August Wilhelm (after 1812: von) Schlegel (/ˈʃleɪɡəl/; German: [ˈʃleːgl̩]; 8 September 1767 – 12 May 1845), usually cited as August Schlegel, was a German poet, translator and critic, and with his brother Friedrich Schlegel the leading influence within Jena Romanticism. His translations of Shakespeare turned the English dramatist's works into German classics. Schlegel was also the first professor of Sanskrit in Continental Europe and produced a translation of the Bhagavad Gita.
|Born||8 September 1767|
|Died||12 May 1845|
|Alma mater||University of Göttingen|
|Institutions||University of Bonn|
|Philology, philosophy of history|
Schlegel was born in Hanover, where his father, Johann Adolf Schlegel, was a Lutheran pastor. He was educated at the Hanover gymnasium and at the University of Göttingen. Initially studying theology, he received a thorough philological training under Heyne and became an admirer and friend of Bürger, with whom he was engaged in an ardent study of Dante, Petrarch and Shakespeare. Schlegel met with Caroline Böhmer and Wilhelm von Humboldt. In 1790 his brother Friedrich came to Göttingen. Both were influenced by Johann Gottfried Herder, Immanuel Kant, Tiberius Hemsterhuis, Johann Winckelmann and Karl Theodor von Dalberg. From 1791 to 1795, Schlegel was tutor to the children of Mogge Muilman, a Dutch banker, who lived at the prestigious Herengracht in Amsterdam.
In 1796, soon after his return to Germany, Schlegel settled in Jena, following an invitation from Schiller. That year he married Caroline, the widow of the physician Böhmer. She assisted Schlegel in some of his literary productions, and the publication of her correspondence in 1871 established for her a posthumous reputation as a German letter writer. She separated from Schlegel in 1801 and became the wife of the philosopher Schelling soon after.
In Jena, Schlegel made critical contributions to Schiller's Horen and that author's Musen-Almanach, and wrote around 300 articles for the Jenaer Allgemeine Litteratur-Zeitung. He also did translations from Dante and Shakespeare. This work established his literary reputation and gained for him in 1798 an extraordinary professorship at the University of Jena. His house became the intellectual headquarters of the "romanticists", and was visited at various times between 1796 and 1801 by Fichte, whose Foundations of the Science of Knowledge was studied intensively, by his brother Friedrich, who moved in with his wife Dorothea, by Schelling, by Tieck, by Novalis and others.
It is widely accepted that the Romantic Movement in Germany emerged, on the one hand, as a reaction against the aesthetical ideals defended in Classicism and Neoclassicism, and on the other, as a deviation from the rational principles of the Enlightenment with the consequent regression to the irrational spirit of the Middle Ages.
Schlegel argues that, from a philosophical point of view, everything participates in an ongoing process of creation, whereas, from an empirical point of view, natural things are conceived as if they were dead, fixed and independent from the whole.
In 1797 August and Friedrich broke with Friedrich Schiller. With his brother, Schlegel founded the Athenaeum (1798–1800), the organ of the Romantic school, in which he dissected disapprovingly the immensely popular works of the sentimental novelist August Lafontaine. He also published a volume of poems and carried on a controversy with Kotzebue. At this time the two brothers were remarkable for the vigour and freshness of their ideas and commanded respect as the leaders of the new Romantic criticism. A volume of their joint essays appeared in 1801 under the title Charakteristiken und Kritiken. His play Ion, performed in Weimar in January 1802, was supported by Goethe, but became a failure.
When the work of art appears as if all its elements had been consciously chosen by a power above the artist, it has style; when the artist has not transcended his/her individuality, then s/he is categorized as a mannerist artist (SW III, 309–312).
In 1801 Schlegel went to Berlin, where he delivered lectures on art and literature; and in the following year he published Ion, a tragedy in Euripidean style, which gave rise to a suggestive discussion on the principles of dramatic poetry. This was followed by Spanisches Theater (2 vols, 1803/1809), in which he presented admirable translations of five of Calderón's plays. In another volume, Blumensträusse italienischer, spanischer und portugiesischer Poesie (1804), he gave translations of Spanish, Portuguese and Italian lyrics. He also translated works by Dante and Camões.
Early in 1804, he made the acquaintance of Madame de Staël in Berlin, who hired him as a tutor for her children. After divorcing his wife Caroline, Schlegel travelled with Madame de Staël to Switzerland, Italy and France, acting as an adviser in her literary work. In 1807 he attracted much attention in France by an essay in the French, Comparaison entre la Phèdre de Racine et celle d'Euripide, in which he attacked French classicism from the standpoint of the Romantic school. His famous lectures on dramatic art and literature (Über dramatische Kunst und Literatur, 1809–1811), which have been translated into most European languages, were delivered at Vienna in 1808. He was accompanied by De Staël and her children. In 1810 Schlegel was ordered to leave the Swiss Confederation as an enemy of the French literature.
For Schlegel, the magic of a work of art is that it brings us into a different world, with all its own internal coherence, and this is why it needs to become organic and complete unto itself. Therefore, its purpose should not be to reflect the real world with naturalism, but rather to create its own world, which could never be a question of applying a set of rules and principles to a particular matter (paintings, words, marble), such as classicist principles seemed to do.
In 1812, he travelled with De Staël, her fiancé Albert de Rocca and her children to Moscow, St. Petersburg and Stockholm and acted as secretary of Jean Baptiste Jules Bernadotte, through whose influence the right of his family to noble rank was revived. After this, he joined again the household of Mme. de Staël until her death in 1817, for like Mathieu de Montmorency he was one of her intimates until the end of her life. Schlegel was made a professor of literature at the University of Bonn in 1818, and during the remainder of his life occupied himself chiefly with oriental studies. He founded a special printing office for Sanskrit. As an orientalist, he was unable to adapt himself to the new methods opened up by Bopp. He corresponded with Wilhelm von Humboldt, a linguist. After the death of Madame de Staël, Schlegel married (1818) a daughter of Heinrich Paulus, but this union was dissolved in 1821.
Schlegel continued to lecture on art and literature, publishing in 1827 On the Theory and History of the Plastic Arts, and in 1828 two volumes of critical writings (Kritische Schriften). In 1823–30 he published the journal Indische Bibliothek. In 1823 edited the Bhagavad Gita, with a Latin translation, and in 1829, the Ramayana. This was followed by his 1832 work Reflections on the Study of the Asiatic Languages. Schlegel's translation of Shakespeare, begun in Jena, was ultimately completed, under the superintendence of Ludwig Tieck, by Tieck's daughter Dorothea and Wolf Heinrich Graf von Baudissin. This rendering is considered one of the best poetical translations in German, or indeed in any language. In 1826, Felix Mendelssohn, at the age of 17, was inspired by August Wilhelm's translation of Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream to write a homonymous concert overture. Schlegel's brother Friedrich's wife was an aunt of Mendelssohn.
According to Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition,
As an original poet Schlegel is unimportant, but as a poetical translator he has rarely been excelled, and in criticism he put into practice the Romantic principle that a critic's first duty is not to judge from the standpoint of superiority, but to understand and to "characterize" a work of art.
Traugott Böhme, in his article for the 1920 Encyclopedia Americana, gives the following thoughts:
As a critic [Schlegel] carried on the tradition of Lessing and Herder. Without possessing Lessing's power of style and personality, [Schlegel] commanded a wider range of artistic susceptibility. His unerring linguistic and historical scholarship and the calm objectivity of his judgment enabled him to carry out, even more successfully than Herder himself, Herder's demand that literary criticism should be based on a sympathetic penetration into the specific individuality of each poetic production rather than on the application of preconceived aesthetic standards.
Schlegel established models for the new method of analytical and interpretative criticism in his essays on Goethe's Hermann and Dorothea and on Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet. His Vienna lectures On Dramatic Art and Literature were translated into most of the languages of Europe and stand as a permanent contribution to critical literature; his definition of the terms "classic" and "romantic" met with general recognition; his views on the so-called "three unities" and on the "correctness" of Shakespeare evoked an especially strong echo in England and finally made the Johnsonian attitude toward Shakespeare appear obsolete.
Formal perfection of language is the chief merit of his poems, which suffer from a lack of originality. In his drama Ion, he vainly attempted to rival Goethe's Iphigenie. He prided himself on being "model and master in the art of sonnets" among the Germans. He is at his best in sparkling literature parodies such as Ehrenpforte und Triumphbogen für Kotzebue (1801).
The 1905 New International Encyclopedia, in its article on Schlegel, gives the following opinions:
- The Schlegel-Tieck translation is universally considered better than any other rendering of Shakespeare in a foreign language. Thanks to Schlegel and Tieck, Shakespeare has become a national poet of Germany.
- [Schlegel's] Spanisches Theater (1803-09), consisting of five pieces of Calderon's, admirably translated,... [made] that poet a favorite with the German people, and his Blumensträusse der italienischen, spanischen und portugiesischen Poesie (Berlin, 1804), a charming collection of southern lyrics, [marks] the appearance of . . . the naturalization in German verse of the metrical forms of the Romanic races.
- Schlegel was quarrelsome, jealous, and ungenerous in his relations with literary men, and did not even shrink from slander when his spleen was excited.
Schlegel's Shakespeare translations have been often reprinted. The edition of 1871–72 was revised with Schlegel's manuscripts by Michael Bernays. See Bernays's Zur Entstehungsgeschichte des Schlegelschen Shakespeare (1872); Rudolph Genée, Schlegel und Shakespeare (1903). Schlegel also translated plays by Pedro Calderón de la Barca, such as La banda y flor, which became the basis for E. T. A. Hoffmann's 1807 singspiel Liebe und Eifersucht.
A selection of the writings of both August Wilhelm and Friedrich Schlegel, edited by Oskar Walzel, will be found in Kürschner's Deutsche Nationalliteratur, 143 (1892).
Adolf Friedrich Stenzler (July 9, 1807 – February 27, 1887) was a German Indologist born in Wolgast.
He initially studied theology and Oriental languages at the University of Greifswald under Johann Gottfried Ludwig Kosegarten (1792–1860), then furthered his education at the University of Berlin with Franz Bopp (1791–1861) and at the University of Bonn under August Wilhelm Schlegel (1767–1845). In 1829 he earned his doctorate, then continued his studies in Paris, where he attended lectures by Antoine-Léonard de Chézy (1773–1832) and Silvestre de Sacy (1758–1838). Afterwards, he worked in the library of the British East India Company in London.
In 1833 he was appointed associate professor of Oriental languages at the University of Breslau, where in 1847 he became a full professor. At Breslau he was an instructor of Arabic and Persian, later giving classes on Sanskrit and comparative linguistics. From 1836 onward, he worked as curator of the university library. His students at Breslau included Lucian Scherman (1864-1946), Franz Kielhorn (1840-1908), Richard Pischel (1849-1908) and Thomas Rhys Davids (1843-1922).
Stenzler was a pioneer of Sanskrit studies in Germany. In 1868 he published his best written work, a highly regarded textbook on Sanskrit grammar and vocabulary, titled Elementarbuch der Sanskrit-Sprache. He made significant contributions in his research of Indian literature in regards to law and medicine.
In 1866 he became a corresponding member in the Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences.Athalie
Athalie is a 1691 play, the final tragedy of Jean Racine, and has been described as the masterpiece of "one of the greatest literary artists known" and the "ripest work" of Racine's genius. It is referred to in Gustave Flaubert's Madame Bovary as the masterpiece of the French stage, and Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve deemed it comparable to Oedipus Rex in beauty, with "the true God added." August Wilhelm Schlegel thought Athalie to be "animated by divine breath"; other critics have regarded the poetics of drama in the play to be superior to those of Aristotle.August Ferdinand Bernhardi
August Ferdinand Bernhardi (24 June 1769 in Berlin – 1 June 1820 in Berlin) was a German linguist and writer.
After studying philosophy in Halle an der Saale, in 1791 Bernhardi became a teacher at the Friedrichwerderschen Gymnasium in Berlin and in 1808 became the institution's headmaster. In 1815 he joined the Marcher Consistory and the Academic Examination Committee. Shortly before his death he was named the headmaster of the Friedrich Wilhelms Gymnasium.
In 1799 Bernhardi married Sophie Tieck, the younger sister of Ludwig Tieck, however, the marriage broke down in 1805. This relationship brought him into Romantic circles, associated with people such as Friedrich and August Wilhelm Schlegel, Ludwig Tieck and others. This prompted him to write and publish works on linguistics, as well as satirical writings about Berlin society and literary life. Bernhardi also contributed to literary journals and almanacs (such as Athenäum and Europa), and wrote some stories and poems in the romantic style, the most well-known of which is Der Löwe in Florenz (The Lion in Florence).
Bernhardi, however, achieved renown and recognition first and foremost through his linguistic research and had significant influence on famous linguists such as Wilhelm von Humboldt and Franz Bopp.
He was the father of the historian Theodor von Bernhardi and grandfather of the Prussian general Friedrich von Bernhardi.Cecilian Movement
The Cecilian Movement for church music reform began in Germany in the second half of the 1800s as a reaction to the liberalization of the Enlightenment (Gmeinwieser 2001).
The Cecilian Movement received great impetus from Regensburg, where Franz Xaver Haberl had a world-renowned school for church musicians (Haberl 2001). Their theoretical ideas were formulated by Ludwig Tieck, Friedrich and August Wilhelm Schlegel, Johann Michael Sailer, E. T. A. Hoffmann (1814), and Anton Friedrich Justus Thibaut (Gmeinwieser 2001).Coppet group
The Coppet group (Groupe de Coppet), also known as the Coppet circle, was an informal intellectual and literary gathering centered on Germaine de Staël during the time period between the French Revolution and the Bourbon Restoration at Coppet Castle. The group had a considerable influence on the development of nineteenth century liberalism and romanticism. Stendhal referred to it as "the Estates General of European opinion."Die Horen (Schiller)
Not to be confused with die Horen (Morawietz).Die Horen (The Horae) was a monthly German literary journal published from 1795 to 1797. It was printed by the Cotta publishing house in Tübingen and edited and run by Friedrich Schiller. Many and partially antagonistic prominent figures in German culture of the time contributed, among them Johann Jakob Engel, Fichte, Goethe, Herder, Alexander von Humboldt, Wilhelm von Humboldt, Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi, Johann Heinrich Meyer, August Wilhelm Schlegel, and Karl Ludwig von Woltmann. The journal formed the cornerstone of Weimar Classicism and exerted a great influence onto German intellectual history.Dorothea Tieck
Dorothea Tieck (March 1799 – 21 February 1841) was a German translator, known particularly for her translations of William Shakespeare. She was born in Berlin, Brandenburg, as the daughter of Ludwig Tieck, and collaborated with her father and his Romantic literary circle, including August Wilhelm Schlegel and Wolf Heinrich Graf von Baudissin. She completed the translation of Shakespeare's works, which her father had begun with Schlegel and Baudissin, and worked also on Miguel de Cervantes and other Spanish writers.Friedrich Schlegel
Karl Wilhelm Friedrich (after 1814: von) Schlegel (; German: [ˈfʁiːdʁɪç ˈʃleːgl̩]; 10 March 1772 – 12 January 1829), usually cited as Friedrich Schlegel, was a German poet, literary critic, philosopher, philologist and Indologist. With his older brother, August Wilhelm Schlegel, he was one of the main figures of the Jena romantics. He was a zealous promoter of the Romantic movement and inspired Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Adam Mickiewicz and Kazimierz Brodziński. The first to notice what became known as Grimm's law, Schlegel was a pioneer in Indo-European studies, comparative linguistics, and morphological typology.
As a young man he was an atheist, a radical, and an individualist. In 1808, the same Schlegel converted to Catholicism. Two years later he was a diplomat and journalist in the service of the reactionary Clemens von Metternich, surrounded by monks and pious men of society.German Romanticism
German Romanticism was the dominant intellectual movement of German-speaking countries in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, influencing philosophy, aesthetics, literature and criticism. Compared to English Romanticism, the German variety developed relatively late, and, in the early years, coincided with Weimar Classicism (1772–1805). In contrast to the seriousness of English Romanticism, the German variety of Romanticism notably valued wit, humour, and beauty.
The early period, roughly 1797 to 1802, is referred to as Frühromantik or Jena Romanticism. The philosophers and writers central to the movement were Wilhelm Heinrich Wackenroder (1773–1798), Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling (1775–1854), Friedrich Schleiermacher (1768–1834), Karl Wilhelm Friedrich Schlegel (1772–1829), August Wilhelm Schlegel (1767–1845), Ludwig Tieck (1773–1853), and Friedrich von Hardenberg (Novalis) (1772–1801).The early German romantics strove to create a new synthesis of art, philosophy, and science, by viewing the Middle Ages as a simpler period of integrated culture; however, the German romantics became aware of the tenuousness of the cultural unity they sought. Late-stage German Romanticism emphasized the tension between the daily world and the irrational and supernatural projections of creative genius. In particular, the critic Heinrich Heine criticized the tendency of the early German romantics to look to the medieval past for a model of unity in art and society.Liebe und Eifersucht
Liebe und Eifersucht (Love and Jealousy) is a Singspiel, an opera with spoken dialogue, in three acts by the German composer and author E. T. A. Hoffmann, composed in 1807 on his own libretto based on the translation by August Wilhelm Schlegel of a play by Calderón. The opera was first published by Schott in 1999, and premiered at the 2008 Ludwigsburger Schlossfestspiele.List of aestheticians
This is a list of aestheticians (or aestheticists), philosophers of art, and aesthetes. That is, people who theorize about the nature of art and beauty.Musen-Almanach
A Musen-Almanach ("Muses' Almanac") was a kind of literary annual, popular in Germany from 1770 into the mid-19th century. They were modelled on the Almanach des Muses published in Paris from 1765.O Vrba
"O Vrba" is a sonnet written in 1832 and later corrected by the Slovene Romantic poet France Prešeren, who is considered the national poet of Slovenia. It was published in 1834 in the fourth volume of the almanac Krajnska čbelica (Carniolan Bee). It is the introductory exposition of a cycle of six sonnets, titled the Sonnets of Misfortune (Slovene: Sonetje nesreče). The sonnet is dedicated to the Prešeren's home village of Vrba, expressing a sense of general melancholy over the lost idyll of the rural environment. According to contemporary Slovene literary critics, especially Marija Pirjevec, Boris Paternu and Janko Kos, the meaning of the sonnet is centered on the problem of insecurity and unhappiness of a free subject detached from the theocentric world view. The sonnet form follows the rules abstracted by August Wilhelm Schlegel from the sonnets of Petrarch. In the 20th century, several musical interpretations of the poem were created, the most known of them probably being a version by the Slovene folk rock musician Vlado Kreslin.Pauline Gotter
Pauline Gotter (29 December 1786 – 31 December 1854) was the second wife of Friedrich Wilhelm Schelling and a friend of Louise Seidler and Sylvie von Cigars.Plastic arts
Plastic arts are art forms which involve physical manipulation of a plastic medium by molding or modeling such as sculpture or ceramics.
Less often the term may be used broadly for all the visual arts (such as painting, sculpture, film and photography), as opposed to literature and music.Materials for use in the plastic arts, in the narrower definition, include those that can be carved or shaped, such as stone or wood, concrete, glass, or metal.
The term "plastic" has been used to mean certain synthetic organic resins ever since they were invented, but the term "plastic arts" long preceded them.
The term should not be confused, either, with Piet Mondrian's concept of "Neoplasticism".Schlegel
Schlegel is a German surname. Notable people with the surname include:
Catharina von Schlegel (1697 - after 1768), German hymn writer
Johann Elias Schlegel (1719–1749), German critic and dramatic poet, brother of Johann Adolf
Johann Adolf Schlegel (1721–1793), German poet and clergyman, father of August Wilhelm and Friedrich
Dorothea von Schlegel (1764–1839), German novelist and translator, wife of Friedrich Schlegel
August Wilhelm Schlegel (1767–1845), German poet, older brother of Friedrich
Karl Wilhelm Friedrich Schlegel (1772–1829), German poet and philosopher, younger brother of August Wilhelm
Hermann Schlegel (1804–1884), German ornithologist and herpetologist
Johan Frederik Schlegel (1817–1896), Danish civil servant & Governor-General of the Danish West Indies
Gustaaf Schlegel (1840–1903), Dutch sinologist and field naturalist
Victor Schlegel (1843–1905), German mathematician
Karl Schlegel (aviator) (1893–1918), German World War I flying ace
Frits Schlegel (1896-1965), Danish architect
Margarete Schlegel (1899–1987), German actress
Helmut Schlegel (born 1943), German Franciscan, priest, author, meditation instructor, songwriter
John P. Schlegel (born 1943), President of Creighton University and Jesuit
Richard Schlegel, American scientist and professor, chair of the department of pathology at Georgetown University
Hans Schlegel (born 1951), German astronaut
Norbert Schlegel (born 1961), German former footballer and coach
Elfi Schlegel (born 1964), former Canadian gymnast and sportscaster for NBC Sports
Brad Schlegel (born 1968), Canadian ice hockey player
Lynda Schlegel-Culver, Republican politician from the U.S. commonwealth of Pennsylvania
Anthony Schlegel (born 1981), former American football linebacker
Carmela Schlegel (born 1983), retired Swiss swimmerSchlegel-Tieck Prize
The Schlegel-Tieck Prize for German Translation is a literary translation prize given by the Society of Authors in London. It is named for August Wilhelm Schlegel and Ludwig Tieck who translated Shakespeare to German in the 19th century. Translations from the German original into English are considered for the prize. The value of the prize is £3,000.The winner of the 2018 prize, for translations published in 2017, was Tony Crawford for his translation of Wonder Beyond Belief by Navid Kermani.The History of King Lear
The History of King Lear is an adaptation by Nahum Tate of William Shakespeare's King Lear. It first appeared in 1681, some seventy-five years after Shakespeare's version, and is believed to have replaced Shakespeare's version on the English stage in whole or in part until 1838.Unlike Shakespeare's tragedy, Tate's play has a happy ending, with Lear regaining his throne, Cordelia marrying Edgar, and Edgar joyfully declaring that "truth and virtue shall at last succeed." Regarded as a tragicomedy, the play has five acts, as does Shakespeare's, although the number of scenes is different, and the text is about eight hundred lines shorter than Shakespeare's. Many of Shakespeare's original lines are retained, or modified only slightly, but a significant portion of the text is entirely new, and much is omitted. The character of the Fool, for example, is absent.
Although many critics – including Joseph Addison, August Wilhelm Schlegel, Charles Lamb, William Hazlitt, and Anna Jameson — condemned Tate's adaptation for what they saw as its cheap sentimentality, it was popular with theatregoers, and was approved by Samuel Johnson, who regarded Cordelia's death in Shakespeare's play as unbearable. Shakespeare's version continued to appear in printed editions of his works, but, according to numerous scholars, including A.C. Bradley and Stanley Wells, did not appear on the English stage for over a hundred and fifty years from the date of the first performance of Tate's play. Actors such as Thomas Betterton, David Garrick, and John Philip Kemble, who were famous for the role of Lear, were portraying Tate's Lear, not Shakespeare's.
The tragic ending was briefly restored by Edmund Kean in 1823. In 1838, William Charles Macready purged the text entirely of Tate, in favour of a shortened version of Shakespeare's original. Finally, Samuel Phelps returned to the complete Shakespeare text in 1845.Wolf Heinrich Graf von Baudissin
Wolf Heinrich Friedrich Karl Graf von Baudissin (30 January 1789 – 4 April 1878) was a German diplomat, writer, and translator.
Born in Rantzau, Holstein, in 1810 Baudissin entered the diplomatic service of the Danish government serving as secretary of legation successively in Stockholm, Vienna, and Paris. After 1827, he lived and worked in Dresden. There he collaborated on translations of William Shakespeare with August Wilhelm Schlegel, Ludwig Tieck and Dorothea Tieck. Independently, he translated Molière, Carlo Goldoni, Carlo Gozzi, and others.