Attica

Attica (Greek: Αττική, Ancient Greek Attikḗ or Attikī́; Ancient Greek: [atːikɛ̌ː] or Modern: [atiˈci]), or the Attic peninsula, is a historical region that encompasses the city of Athens, the capital of Greece. It is a peninsula projecting into the Aegean Sea, bordering on Boeotia to the north and Megaris to the west.

The history of Attica is tightly linked with that of Athens, and specifically the Golden Age of Athens during the classical period. Ancient Attica (Athens city-state) was divided into demoi or municipalities from the reform of Cleisthenes in 508/7 BC, grouped into three zones: urban (astu) in the region of Athens main city and Piraeus (port of Athens), coastal (paralia) along the coastline and inland (mesogeia) in the interior. The southern tip of the peninsula, known as Laurion, was an important mining region.

The modern administrative region of Attica is more extensive than the historical region and includes Megaris as part of the regional unit West Attica, and the Saronic Islands and Cythera, as well as the municipality of Troizinia on the Peloponnesian mainland, as the regional unit Islands.

Coordinates: 38°05′0″N 23°30′0″E / 38.08333°N 23.50000°E

Attica

Αττική
Region of Ancient Greece
View from Kaisariani Hill looking towards Athens, with Salamis visible in the background
View from Kaisariani Hill looking towards Athens, with Salamis visible in the background
Map of municipalities (demoi) in ancient Attica
Map of municipalities (demoi) in ancient Attica
LocationCentral Greece
Major citiesAthens
DialectsAttic
Key periodsAthenian Empire (477–404 BC)
Second Athenian League (378–338 BC)

Geography

Aliki Anavyssou
View from Anavyssos, looking south-east towards Palaia Fokaia.

Attica is a triangular peninsula jutting into the Aegean Sea. It is naturally divided to the north from Boeotia by the 10 mi (16 km) long Cithaeron mountain range.

To the west of Eleusis, the Greek mainland narrows into Megaris, connecting to the Peloponnese at the Isthmus of Corinth. The western coast of Attica, also known as the Athens Riviera, forms the eastern coastline of the Saronic Gulf. Mountains separate the peninsula into the plains of Pedias, Mesogeia, and the Thriasian Plain. The mountains of Attica are the Hymettus, the eastern portion of the Geraneia, Parnitha (the highest mountain of Attica), Aigaleo and Penteli. Four mountains—Aigaleo, Parnitha, Penteli and Hymettus (clockwise from the southwest)—delineate the hilly plain on which the Athens urban area now spreads. Mesogeia lies to the east of Mount Hymettus and is bound to the north by the foothills of Mount Penteli, to the east by the Euboean Gulf and Mount Myrrhinous, and to the south by the mountains of Lavrio (modern Lavreotiki), Panio (Πάνειο Όρος), and Laureotic Olympus (Λαυρεωτικός Όλυμπος). The Lavrio region terminates in Cape Sounion, forming the southeastern tip of the Attic peninsula.

Athens' water reservoir, Lake Marathon, is an artificial reservoir created by damming in 1920. Pine and fir forests cover the area around Parnitha. Hymettus, Penteli, Myrrhinous and Lavrio are forested with pine trees, whereas the rest are covered by shrubbery.

The Kifisos is the longest river of Attica.

According to Plato, Attica's ancient boundaries were fixed by the Isthmus, and, toward the continent, they extended as far as the heights of Cithaeron and Parnes. The boundary line came down toward the sea, bounded by the district of Oropus on the right and by the river Asopus on the left.

History

Ancient history

Temple of Poseidon, Sounio, Greece (3734153787)
The Temple of Poseidon (c.440 BC) at Cape Sounion, the southernmost point of Attica.

During antiquity, the Athenians boasted about being 'autochthonic', which is to say that they were the original inhabitants of the area and had not moved to Attica from another place. The traditions current in the classical period recounted that, during the Greek Dark Ages, Attica had become the refuge of the Ionians, who belonged to a tribe from the northern Peloponnese. Supposedly, the Ionians had been forced out of their homeland by the Achaeans, who had been forced out of their homeland by the Dorian invasion.[1] Supposedly, the Ionians integrated with the ancient Atticans, who, afterward, considered themselves part of the Ionian tribe and spoke the Ionian dialect. Many Ionians later left Attica to colonize the Aegean coast of Asia Minor and to create the twelve cities of Ionia.

Brauron - Π-shaped stoa and Classical Bridge
Ancient site of Vravrona

During the Mycenaean period, the Atticans lived in autonomous agricultural societies. The main places where prehistoric remains were found are Marathon, Rafina, Nea Makri, Brauron, Thorikos, Agios Kosmas, Eleusis, Menidi, Markopoulo, Spata, Aphidnae and Athens. All of these settlements flourished during the Mycenaean period.[2]

According to tradition, Attica comprised twelve small communities during the reign of Cecrops, the legendary Ionian king of Athens. Strabo assigns these the names of Cecropia, Tetrapolis, Epacria, Decelea, Eleusis, Aphidna, Thoricus, Brauron, Cytherus, Sphettus, Cephisia, and possibly Phaleron. These were said to have been later incorporated in an Athenian state during the reign of Theseus, the mythical king of Athens.[3] Modern historians consider it more likely that the communities were progressively incorporated into an Athenian state during the 8th and the 7th centuries BC.[4]

Until the 6th century BC, aristocratic families lived independent lives in the suburbs. Only after Peisistratos's tyranny and the reforms implemented by Cleisthenes did the local communities lose their independence and succumb to the central government in Athens. As a result of these reforms, Attica was divided into approximately a hundred municipalities, the demes (dēmoi, δῆμοι), and also into three large sectors: the city (ἄστυ), which comprised the areas of central Athens, Ymittos, Aegaleo and the foot of Mount Parnes, the coast (παράλια), that included the area between Eleusis and Cape Sounion and the area around the city (ἐσωτερικό-μεσογαία), inhabited by people living on the north of Mount Parnitha, Penteliko and the area east of the mountain of Hymettus. Principally, each civic unit would include equal parts of townspeople, seamen, and farmers. A “trittýs” ("third") of each sector constituted a tribe. Consequently, Attica comprised ten tribes.

Fortresses

Rhamnous-1
View of Rhamnous

During the classical period, Athens was fortified to the north by the fortress of Eleutherae, which is preserved well. Other fortresses are those of Oenoe, Decelea and Aphidnae. To protect the mines at Laurium, on the coast, Athens was fortified by the walls at Rhamnus, Thoricus, Sounion, Anavyssos, Piraeus, and Eleusis.[2] Although these forts and walls had been constructed, Attica did not establish a fortification system until later, in the 4th century BC.[5] Attica's warfare is displayed by piles of rubble from fortresses from the Chremonidean war.[6]

Places of worship

Spata airview
Spata airview

Even though archaeological ruins are found in nearly the whole area of Attica, the most important are those found in Eleusis. The worship of the goddesses Demeter and Cora, beginning in the Mycenaean period, continued until the late years of antiquity.

Many other types of worship can be traced to the prehistory. For example, the worship of Pan and the Nymphs was common in many areas of Attica such as Marathon, Parnes and Ymittos. The god of wine, Dionysus, was worshipped mainly in the area of Icaria, now the suburb of Dionysus. Iphigeneia and Artemis were worshipped in Brauron, Artemis in Rafina, Athena on Sounion, Aphrodite on Iera Odos, and Apollo in Daphne.[2]

The festival of Chalceia was celebrated every autumn in Attica. The festival honored the gods Hephaestus and Athena Ergane.

Medieval period

Eleusis
View over the excavation site towards Eleusis.

After the period of antiquity, Attica came under Roman, Byzantine, Venetian, and Ottoman rule. During the Byzantine period, Attica was invaded by the Goths under the command of Alaric in 396 AD. Attica's population diminished in comparison to the neighboring area of Boeotia.

The sites of historical interest date to the 11th and 12th centuries, when Attica was under the rule of the Franks. The great monastery of Dafni, that was built under Justinian I's rule, is an isolated case that does not signify a widespread development of Attica during the Byzantine period. On the other hand, the buildings built during the 11th and 12th centuries show a greater development that continued during the rule of the Franks, who did not impose strict rule.

During the Ottoman rule, Athens enjoyed some rights. However, that was not the case for the villages of Attica. Great areas were possessed by the Turks, who terrorized the population with the help of sipahis. The monasteries of Attica played a crucial role in preserving the Greek element of the villages.

In spite of its conquerors, Attica managed to maintain its traditions. This fact is proved by the preservation of ancient toponyms such as Oropos, Dionysus, Eleusis, and Marathon. During the Greek War of Independence in the 1820s, the peasants of Attica were the first to revolt (April 1821), and they occupied Athens and seized the Acropolis that was handed over to the Greeks in June, 1822.[2]

Attica after 1829

Aerial view of Rafina Harbour 20.02.2009 12-20-04
Aerial view of Rafina.

Attica, a place in Greece, has belonged to the independent Greek state. From 1834, Athens was refounded and made the new Greek capital (moved from Nafplio in Argolis), and people from other parts of Greece gradually began to repopulate Attica. The most dramatic surge came with Greek refugees from Anatolia following the population exchanges between Greece and Turkey under the Treaty of Lausanne. Today, much of Attica is occupied by urban Athens.[7] The modern Greek region of Attica includes classical Attica as well as the Saronic Islands, a small part of the Peloponnese around Troezen, and the Ionian Island of Kythira.

Climate

Attica enjoys a Mediterranean climate. It has a distinct, long, dry period in the summer and a short, wet period in the winter. The highest precipitation is experienced during the winter months. The southern part of the peninsula has a hot, semi-arid climate.

European temperature record

According to the World Meteorological Organisation, the official European record for highest temperature was 48.0 °C (118.4 °F) and it was recorded in Eleusina and Tatoi in 1977, by the use of minimum-maximum thermometers.[13]

See also

References

  1. ^ Pausanias VIII, 1
  2. ^ a b c d "History" (PDF). Prefecture of Attica. Democritus University of Thrace. Retrieved 13 January 2013.
  3. ^ Strabo 9.1.20
  4. ^ Ancient History until 30 BC (Ιστορία των αρχαίων χρόνων ως το 30 πΧ), L. Tsaktsiras, M. Tiverios, schoolbook for A' Gymnasiou, 13th edition, Athens, 1994, p. 115
  5. ^ Osborne, Robin (December 2015). "Oxford Classical Dictionary". Attica. Retrieved 2017-09-29.
  6. ^ Osborne, Robin (2015-12-22). "Attica". doi:10.1093/acrefore/9780199381135.001.0001/acrefore-9780199381135-e-952.
  7. ^ National Statistical Service of Greece (2002). Στατιστική Επετηρίδα της Ελλάδος 2002 (PDF) (in Greek). National Statistical Service of Greece. p. 54. The table includes the urban areas of Greece, officially defined by the National Statistical Service of Greece, powered by the Ministry of Finance of Greece. The municipality of Piraeus and its greater area belong to the Athens urban area or Greater Athens (Πολεοδομικό Συγκρότημα Αθηνών).
  8. ^ "Climatological Information for Athens Hellinikon, Greece", HNMS climatological table, web: [1] Archived 2016-06-11 at the Wayback Machine.
  9. ^ "Climatological Information for Elefsina, Greece", HNMS climatological table, web: [2] Archived 2011-07-16 at the Wayback Machine.
  10. ^ "Monthly bulletins", N.O.A, web: [3].
  11. ^ "Climatological Information for Nea Filadelfia, Greece", HNMS climatological table, web: [4].
  12. ^ "Climatological Information for Tatoi, Greece", HNMS climatological table, web: [5].
  13. ^ [6]. Arizona State University World Meteorological Organization.

External links

Agistri

Agistri, also Angistri or Agkistri (Greek: Αγκίστρι [aɲˈɟistɾi ~ aˈɟistɾi], English: "fishing hook"), is a small island and municipality in the Saronic Gulf in the Islands regional unit, Greece.

Athens

Athens (; Greek: Αθήνα, Athína [aˈθina]; Ancient Greek: Ἀθῆναι, Athênai [a.tʰɛ̂ː.nai̯]) is the capital and largest city of Greece. Athens dominates the Attica region and is one of the world's oldest cities, with its recorded history spanning over 3,400 years and its earliest human presence starting somewhere between the 11th and 7th millennium BC.Classical Athens was a powerful city-state that emerged in conjunction with the seagoing development of the port of Piraeus, which had been a distinct city prior to its 5th-century BC incorporation with Athens. A center for the arts, learning and philosophy, home of Plato's Academy and Aristotle's Lyceum, it is widely referred to as the cradle of Western civilization and the birthplace of democracy, largely because of its cultural and political impact on the European continent, and in particular the Romans. In modern times, Athens is a large cosmopolitan metropolis and central to economic, financial, industrial, maritime, political and cultural life in Greece.

Athens is a global city and one of the biggest economic centres in southeastern Europe. It has a large financial sector, and its port Piraeus is both the largest passenger port in Europe, and the second largest in the world. while at the same time being the sixth busiest passenger port in Europe.

The Municipality of Athens (also City of Athens) had a population of 664,046 (in 2011) within its administrative limits, and a land area of 38.96 km2 (15.04 sq mi). The urban area of Athens (Greater Athens and Greater Piraeus) extends beyond its administrative municipal city limits, with a population of 3,090,508 (in 2011) over an area of 412 km2 (159 sq mi). According to Eurostat in 2011, the functional urban area (FUA) of Athens was the 9th most populous FUA in the European Union (the 6th most populous capital city of the EU), with a population of 3.8 million people. Athens is also the southernmost capital on the European mainland.

The heritage of the classical era is still evident in the city, represented by ancient monuments and works of art, the most famous of all being the Parthenon, considered a key landmark of early Western civilization. The city also retains Roman and Byzantine monuments, as well as a smaller number of Ottoman monuments. Athens is home to two UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the Acropolis of Athens and the medieval Daphni Monastery. Landmarks of the modern era, dating back to the establishment of Athens as the capital of the independent Greek state in 1834, include the Hellenic Parliament and the so-called "architectural trilogy of Athens", consisting of the National Library of Greece, the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens and the Academy of Athens. Athens is also home to several museums and cultural institutions, such as the National Archeological Museum, featuring the world's largest collection of ancient Greek antiquities, the Acropolis Museum, the Museum of Cycladic Art, the Benaki Museum and the Byzantine and Christian Museum. Athens was the host city of the first modern-day Olympic Games in 1896, and 108 years later it welcomed home the 2004 Summer Olympics, making it one of only a handful of cities to have hosted the Olympics more than once.

Athens Metro

The Athens Metro (Greek: Μετρό Αθήνας, Metró Athínas) is a rapid-transit system in Greece which serves the Athens conurbation and parts of East Attica. It incorporates the former Athens-Piraeus Electric Railways (ISAP), which opened as a conventional steam railway in 1869, was electrified in 1904, and is now part of Line 1. Beginning in 1991, Attiko Metro constructed and extended Lines 2 and 3 and the Attiko Metro Operations Company (AMEL) operated these lines from 2000 to 2011. The metro network merged in 2011 when the Greek government created the Urban Rail Transport Company (STASY), a subsidiary of the Athens Urban Transport Organisation (OASA).

First Chairman and CEO of the merged company became Kostas Vassiliadis, a former Chief Engineer and later CEO of Athens-Piraeus Electric Railways.

The system is noted for being modern and efficient, in its own right and in comparison to other subway systems elsewhere. It has significantly changed Athens by providing a much-needed solution to the city's traffic and air pollution problem, as well as revitalising many of the areas it serves.

An extension of Line 3 is under construction towards Piraeus and also other extensions of existing lines, as well as a new line, are under consideration.

The Athens Metro is actively connected with the other means of public transport, such as buses, trolleys, the Athens Tram and the Proastiakos suburban railway. The Athens Metro is hailed for its modernity and many of its stations feature works of art, exhibitions and displays of the archeological remains found during its construction. Photography and video-taking is permitted across the whole network and street photographers often work in Athens Metro.

Attica (region)

Attica Region (Greek: Περιφέρεια Αττικής, Periféria Attikís; IPA: [atiˈci]) is an administrative region of Greece, that encompasses the entire metropolitan area of Athens, the country's capital and largest city. The region is coextensive with the former Attica Prefecture of Central Greece, but covers a greater area than the historical region of Attica.

Attica Correctional Facility

Attica Correctional Facility is a maximum security campus New York State prison in the town of Attica, New York, operated by the New York State Department of Corrections and Community Supervision. It was constructed in the 1930s and held many of the most dangerous criminals of the time. A CS gas system (chlorobenzylidine malononitrile) installed in the mess hall and industry areas has been used to quell conflicts in these areas. The prison now holds many inmates who are serving various types of sentences (short-term to life), and who are usually sent to the facility because of disciplinary problems in other facilities.

Attica Prison riot

The Attica Prison uprising, also known as the Attica Prison rebellion or Attica Prison riot, occurred at the Attica Correctional Facility in Attica, New York, United States, in 1971. Based upon prisoners' demands for better living conditions and political rights, the uprising was one of the most well-known and significant uprisings of the Prisoners' Rights Movement. On September 9, 1971, two weeks after the killing of George Jackson at San Quentin State Prison, 1,281 of the Attica prison's approximately 2,200 inmates rioted and took control of the prison, taking 42 staff hostage.

During the following four days of negotiations, authorities agreed to 28 of the prisoners' demands, but would not agree to demands for complete amnesty from criminal prosecution for the prison takeover or for the removal of Attica's superintendent. By the order of Governor Nelson Rockefeller, state police took back control of the prison. When the uprising was over, at least 43 people were dead, including ten correctional officers and civilian employees, and 33 inmates.

Rockefeller, who refused to visit the prisoners during the rebellion, stated that the prisoners "carried out the cold-blood killings they had threatened from the outset," despite only one of the officers and four inmates killed being attributed to the prisoners. New York Times writer Fred Ferretti said the rebellion concluded in "mass deaths that four days of taut negotiations had sought to avert".As a result of the riot, a number of changes were made in the New York prison system to satisfy some of the prisoners' demands, reduce tension in the system, and prevent such incidents in the future. As of 2019, Attica remains the most prominent prison riot to have occurred in the United States.

Classical Athens

The city of Athens (Ancient Greek: Ἀθῆναι, Athênai [a.tʰɛ̂ː.nai̯]; Modern Greek: Αθήναι Athine [a.ˈθi.ne̞] or, more commonly and in singular, Αθήνα Athina [a.'θi.na]) during the classical period of Ancient Greece (480–323 BC) was the major urban center of the notable polis (city-state) of the same name, located in Attica, Greece, leading the Delian League in the Peloponnesian War against Sparta and the Peloponnesian League. Athenian democracy was established in 508 BC under Cleisthenes following the tyranny of Isagoras. This system remained remarkably stable, and with a few brief interruptions remained in place for 180 years, until 322 BC (aftermath of Lamian War). The peak of Athenian hegemony was achieved in the 440s to 430s BC, known as the Age of Pericles.

In the classical period, Athens was a center for the arts, learning and philosophy, home of Plato's Akademia and Aristotle's Lyceum, Athens was also the birthplace of Socrates, Plato, Pericles, Aristophanes, Sophocles, and many other prominent philosophers, writers and politicians of the ancient world. It is widely referred to as the cradle of Western Civilization, and the birthplace of democracy, largely due to the impact of its cultural and political achievements during the 5th and 4th centuries BC on the rest of the then-known European continent.

East Attica

East Attica (Greek: Ανατολική Αττική) is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the region of Attica. The capital of the regional unit is the town of Pallini. The regional unit covers the eastern part of the urban agglomeration of Athens, and also the rural area to its east.

Eleusis

Eleusis (Greek: Ελευσίνα Elefsina, Ancient Greek: Ἐλευσίς Eleusis) is a town and municipality in West Attica, Greece. It is situated about 18 kilometres (11 miles) northwest from the centre of Athens. It is located in the Thriasian Plain, at the northernmost end of the Saronic Gulf. North of Eleusis are Mandra and Magoula, while Aspropyrgos is to the northeast.

Eleusis is the seat of administration of West Attica regional unit. It is the site of the Eleusinian Mysteries and the birthplace of Aeschylus. Today, Eleusis is a major industrial centre, with the largest oil refinery in Greece as well as the home of the Aeschylia Festival, the longest-lived arts event in the Attica Region.

On 11 November 2016 Eleusis was named the European Capital of Culture for 2021.

Kythira

Kythira (, ; Greek: Κύθηρα [ˈciθiɾa], also transliterated as Cythera, Kythera and Kithira) is an island in Greece lying opposite the south-eastern tip of the Peloponnese peninsula. It is traditionally listed as one of the seven main Ionian Islands, although it is distant from the main group. Administratively, it belongs to the Islands regional unit, which is part of the Attica region (although at large distance from Attica itself).

The island is strategically located between the Greek mainland and Crete, and from ancient times until the mid 19th century was a crossroads of merchants, sailors, and conquerors. As such, it has had a long and varied history and has been influenced by many civilisations and cultures. This is reflected in its architecture (a blend of traditional, Aegean and Venetian elements), as well as the traditions and customs, influenced by centuries of coexistence of the Greek, Venetian, and Ottoman cultures.

List of cities in Greece

Two-thirds of the Greek people live in urban areas. Greece's largest metropolitan centers and most influential urban areas, are those of Athens and Thessaloniki with metropolitan populations of approximately four million and one million inhabitants respectively. The table below, using the Publication of Revised 2011 Census Tables about the final population, lists the largest cities in Greece, by population size.

List of football clubs in Greece

This is a list of football clubs located in Greece and the leagues and divisions they will play in for 2018–19 season.

Marathon, Greece

Marathon (Demotic Greek: Μαραθώνας, Marathónas; Attic/Katharevousa: Μαραθών, Marathṓn) is a town in Greece and the site of the battle of Marathon in 490 BC, in which the heavily outnumbered Athenian army defeated the Persians. Legend has it that Pheidippides, a Greek herald at the battle, was sent running from Marathon to Athens to announce the victory, which is how the marathon running race was conceived in modern times.

Megara

Megara (; Greek: Μέγαρα, pronounced [ˈmeɣara]) is a historic town and a municipality in West Attica, Greece. It lies in the northern section of the Isthmus of Corinth opposite the island of Salamis, which belonged to Megara in archaic times, before being taken by Athens. Megara was one of the four districts of Attica, embodied in the four mythic sons of King Pandion II, of whom Nisos was the ruler of Megara. Megara was also a trade port, its people using their ships and wealth as a way to gain leverage on armies of neighboring poleis. Megara specialized in the exportation of wool and other animal products including livestock such as horses. It possessed two harbors, Pegae, to the west on the Corinthian Gulf and Nisaea, to the east on the Saronic Gulf of the Aegean Sea.

Palliniakos F.C.

Palliniakos Football Club is a Greek football club, based in Pallini, East Attica, Greece.

Regional units of Greece

The 74 regional units (Greek: περιφερειακές ενότητες, perifereiakés enóti̱tes, sing. περιφερειακή ενότητα, perifereiakí̱ enóti̱ta) are administrative units of Greece. They are subdivisions of the country's 13 regions, further subdivided into municipalities. They were introduced as part of the Kallikratis administrative reform on 1 January 2011 and are comparable in area and, in the mainland, coterminous with the pre-"Kallikratis" prefectures of Greece.

Regions of ancient Greece

The regions of ancient Greece were areas identified by the ancient Greeks as geographical sub-divisions of the Hellenic world. These regions are described in the works of ancient historians and geographers, and in the legends and myths of the ancient Greeks.

Conceptually, there is no clear theme to the structure of these regions. Some, particularly in the Peloponnese, can be seen primarily as distinct geo-physical units, defined by physical boundaries such as mountain ranges and rivers. These regions retained their identity, even when the identity of the people living there changed during the Greek Dark Ages (or at least, was conceived by the Greeks to have changed). Conversely, the division of central Greece between Boeotia, Phocis, Doris and the three parts of Locris, cannot be understood as a logical division by physical boundaries, and instead seems to follow ancient tribal divisions. Nevertheless, these regions also survived the upheaval of the Greek Dark Ages, showing that they had acquired less political connotations. Outside the Peloponnese and central Greece, geographical divisions and identities did change over time suggesting a closer connection with tribal identity. Over time however, all the regions also acquired geo-political meanings, and political bodies uniting the cities of a region (such as the Arcadian League) became common in the Classical period.

These traditional sub-divisions of Greece form the basis for the modern system of regional units of Greece. However, there are important differences, with many of the smaller ancient regions not represented in the current system.

Saronic Gulf

The Saronic Gulf (Greek: Σαρωνικός κόλπος, Saronikós kólpos) or Gulf of Aegina in Greece is formed between the peninsulas of Attica and Argolis and forms part of the Aegean Sea. It defines the eastern side of the isthmus of Corinth, being the eastern terminus of the Corinth Canal, which cuts across the isthmus.

West Attica

West Attica (Greek: Δυτική Αττική) is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the region of Attica. The capital of the regional unit is the town of Eleusis. The regional unit covers the western part of the agglomeration of Athens, and the area to its west.

Climate data for Athens Hellinikon, 10 m asl (1955–1997)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 13.6
(56.5)
14.1
(57.4)
15.7
(60.3)
19.4
(66.9)
24.1
(75.4)
28.7
(83.7)
31.8
(89.2)
31.7
(89.1)
28.2
(82.8)
23.2
(73.8)
18.8
(65.8)
15.2
(59.4)
22.0
(71.7)
Average low °C (°F) 7.0
(44.6)
7.1
(44.8)
8.4
(47.1)
11.4
(52.5)
15.8
(60.4)
20.1
(68.2)
22.8
(73.0)
22.8
(73.0)
19.6
(67.3)
15.6
(60.1)
12.0
(53.6)
8.8
(47.8)
14.3
(57.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 48.3
(1.90)
40.9
(1.61)
39.7
(1.56)
26.0
(1.02)
15.2
(0.60)
5.6
(0.22)
5.2
(0.20)
7.0
(0.28)
9.6
(0.38)
47.8
(1.88)
55.4
(2.18)
64.1
(2.52)
364.8
(14.35)
Source: Hellenic National Meteorological Service[8]
Climate data for Elefsina, 30 m asl (1958–1997)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 13.0
(55.4)
13.6
(56.5)
15.8
(60.4)
20.1
(68.2)
25.7
(78.3)
30.6
(87.1)
32.9
(91.2)
32.7
(90.9)
28.9
(84.0)
23.2
(73.8)
18.5
(65.3)
14.7
(58.5)
22.5
(72.5)
Average low °C (°F) 5.4
(41.7)
5.6
(42.1)
7.1
(44.8)
10.1
(50.2)
14.9
(58.8)
19.5
(67.1)
22.3
(72.1)
22.2
(72.0)
18.8
(65.8)
14.6
(58.3)
10.4
(50.7)
7.2
(45.0)
13.2
(55.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 48.4
(1.91)
40.1
(1.58)
39.3
(1.55)
26.7
(1.05)
19.5
(0.77)
8.4
(0.33)
5.5
(0.22)
5.4
(0.21)
11.3
(0.44)
41.6
(1.64)
58.8
(2.31)
67.9
(2.67)
372.9
(14.68)
Source: Hellenic National Meteorological Service[9]
Climate data for National Observatory of Athens (Thissio), 107 m asl (1971–2000), (1961–1990)rain
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 13.0
(55.4)
13.7
(56.7)
16.1
(61.0)
20.5
(68.9)
25.8
(78.4)
30.6
(87.1)
33.1
(91.6)
32.8
(91.0)
29.2
(84.6)
23.5
(74.3)
18.1
(64.6)
14.4
(57.9)
22.6
(72.6)
Average low °C (°F) 6.7
(44.1)
6.8
(44.2)
8.2
(46.8)
11.6
(52.9)
16.0
(60.8)
20.4
(68.7)
22.8
(73.0)
22.5
(72.5)
19.4
(66.9)
15.1
(59.2)
11.2
(52.2)
8.2
(46.8)
14.1
(57.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 44.6
(1.76)
48.3
(1.90)
42.6
(1.68)
28.2
(1.11)
17.2
(0.68)
9.7
(0.38)
4.2
(0.17)
4.6
(0.18)
11.9
(0.47)
47.7
(1.88)
50.6
(1.99)
66.6
(2.62)
376.2
(14.82)
Source: National Observatory of Athens[10]
Climate data for Athens Nea Filadelfia, 136 m asl (1955–1997)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 12.5
(54.5)
13.5
(56.3)
15.7
(60.3)
20.2
(68.4)
26.0
(78.8)
31.1
(88.0)
33.5
(92.3)
33.2
(91.8)
29.2
(84.6)
23.3
(73.9)
18.1
(64.6)
14.1
(57.4)
22.5
(72.6)
Average low °C (°F) 5.2
(41.4)
5.4
(41.7)
6.7
(44.1)
9.6
(49.3)
13.9
(57.0)
18.2
(64.8)
20.8
(69.4)
20.7
(69.3)
17.3
(63.1)
13.4
(56.1)
9.8
(49.6)
6.8
(44.2)
12.3
(54.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 56.9
(2.24)
46.7
(1.84)
40.7
(1.60)
30.8
(1.21)
22.7
(0.89)
10.6
(0.42)
5.8
(0.23)
6.0
(0.24)
13.9
(0.55)
52.6
(2.07)
58.3
(2.30)
69.1
(2.72)
414.1
(16.31)
Source: Hellenic National Meteorological Service[11]
Climate data for Tatoi, 235 m asl (1958–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 11.7
(53.1)
12.5
(54.5)
14.7
(58.5)
19.3
(66.7)
24.9
(76.8)
29.9
(85.8)
32.1
(89.8)
31.8
(89.2)
28.0
(82.4)
22.5
(72.5)
17.4
(63.3)
13.2
(55.8)
21.5
(70.7)
Average low °C (°F) 3.2
(37.8)
3.5
(38.3)
4.9
(40.8)
7.7
(45.9)
11.9
(53.4)
16.2
(61.2)
19.2
(66.6)
19.3
(66.7)
15.6
(60.1)
11.8
(53.2)
7.9
(46.2)
4.9
(40.8)
10.5
(50.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 69.2
(2.72)
48.6
(1.91)
51.1
(2.01)
26.2
(1.03)
20.4
(0.80)
9.8
(0.39)
10.0
(0.39)
6.0
(0.24)
17.6
(0.69)
47.6
(1.87)
60.2
(2.37)
83.9
(3.30)
450.6
(17.72)
Source: Hellenic National Meteorological Service[12]
Landmarks of Attica*

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