Attock

Attock (Punjabi, Urdu: اٹک), formerly known as Campbellpur (کیمبل پور),[1] is a city located in the north of Pakistan's Punjab Province, not far from the country's capital Islamabad. It is the headquarters of Attock District and Attock Tehsil. The city was founded in 1908 several miles southeast of the older city of Attock Khurd,[2] which had been established by the Mughal Emperor Akbar in the 16th century,[3] and was initially named in honour of Sir Colin Campbell.[4]

Attock

اٹک

Campbellpur
Attock Fort in Old Attock
Attock is located in Punjab, Pakistan
Attock
Attock
Attock is located in Pakistan
Attock
Attock
Coordinates: 33°46′0″N 72°22′0″E / 33.76667°N 72.36667°ECoordinates: 33°46′0″N 72°22′0″E / 33.76667°N 72.36667°E
CountryPakistan
ProvincePunjab
Established1904
Incorporated1978
Time zoneUTC5 (PKT)
Postal code span
Area code(s)057
Websitewww.attockonians.com

Etymology

The city was initially named Campbellpore, also spelt Campbellpur, in 1908 in honour of Sir Colin Campbell.[4] The name was changed in 1978 to Attock, which literally means "Foot of the Mountain."[3]

Geography

Attock is located near the Haro River, a tributary of the Indus River, 80 km (50 mi) from Rawalpindi, 100 km (62 mi) from Peshawar, and 10 km (6 mi) from the Pakistan Aeronautical Complex, Kamra.

History

Background

Attock is located in a historically significant region. Gandhara was an ancient kingdom extending to the Swat valley and the Potohar plateau regions of Pakistan as well as the Jalalabad district of northeastern Afghanistan. Situated astride the middle Indus River, the region had Takshashila and Peshawar as its chief cities. The place is of both political and commercial importance, as the Indus is here crossed by the military and trade route through the Khyber Pass into Afghanistan. Alexander the Great, Timur and Nader Shah crossed the Indus at or about this spot in their respective invasions of India.[5]

The Attock Fort was completed in 1583 under the supervision of Khawaja Shamsuddin Khawafi, a minister of Emperor Akbar.[6] Nader Shah crossed through Attock when he defeated the Mughals at the Battle of Karnal and thus ended Mughal power in Northern India. The Battle of Attock took place at Attock Khurd on 28 April 1758 between the Durrani Empire Maratha Kingdom. The Marathas under Raghunathrao Ballal Peshwa and Tukojirao Holkar Bahadur were victorious in the battle and Attock was captured.[7] But this conquest was short-lived as Ahmad Shah Durrani came in person to recapture Attock and checked the Maratha advance permanently after destroying their forces at Panipat. After the decline of the Durrani Empire, the Sikhs invaded and occupied Attock District. The Sikh Kingdom (1799–1849) under Ranjit Singh (1780–1839) captured the fortress of Attock in 1813 from the Durrani Nawab.

In 1849, Attock Khurd (Old Attock) was conquered by the British East India Company who created Campbellpur District. Following the Indian Rebellion in 1857, the region's strategic value was appreciated by the British, who established the Campbellpur Cantonment in 1857-58.[2] Campbellpore District was organised in 1904,[2] by the division of Talagang Tehsil in the Jhelum District with the Pindigheb, Fateh Jang and Attock tehsils from Rawalpindi District.

Founding

The city's foundations were laid in 1908 by Sir Colin Campbell, the British Commander-in-Chief of India for whom the city is named.[2] The old city was established near the 16th century near the Attock fort that had guarded the major routes between Central Asia and South Asia. Attock's first oil well was drilled in Khaur in 1915,[8] while the Attock Oil Company was established.[9] It has an oil and gas field Dakhini near Jand and in Fateh Jang.

Modern

After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, the minority Hindus and Sikhs emigrated to India, while Muslim refugees from India settled in Attock. The Government of Pakistan renamed Campbellpur as Attock in 1978.[3] The city and surrounding area are known for their high representation among soldiers of the Pakistani Military.[10]

Education

According to the Alif Ailaan Pakistan District Education Rankings 2014, Attock is ranked 3 out of 146 districts of Pakistan in terms of the quality of education. For facilities and infrastructure, the district is ranked 17 out of 146.[11] A detailed picture of the district's education performance is also available online.[12] Army Public School & College, Government Polytechnic Institute,[13] Beacon Light English Model Secondary School,[14]COMSATS University Islamabad and Punjab College Attock are few important educational institutes in Attock.

See also

References

  1. ^ Shackle, Christopher (1980). "Hindko in Kohat and Peshawar". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. 43 (3): 482. doi:10.1017/S0041977X00137401. ISSN 0041-977X.
  2. ^ a b c d Pike, John. "Attock City Cantonment". www.globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2018-03-09.
  3. ^ a b c Everett-Heath, John (2017-12-07). The Concise Dictionary of World Place Names. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780192556462.
  4. ^ a b Everett-Heath, John (2017-12-07). The Concise Dictionary of World Place Names. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780192556462.
  5. ^  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Attock" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 2 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 886.
  6. ^ Hasan, Shaikh Khurshid (2005). Historical forts in Pakistan. National Institute of Historical & Cultural Research Centre of Excellence, Quaid-i-Azam University. p. 37. ISBN 978-969-415-069-7. Retrieved 17 July 2011.
  7. ^ "Attock to Cuttack, PM Narendra Modi causes a stir". The Economic Times. June 27, 2017.
  8. ^ World oil. Gulf Publishing Company. March 1947. p. 12. Retrieved 17 July 2011.
  9. ^ (India), Punjab (1932). Punjab District Gazetteers: Attock district, 1930. Superintendent, Government Printing.
  10. ^ Jaffrelot, Christophe (2015-08-15). The Pakistan Paradox: Instability and Resilience. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780190613303.
  11. ^ "Alif Ailaan Pakistan District Education Rankings, 2014" (PDF). Alif Ailaan. Retrieved 2014-05-06.
  12. ^ "Individual district profile link, 2014" (PDF). Alif Ailaan. Retrieved 2014-05-06.
  13. ^ "Government Polytechnic Institute". Archived from the original on 2012-03-12.
  14. ^ "Beacon Light English Model Secondary School official website". Beacon Light English Model Secondary School.
Attock City Junction railway station

Attock City Junction railway station (Urdu and Punjabi: اٹک سٹی جنکشن ریلوے اسٹیشن) is located in Attock city, Attock district, Punjab province, Pakistan.

Attock District

Attock District (ضِلع اٹک) is a district in Pothohar Plateau of the Punjab Province of Pakistan. Attock is the capital of the district.

The district was created in April 1904 by the merging of tehsils of nearby districts. Its former name was Campbellpur. Today the district consists of 6 tehsils that are Attock, Fateh Jang, Hazro, Hassan Abdal, Jand and Pindi Gheb.

It is located in the north of the Punjab province, Attock district is bordered by Chakwal to its south, Mianwali to its south west, Rawalpindi to its east, Kohat to its west, Nowshera to its north west and Swabi and Haripur to its north.

Attock Khurd railway station

Attock Khurd railway station (Urdu and Punjabi: اٹک خورد ریلوے اسٹیشن) is located at Attock Khurd village, Attock district, Punjab province, Pakistan.

Battle of Attock (1758)

The Battle of Attock took place on 28 April 1758 between Maratha Empire and the Durrani Empire. The Marathas, under Raghunathrao (Raghoba), delivered a decisive victory and Attock was captured. The battle is seen as a great success for Marathas who hoisted Maratha flag in Attock. Raghunathrao left Punjab after three months appointing Maratha Sardar Narsoji Pandit with 4000 Maratha troops to guard the fort from Afghans.

Burhan railway station

Burhan railway station (Urdu and Punjabi: برہان ریلوے اسٹیشن ) is located in Burhan town, Attock district of Punjab province, Pakistan.

COMSATS University Islamabad

The COMSATS University Islamabad (CUI), formerly known as COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT), is a public university in Pakistan. It is a multi-campus university with its principal seat located in Islamabad.

Constituency PP-1 (Attock-I)

Constituency PP-1 (Attock-I) (Old PP-15) is a Constituency of Provincial Assembly of Punjab as per Final Delimitation 2018 MAPS.

Constituency PP-2 (Attock-II)

PP-2 (Attock-II) (Old PP-16) is a Constituency of Provincial Assembly of Punjab.

Constituency PP-3 (Attock-III)

PP-3 (Attock-III) (Old PP-17) is a Constituency of Provincial Assembly of Punjab.

Daud Khel Junction railway station

Daud Khel Junction railway station (Urdu: داود خیل ریلوے اسٹیشن‎) is located in Pakistan.

Faqirabad railway station

Faqirabad railway station (Urdu and Punjabi: فقیر آباد ریلوے اسٹیشن ) is located in Faqirabad village, Attock district of Punjab province, Pakistan.

Habib Kot Junction railway station

Habib Kot Junction railway station (Urdu: حبیب کوٹ جنکشن ریلوے اسٹیشن ‎, Sindhi: حبيب ڪوٽ جنڪشن ريلوي اسٽيشن ‎) is located in Habib Kot village, Shikarpur district of Sindh province of the Pakistan. It is the junction of Kotri - Habib Kot via Dadu and Larkana branch railway line.

Larkana Junction railway station

Larkana Junction railway station (Urdu: لاڑکانہ جوڑ اسٹیشن‎, Sindhi: لاڙڪاڻو ريلوي اسٽيشن ‎) is located in middle of the Larkana, Sindh, Pakistan. The station is staffed and has a booking office.

Mari Indus railway station

Mari Indus railway station (Urdu: ماڑی انڈس ریلوے اسٹیشن‎) is located in Mari Indus, Pakistan.

NA-55 (Attock-I)

NA-55 (Attock-I) (Urdu: این اے-۵۵، اٹک-۱‎) is a constituency for the National Assembly of Pakistan.

NA-56 (Attock-II)

NA-56 (Attock-II) (Urdu: این اے-۵٦، اٹک-۲‎) is a constituency for the National Assembly of Pakistan.

Rumian railway station

Rumian railway station (Urdu and Punjabi: رومیان ریلوے اسٹیشن ) is located in Rumian village, Attock district of Punjab province of the Pakistan.

Sanjwal railway station

Sanjwal railway station (Urdu and Punjabi: سنجوال ریلوے اسٹیشن) is located in Sanjwal village, Attock district of Punjab province, Pakistan.

Shikarpur railway station

Shikarpur railway station (Urdu: شکارپور ریلوے اسٹیشن ‎, Sindhi: شکارپور ریلوے اسٹیشن ‎) is located in Shikarpur city, Shikarpur district of Sindh province of the Pakistan.

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