nigeria. Augustinian publications in Nigeria, Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria.
  • edited by Martin; F. X. & Clare O'Reilly. The Irish Augustinians in Rome, 1656–1994 and Irish Augustinian Missions throughout the World. St. Patrick's College, Roma, Italy.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  • Orbis Augustinianus sive conventuum O. Erem. S. A. chorographica et topographica descriptio Augustino Lubin, Paris, 1659, 1671, 1672.
  • Règle de S. Augustin pour les réligieuses de son ordre; et Constitutions de la Congregation des Religieuses du Verbe-Incarne et du Saint-Sacrament (Lyon: Chez Pierre Guillimin, 1662), pp. 28–29. Cf. later edition published at Lyon (Chez Briday, Libraire,1962), pp. 22–24. English edition, The Rule of Saint Augustine and the Constitutions of the Order of the Incarnate Word and Blessed Sacrament (New York: Schwartz, Kirwin, and Fauss, 1893), pp. 33–35.
  • Zumkeller, Adolar (1986). Augustine's ideal of Religious life. Fordham University Press, New York.
  • Zumkeller, Adolar (1987). Augustine's Rule. Augustinian Press, Villanova, Pennsylvania.

External links

Andrés de Urdaneta

Friar Andrés de Urdaneta, OSA, (November 30, 1498 – June 3, 1568) was a Spanish Basque circumnavigator, explorer and Augustinian friar. As a navigator he achieved in 1536 the "second" world circumnavigation (after the first one led by Ferdinand Magellan and Juan Sebastián Elcano and their crew in 1522). Urdaneta discovered and plotted a path across the Pacific from the Philippines to Acapulco in the Viceroyalty of New Spain (present day Mexico) used by the Manila galleons, which came to be known as "Urdaneta's route". He was considered as "protector of the Indians" for his treatment of the Filipino natives; also Cebu and the Philippines' first prelate.

Assumptionists

The Augustinians of the Assumption (A.A.) constitute a worldwide congregation of Catholic priests and brothers. It is active in many countries. The French branch played a major role in French political and social history in the 19th century.It was founded in Nîmes, southern France, by Fr. Emmanuel d'Alzon in 1845, initially approved by Rome in 1857 and definitively approved in 1864 (the Constitutions were approved in 1923). The current Rule of Life of the congregation draws its inspiration from that of St. Augustine of Hippo.

This international congregation is present in nearly 30 countries throughout the world, with the most recent foundations being established in 2006 in the Philippines, Vietnam, and Togo. The congregation has long been involved in education, the press, ecumenism, pilgrimages, and the missions. In the 1870s, religious launched several magazines which have, over the years, expanded into one of the largest Catholic publishing houses in the world, Bayard Presse, which publishes the award-winning daily French newspaper, La Croix, and more than 100 magazines in 15 languages (in English its best known publication is Catholic Digest). In 1873 these religious also began a series of large-scale pilgrimages both within France and to the Holy Land which developed into such current endeavors as the popular national pilgrimage to Lourdes every year on the occasion of the feast of the Assumption, gathering thousands of pilgrims.

In addition to the Assumptionists, a number of other congregations belong to the larger Assumption Family: The Religious (Sisters) of the Assumption, the Oblates (Missionary Sisters) of the Assumption, the Little Sisters of the Assumption, the Orantes of the Assumption, the Sisters of St. Joan of Arc, the Brothers of the Assumption, the Little Sisters of the Presentation of Our Lady, the Missionary Sisters of the Assumption, and the Sisters of the Cross.

Convent of the Calced Augustinians, Toledo

The Convent of the Calced Augustinians (Spanish: Convento de las Agustinas Calzadas) is an Augustinian convent located in Toledo, Spain. The word "calzadas" translates to "calced" (or shod) in English, referring to the fact that the community wore shoes, rather than going barefoot as other (stricter) religious orders did. The building is designated a Property of Cultural Interest.

The building contains a small central courtyard surrounded by living and working quarters. Architecturally, the convent has had a complicated history. It was begun in the 17th century and was adapted in the mid-18th century from existing structures; paid for by Luis II Fernandez de Cordoba. Count of Teba and Cardinal Archbishop of Toledo between 1755 and 1771.The chapel has an altar-piece by the baroque painter Francisco Rizi.

Diocese of Carlisle

The Diocese of Carlisle was created in 1133 by Henry I out of part of the Diocese of Durham, although many people of Celtic descent in the area looked to Glasgow for spiritual leadership. The first bishop was Æthelwold, who was the king's confessor and became prior of the Augustinian priory at Nostell in Yorkshire. Carlisle was thus the only cathedral in England to be run by Augustinians instead of Benedictines. This only lasted until the reign of Henry III however, when the Augustinians in Carlisle joined the rebels who temporarily handed the city over to Scotland and elected their own bishop. When the revolt was ended, the Augustinians were expelled.

The seat of the diocese is the Cathedral Church of the Holy and Undivided Trinity in Carlisle.

The Diocese covers most of the non-metropolitan county of Cumbria; Alston Moor is part of the Diocese of Newcastle, and the former Sedbergh Rural District is part of the Diocese of Leeds. The diocese originally only covered the northern parts of Cumberland and Westmorland, and expanded to cover almost the entirety of these, as well as the Furness and Cartmel areas of Lancashire, in 1847, from part of the Diocese of Chester, although this did not take effect until 1856.

Discalced Augustinians

The Order of Discalced Augustinians (Latin: Ordo Augustiniensium Discalceatorum) (Italian: Ordine degli agostiniani scalzi) was a reform movement of Roman Catholic religious orders, which occurred as part of the Counterreformation developing in Catholic Europe, also found sympathy among the friars of the Augustinian Order. As the order to which Martin Luther belonged, there was a special interest among them in the theological debates of the day, as well as a need to return to the roots of their way of life.

In an effort to seek a more simple and spiritual life, various friars banded together and followed a pattern seen in other mendicant orders, in which simplicity of dress and a stricter form of a life of prayer and penance were embraced. Among the Augustinians, there also was an effort to return to the eremetical origins of their Order. As with the Carmelite reform of the same period, these friars came to be known by their practice of wearing sandals, as opposed to shoes (thus the term discalced or barefoot), in an effort to live more like the poor.

This reform was approved by the 100th General Chapter of the Augustinian friars, which was held during May 1592 at the Friary of St. Augustine in Rome, motherhouse of the entire Order. The new branch which thus developed was approved by the Vatican as a separate Order in 1610.Their current motherhouse is in Rome. As of 2012, they numbered 220 friars, of which 139 were priests, and served at 33 parishes located in Italy, Brazil and the Philippines. They use the postnominal initials of O.A.D. to identify themselves.

Enclosed religious orders

Enclosed religious orders of the Christian churches have solemn vows with a strict separation from the affairs of the external world. The term cloistered is synonymous with enclosed. In the Catholic Church enclosure is regulated by the code of canon law, either the Latin code or the Oriental code, and also by subsidiary legislation. It is practised with a variety of customs according to the nature and charism of the community in question.

The stated purpose for such enclosure is to prevent distraction from prayer and the religious life. Depending upon the reason and the length of time, the proper authority (usually the superior gets approval from the local bishop or the Holy See) can allow enclosed men or women to leave the enclosure "for a grave cause and with the consent of the superior". In the Catholic Church, this matter is regulated within the framework of canon law and of the particular statutes approved by the Holy See.

Enclosed religious orders of men include monks following the Rule of Saint Benedict, namely the Benedictine, the Cistercian, and the Trappist Orders, but also monks of the Carthusians, Hieronymite monks, and some branches of Carmelites, along with members of the Monastic Family of Bethlehem, while enclosed religious orders of women include Canonesses Regular, nuns belonging to the Benedictine, Cistercian, Trappist and the Carthusian Orders, along with nuns of the second order of each of the mendicant orders, including: the Poor Clares, the Colettine Poor Clares, the Capuchin Poor Clares, the Dominicans, Carmelites, Servites, Augustinians, Minims, together with the Conceptionist nuns, the Visitandine nuns, Ursulines nuns (as distinct from "federated Ursulines" of the Company of St. Ursula) and women members of the Monastic Family of Bethlehem.

Friar

A friar is a brother member of one of the mendicant orders founded in the twelfth or thirteenth century; the term distinguishes the mendicants' itinerant apostolic character, exercised broadly under the jurisdiction of a superior general, from the older monastic orders' allegiance to a single monastery formalized by their vow of stability. The most significant orders of friars are the Dominicans, Franciscans, Augustinians and Carmelites.

GFA League First Division

The GFA League First Division is the highest division of football in The Gambia. The league began play in 1969.

Marylake Augustinian Monastery

The Marylake Augustinian Monastery, also known as Marylake Monastery, Marylake Shrine, or simply Marylake, is an Augustinian monastery in King City, Ontario, Canada. The campus is nearly 1,000 acres (4.0 km2), residing on Keele Street, just north of 15th Sideroad (Bloomington). It is part of the Province of Saint Joseph, the Canadian province of Augustinians which operates under the jurisdiction of the Chicago-based Province of Our Mother of Good Counsel.

Marylake is the chief foundation of the Augustinians in Canada, and is now well known as a spiritual centre for the Catholic Archdiocese of Toronto. Marylake generally refers to the complex which includes the property, the monastery and shrine, and which operates a retreat centre. The shrine is named the Our Lady of Grace Shrine, whose title is taken from an Augustinian shrine in Lisbon, Portugal. The monastery motto is One mind and one heart unto God.

In 1999, the mendicant order established a school on the property, St. Thomas of Villanova College. It uses the house system, with houses such as St. Augustine, St. Nicholas, St. Rita, and St. Monica.

Monsignor Bonner High School

Monsignor Bonner High School was an all-male Augustinian Catholic High School in the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Philadelphia. It is located in Drexel Hill, Pennsylvania, United States. Bonner was created in 1953 as Archbishop Prendergast High School for Boys. In 1955, the current building was constructed and in 1957 entitled Monsignor Bonner High School. The previously occupied building became the all-female Archbishop Prendergast High School. In 2012, Bonner merged with the all-girls Archbishop Prendergast High School to form Monsignor Bonner and Archbishop Prendergast High School. The Order of St. Augustine is no longer associated with the combined institution.

Order of Augustinian Recollects

The Order of Augustinian Recollects (O.A.R.), whose members are known as Augustinian Recollects, is a mendicant Catholic religious order of friars and nuns. It is a reformist offshoot from the Augustinian hermit friars and follows the same Rule of St. Augustine.

Order of Saint Augustine

The Order of Saint Augustine (Latin: Ordo sancti Augustini, abbreviated as OSA; historically Ordo eremitarum sancti Augustini, OESA, the Order of Hermits of Saint Augustine), generally called Augustinians or Austin Friars (not to be confused with the Augustinian Canons Regular), is a Catholic religious order. It was founded in 1254 by bringing together several eremetical orders in the Tuscany region who were following the Rule of St. Augustine, written by St. Augustine of Hippo in the 5th Century.

In its establishment in its current form, it was shaped as a mendicant order, one of the four great orders which follow that way of life. The order has done much to extend the influence of the Church, to propagate the Roman Catholic Faith and to advance learning. The order has, in particular, spread internationally the veneration of the Virgin Mary under the title of Our Lady of Good Counsel (Mater boni consilii).

Priory

A priory is a monastery of men or women under religious vows that is headed by a prior or prioress. Priories may be houses of mendicant friars or nuns (such as the Dominicans, Augustinians, Franciscans, and Carmelites, for instance), or monasteries of monks or nuns (as with the Benedictines). Houses of canons regular and canonesses regular also use this term, the alternative being "canonry".

In pre-Reformation England, if an abbey church was raised to cathedral status, the abbey became a Cathedral Priory. The bishop, in effect, took the place of the abbot, and the monastery itself was headed by a prior.

Prosper Grech

Prospero Grech (born 24 December 1925) is a Maltese Augustinian friar, who co-founded the Patristic Institute Augustinianum in Rome and was created a cardinal on 18 February 2012.

Recollects

The Recollects (French: Récollets) were a French reform branch of the Order of Friars Minor, commonly known today as the Franciscans (Latin: Ordo fratrum minorum recollectorum). They used the post-nominal initials O.F.M. Rec. or O.M.R. Denoted by their gray habits and pointed hoods, the Recollects took vows of poverty and devoted their lives to prayer, penance, and spiritual reflection. Today, they are best known for their presence as missionaries in various parts of the world, most notably in early Canada.

Created as an Order at the end of the fifteenth century, the origin of the name "Recollects" is still debated; some historians attribute it to the Recollection houses, while others credit it to the orders’ practice of accepting only those who possessed the ability of recollection. In Latin 'Ordo fratrum minorum recollectorum', this last word is related to French receuillement gathering one's thought in contemplation, meditation (https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/recueillement). In 1897 Pope Leo XIII officially dissolved the Recollects order and integrated it as a part of the Franciscan order, officially changing their name to Friars Minor.

Santa Elena, Marikina

Santa Elena is a barangay of Marikina City, Philippines. According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 6,954 people.

Bordered by San Roque and Jesus Dela Peña, Sta. Elena is said to be one of the first towns established by the Augustinians in what was known as the Marikina Valley and home for the heritage sites such as the Our Lady of the Abandoned Parish and the Kapitan Moy Residence.

Santa Maria Incoronata, Milan

Santa Maria Incoronata is a church in Milan, Italy. It was completed in 1460.

Artworks in the interior include a painting by Bergognone, Christ under the Grill, the tomb of Giovanni Bossi, attributed to Bambaia, a Baroque fresco cycle of the Life of St. Nicholas of Tolentino by Ciro Ferrari, and the Biblioteca Umanistica ("Humanist Library", 15th century). The latter has three naves divided by granite columns, with frescoes of the Magisteri Sacrae Pagines commissioned by the Augustinians when they acquired the building. Of the original gardens and cloisters, only one of the latter has survived.

Sisters of Life

Sisters of Life is a female Roman Catholic religious institute, following the Augustinian rule. It is both a contemplative and active religious community, dedicated to the promotion of pro-life causes. The abbreviation S.V. stands for Sorores Vitae, Latin for Sisters of Life.

Thomas Galberry

Thomas Galberry O.S.A. (May 28, 1833 – October 10, 1878) was an Irish Augustinian friar and the fourth Bishop of Hartford, Connecticut, serving from 1876 until his death in 1878.

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