Atlantic hurricane season

The Atlantic hurricane season is the period in a year when hurricanes usually form in the Atlantic Ocean. Tropical cyclones in the North Atlantic are called hurricanes, tropical storms, or tropical depressions. In addition, there have been several storms over the years that have not been fully tropical and are categorized as subtropical depressions and subtropical storms. Even though subtropical storms and subtropical depressions are not technically as strong as tropical cyclones, the damages can still be devastating.

Worldwide, tropical cyclone activity peaks in late summer, when the difference between temperatures aloft and sea surface temperatures is the greatest. However, each particular basin has its own seasonal patterns. On a worldwide scale, May is the least active month, while September is the most active.[2] In the Northern Atlantic Ocean, a distinct hurricane season occurs from June 1 to November 30, sharply peaking from late August through September;[2] the season's climatological peak of activity occurs around September 10 each season.[3] This is the norm, but in 1938, the Atlantic hurricane season started as early as January 3.

Tropical disturbances that reach tropical storm intensity are named from a pre-determined list. On average, 10.1 named storms occur each season, with an average of 5.9 becoming hurricanes and 2.5 becoming major hurricanes (Category 3 or greater). The most active season was 2005, during which 28 tropical cyclones formed, of which a record 15 became hurricanes. The least active season was 1914, with only one known tropical cyclone developing during that year.[4] The Atlantic hurricane season is a time when most tropical cyclones are expected to develop across the northern Atlantic Ocean. It is currently defined as the time frame from June 1 through November 30, though in the past the season was defined as a shorter time frame. During the season, regular tropical weather outlooks are issued by the National Hurricane Center, and coordination between the Weather Prediction Center and National Hurricane Center occurs for systems which have not formed yet, but could develop during the next three to seven days.

1851-2017 Atlantic hurricanes and tropical storms by month
Atlantic tropical storm and hurricane frequency (by month, based on data from 1851-2017)[1]
Hurricane tracks from 1980 through 2014. Green tracks did not make landfall in US; yellow tracks made landfall but were not major hurricanes at the time; red tracks made landfall and were major hurricanes.

Concept

The basic concept of a hurricane season began during 1935,[5] when dedicated wire circuits known as hurricane circuits began to be set up along the Gulf and Atlantic coasts,[6] a process completed by 1955.[7] It was originally the time frame when the tropics were monitored routinely for tropical cyclone activity, and was originally defined as from June 15 through October 31.[8] Over the years, the beginning date was shifted back to June 1, while the end date was shifted to November 15,[6] before settling at November 30 by 1965.[9][10] This was when hurricane reconnaissance planes were sent out to fly across the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico on a routine basis to look for potential tropical cyclones, in the years before the continuous weather satellite era.[8] Since regular satellite surveillance began, hurricane hunter aircraft fly only into storm areas which are first spotted by satellite imagery.[11]

Operations

During the hurricane season, the National Hurricane Center routinely issues their Tropical Weather Outlook product, which identifies areas of concern within the tropics which could develop into tropical cyclones. If systems occur outside the defined hurricane season, special Tropical Weather Outlooks will be issued.[12] Routine coordination occurs at 1700 UTC each day between the Weather Prediction Center and National Hurricane Center to identify systems for the pressure maps three to seven days into the future within the tropics, and points for existing tropical cyclones six to seven days into the future.[13] Possible tropical cyclones are depicted with a closed isobar, while systems with less certainty to develop are depicted as "spot lows" with no isobar surrounding them.

HURDAT

The North Atlantic hurricane database, or HURDAT, is the database for all tropical storms and hurricanes for the Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea, including those that have made landfall in the United States. The original database of six-hourly positions and intensities were put together in the 1960s in support of the Apollo space program to help provide statistical track forecast guidance. In the intervening years, this database — which is now freely and easily accessible on the Internet from the National Hurricane Center's (NHC) webpage — has been utilized for a wide variety of uses: climatic change studies, seasonal forecasting, risk assessment for county emergency managers, analysis of potential losses for insurance and business interests, intensity forecasting techniques and verification of official and various model predictions of track and intensity.

HURDAT was not designed with all of these uses in mind when it was first put together and not all of them may be appropriate given its original motivation. HURDAT contains numerous systematic as well as some random errors in the database. Additionally, analysis techniques have changed over the years at NHC as their understanding of tropical cyclones has developed, leading to biases in the historical database. Another difficulty in applying the hurricane database to studies concerned with landfalling events is the lack of exact location, time and intensity at hurricane landfall.

Re-analysis project

HURDAT is regularly updated annually to reflect the previous season's activity. The older portion of the database has been regularly revised since 2001. The first time in 2001 led to the addition of tropical cyclone tracks for the years 1851 to 1885. The second time was August 2002 when Hurricane Andrew was upgraded to a Category 5. Recent efforts into uncovering undocumented historical hurricanes in the late 19th and 20th centuries by various researchers have greatly increased our knowledge of these past events. Possible changes for the years 1951 onward are not yet incorporated into the HURDAT database. Because of all of these issues, a re-analysis of the Atlantic hurricane database is being attempted that will be completed in three years.

In addition to the groundbreaking work by Partagas, additional analyses, digitization and quality control of the data was carried out by researchers at the NOAA Hurricane Research Division funded by the NOAA Office of Global Programs. This re-analysis will continue to progress through the remainder of the 20th century.[14]

The National Hurricane Center's Best Track Change Committee has approved changes for a few recent cyclones, such as Hurricane Andrew. Official changes to the Atlantic hurricane database are approved by the National Hurricane Center Best Track Change Committee.

1494–1850 (pre-HURDAT era)

Period Seasons Individual years
Pre-19th century Pre-17th century (pre 1600), 17th century (1600s), 18th century (1700s) 1780
1800–1849 1800–1809, 1810–1819, 1820–1829, 1830–1839, 1840–1849 1842

1850–1899 (1851–present HURDAT era)

1850s

Year Map Number of
tropical
storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major hurricanes
Deaths Strongest
storm
Major landfall hurricanes Notes
1850 7 7 0 Not known One
1851 1851 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 6 3 1 24 Four • Great Florida Middle Panhandle Hurricane of 1851 (cat 3)
1852 1852 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 5 5 1 100+ One • Great Mobile Hurricane of 1852 (cat 3)
1853 1853 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 8 4 2 40 Three
1854 1854 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 5 3 1 30+ Three • Coastal Hurricane of 1854 (cat 3)
1855 1855 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 5 4 1 Not known Five • Middle Gulf Shore Hurricane of 1855 (cat 3)
1856 1856 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 6 4 2 200+ One The Last Island Hurricane of 1856 (cat 4)
1857 1857 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 4 3 0 424 Two & Four
1858 1858 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 6 6 0 None Three & Six
1859 1859 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 8 7 1 Numerous Six

1860s

Year Map Number of
tropical
storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major hurricanes
Deaths Strongest
storm
Major landfall hurricanes Notes
1860 1860 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 7 6 1 60+ One
1861 1861 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 2 6 0 22+ One and Three
1862 1862 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 3 3 0 3 Two and Three
1863 1863 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 4 5 0 90 One, Two, Three & Four
1864 1864 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 2 3 0 None One, Three & Five
1865 1865 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 4 3 0 326 Four & Seven
1866 1866 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 7 6 1 383 Six • Great Bahamas Hurricane of 1866 (cat 4)
1867 1867 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 2 6 1 811 'San Narciso' Hurricane San Narciso of 1867 (cat 3)
1868 1868 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 1 3 0 2 One, Two & Four
1869 1869 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 3 6 1 38 Six • First New England Gale of 1869 (cat 3)
Saxby's New England Gale of 1869 (cat 2)

1870s

Year Map Number of
tropical
storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major hurricanes
Deaths Strongest
storm
Major landfall hurricanes Notes
1870 1870 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 11 10 2 2,052 Four • First Key West Hurricane 1870/Hurricane of San Marcos 1870 (cat 3)
• Second Key West Hurricane 1870 (cat 2)
1871 1871 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 8 6 2 30 Three and Four • Central Florida Hurricane of 1871 (cat 3)
• Hurricane Santa Juana of 1871 (cat 3)
1872 1872 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 5 4 0 Unknown Two
1873 1873 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 5 3 2 626 Five • Central Florida Hurricane of 1873 (cat 3)
1874 1874 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 7 4 0 Unknown Seven
1875 1875 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 6 5 1 800 Three • Great Indianola Hurricane of 1875 (cat 3)
1876 1876 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 5 4 2 19 "San Felipe" Hurricane San Felipe of 1876 (cat 3)
• Cuba-South Florida Hurricane of 1876 (cat 3)
1877 1877 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 8 3 1 34 Four
1878 1878 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 12 10 1 108 Seven Gale of 1878 (cat 2)
1879 1879 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 8 6 2 47 Four • Great Beaufort Carolina Hurricane of 1879 (cat 3)
• Louisiana Hurricane of 1879 (cat 3)

1880s

Year Map Number of
tropical
storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major hurricanes
Deaths Strongest
storm
Major landfall hurricanes Notes
1880 1880 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 11 9 2 133 Eight • Brownsville Hurricane of 1880 (cat 4)
1881 1881 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 7 4 0 700 Five and Six • Georgia Hurricane of 1881 (cat 2)
1882 1882 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 6 5 2 6 Six • Pensacola Hurricane of 1882 (cat 3)
• Cuba Hurricane of 1882 (cat 4)
1883 1883 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 4 3 2 236 Two and Three • Bahamas-North Carolina Hurricane of 1883 (cat 3)
1884 1884 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 4 4 1 8 Two
1885 1885 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 8 6 1 25 Two
1886 1886 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 12 10 4 200+ "Indianola" Indianola Hurricane of 1886 (cat 4)
• Cuba Hurricane of 1886 (cat 3)
• Texas-Louisiana Hurricane of 1886 (cat 3)
Seven hurricanes struck the United States, the most during a single year.[15]
Indianola, Texas struck by two major hurricanes (1875 and 1886) which effectively closed down the town.[16]
1887 1887 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 19 11 2 2 Seven Tied for third most active season on record following very active 1886 season.
Has the most storms forming outside the normal hurricane season
One of only 4 seasons to have both a preseason and postseason storm
1888 1888 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 9 6 2 924 Three and Four Louisiana Hurricane of 1888 (cat 3)
• Hurricane San Gil of 1888 (cat 3)
1889 1881 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 9 6 0 40 Six

1890s

Year Map Number of
tropical
storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major hurricanes
Deaths Strongest
storm
Major landfall hurricanes Notes
1890 1890 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 4 2 1 9 Three
1891 1891 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 10 7 1 700+ "Martinique" Martinique Hurricane of 1891 (cat 3)
1892 1892 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 9 5 0 16 Three, Five, and Seven
1893 1893 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 12 10 5 4,028 "Cheniere Caminada" • Hurricane San Roque of 1893 (cat 3)
New York Hurricane of 1893 (cat 3)
1893 Sea Islands Hurricane (cat 3)
• Great Charleston Hurricane (cat 3)
1893 Cheniere Caminada hurricane (cat 4)
5 major hurricanes made landfall this year.
Two hurricanes caused more than 2,000 deaths in the United States.
Four simultaneous hurricanes on August 22, one of two times on record.
1894 1894 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 7 5 4 200+ Six • Florida Panhandle Hurricane of 1894 (cat 3)
1895 1895 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 6 2 0 56 Two
1896 1896 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 7 6 2 130 Four • Hurricane San Ramon of 1896 (cat 3)
Cedar Keys Hurricane of 1896 (cat 3)
1897 1897 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 6 3 0 None One
1898 1898 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 11 5 1 562 "Georgia" Georgia Hurricane of 1898 (cat 4) Major hurricane last struck Georgia in 1881
1899 1899 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 9 5 2 3,439 "San Ciriaco" Hurricane San Ciriaco of 1899/Great Bahamas Hurricane of 1899 (cat 4) The San Ciriaco hurricane was the longest lasting Atlantic hurricane on record

1900s

NOTE: In the following tables, all estimates of damage costs are expressed in contemporaneous US dollars (USD).

1900s

Year Map Number of
tropical
storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major hurricanes
Deaths Damage
USD
Strongest
storm
Major landfall hurricanes Notes
1900 1900 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 7 3 2 8,000+ $60 million "Galveston" Great Galveston Hurricane of 1900 (cat 4) The Galveston hurricane was the deadliest disaster in the United States.
1901 1901 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 12 5 1 10 $1 million Seven
1902 1902 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 5 3 0 None Unknown Four
1903 1903 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 10 7 1 228 $1.15 million Two Jamaica Hurricane of 1903 (cat 3)
1904 1904 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 5 3 0 87 $1 million Two
1905 1905 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 5 1 1 1 Unknown Four
1906 1906 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 11 6 3 367 $2.48 million Four Mississippi Hurricane of 1906 (cat 3)
Florida Keys Hurricane of 1906 (cat 3)
1907 1907 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 5 0 0 None Unknown One One of two seasons with no recorded hurricanes
1908 1908 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 10 6 1 None Unknown Six Includes the only known March tropical cyclone in the basin
1909 1909 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 11 6 4 4,614 $75 million "Grand Isle" 1909 Velasco hurricane (cat 3)
1909 Monterrey hurricane (cat 3)
1909 Grand Isle hurricane (cat 3)
• 1909 Key West Hurricane (cat 3)
1909 Greater Antilles hurricane (cat 2)
3 major hurricanes made landfall this year

1910s

Year Map Number of
tropical
storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major hurricanes
Deaths Damage
USD
Strongest
storm
Major landfall hurricanes Notes
1910 1910 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 5 3 1 100 $1.25 million "Cuba" The Great Cuba Hurricane of 1910 (cat 4)
1911 1911 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 6 3 0 27 $3 million Three
1912 1912 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 7 4 1 116 $67,000 Seven The Jamaica Hurricane of 1912 (cat 3)
1913 1913 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 6 4 0 5 $4 million Four
1914 1914 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 1 0 0 0 Unknown One Least active season on record.
One of two seasons with no recorded hurricanes.
1915 1915 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 6 5 4 675 $63 million "New Orleans" Great Galveston Hurricane of 1915 (cat 4)
New Orleans Hurricanes of 1915 (cat 4)
Two cat 4 hurricanes made landfall in US in same year.
Galveston last struck with major hurricane in 1900.
1916 1916 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 15 10 5 31 $5.9 million "Texas" Gulf Coast Hurricane of 1916 (cat 3)
• Charleston Hurricane of 1916 (cat 3)
Great Texas Hurricane of 1916 (cat 4)
3 major hurricanes made landfall this year following a very active 1915 season.
1917 1917 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 4 2 2 5 $170,000 "Nueva Gerona" Nueva Gerona Hurricane of 1917 (cat 4)
1918 1918 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 6 4 1 34 $5+ million One • Louisiana Hurricane of 1918 (cat 3)
1919 1919 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 5 2 1 ~900 $22 million "Florida Keys" Great Florida Keys Hurricane of 1919 (cat 4)

1920s

Year Map Number of
tropical
storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major hurricanes
Deaths Damage
USD
Strongest
storm
Major landfall hurricanes Notes
1920 1920 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 5 4 0 2 $15.75 million One
1921 1921 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 7 5 2 6 $36.5 million "Tampa Bay" • Hurricane San Pedro of 1921 (cat 3)
Great Tampa Bay Hurricane of 1921 (cat 4)
1922 1922 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 5 3 1 Unknown Unknown Two
1923 1923 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 9 4 1 0 Unknown Five
1924 1924 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 11 5 2 150+ Unknown "Cuba" Great Cuba Hurricane of 1924 (cat 5) The earliest officially classified Category 5 Atlantic hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson Scale
1925 1925 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 4 2 0 59+ $19.9 million One
1926 1926 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 11 8 6 1,315+ $1.4+ billion "Miami" The Great Bahamas Hurricane of 1926 (cat 4)
Nova Scotia Hurricane of 1926 (cat 3)
Louisiana hurricane of 1926 (cat 3)
Great Miami Hurricane of 1926 (cat 4)
Great Havana-Bermuda Hurricane of 1926 (cat 4)
6 major hurricanes this year, 5 major landfalls
1927 1927 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 8 4 1 184 Unknown "Nova Scotia" Nova Scotia Hurricane of 1927 (cat 3)
1928 1928 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 6 4 1 4,000+ $952.5+ million "Okeechobee" Great Okeechobee Hurricane of 1928 (cat 5) The Okeechobee hurricane is the only known hurricane to strike Puerto Rico at Category 5 strength.
1929 1929 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 5 3 1 51 $9.0 million "Florida" Great Bahamas Hurricane of 1929 (cat 4)

1930s

Year Map Number of
tropical
storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major hurricanes
Deaths Damage
USD
Strongest
storm
Major landfall hurricanes Notes
1930 1930 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 3 2 2 8,000 $50 million "Dominican Republic" Dominican Republic Hurricane of 1930 (cat 4) The fifth deadliest hurricane on record
1931 1931 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 13 3 1 2,502 $7.5 million "Belize" Belize Hurricane of 1931 (cat 4)
1932 1932 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 15 6 4 3,315 $37 million "Cuba" Freeport Texas Hurricane of 1932 (cat 4)
Great Bahamas Hurricane of 1932 (cat 5)
Hurricane San Ciprián of 1932 (cat 4)
Great Cuba Hurricane of 1932 (cat 5)
Two Category 5 hurricanes; one in November (the latest such on record); four major hurricanes made landfall
1933 1933 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 20 11 6 651 $86.6 million "Tampico" Chesapeake–Potomac Hurricane of 1933 (cat 4)
Great Cuba-Brownsville Hurricane of 1933 (cat 5)
Treasure Coast Hurricane of 1933 (cat 4)
Outer Banks Hurricane of 1933 (cat 4)
Tampico Yucatán Hurricane of 1933 (cat 5)
Second most active season on record following very active 1932 season.
Two Category 5 hurricanes.
Five major hurricanes made landfall
1934 1934 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 13 7 1 2,017 $4.26 million Thirteen
1935 1935 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 8 5 3 2,604 $12.5 million "Labor Day" Great Labor Day Hurricane of 1935 (cat 5)
Cuba Hurricane of 1935 (cat 4)
The Labor Day hurricane is most intense landfalling tropical cyclone in the Atlantic known to date
1936 1936 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 17 7 1 5 $1.23 million Thirteen Very active season with no major landfalling hurricanes
1937 1937 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 11 4 1 0 Unknown Six
1938 1938 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 9 4 2 ~700 $290.3 million "New England" Long Island Express Hurricane (cat 3) Earliest starting season on record (January 3).
Long Island express made landfall as a fast moving category 3.
1939 1939 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 6 3 1 5 Unknown Five

1940s

Year Map Number of
tropical storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major hurricanes
Deaths Damage
USD
Strongest
storm
Major landfall hurricanes Notes
1940 1940 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 9 6 0 101 $4.7 million Four
1941 1941 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 6 4 3 63 $10 million "Florida" Texas Hurricane of 1941 (cat 3)
• Nicaraqua Hurricane of 1941 (cat 4)
Florida Hurricane of 1941 (cat 3)
3 major hurricanes made landfall this year
1942 1942 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 11 4 1 17 $30.6 million Three Matagorda Texas Hurricane of 1942 (cat 3)
1943 1943 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 10 5 2 19 $17.2 million Three First year of Hurricane Hunters
1944 1944 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 14 8 3 1,153 $202 million "Great Atlantic" Great Atlantic Hurricane of 1944 (cat 4)
Cuba-Florida Hurricane of 1944 (cat 4)
Atlantic hurricane only category 2 at landfall
1945 1945 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 11 5 2 80 $80 million "Southeast Florida" Texas Hurricane of 1945 (cat 3)
Homestead Florida Hurricane of 1945 (cat 4)
1946 1946 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 7 3 0 5 $5.2 million Four
1947 1947 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 10 5 2 94 $145.3 million "Fort Lauderdale" Fort Lauderdale Hurricane of 1947 [George] (cat 4)
Cape Sable Hurricane of 1947 [King] (cat 2)
First year of Atlantic tropical cyclone naming.[17]
1948 1948 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 10 6 4 94 $30.9 million "Florida" Florida Hurricane of 1948 [Easy] (cat 4)
Miami Hurricane of 1948 [Fox] (cat 3)
1949 1949 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 16 7 3 3 $58.2 million "Florida" Florida Hurricane of 1949 (cat 4)
Texas Hurricane of 1949 (cat 2)

1950s

Year Map Number of
tropical storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major hurricanes
Deaths Damage
USD
Strongest
storm
Retired names Notes
1950 1950 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 16 11 6 20 $37 million Dog None Record 8 tropical storms in October
1951 1951 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 12 8 3 257 $80 million Easy None
1952 1952 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 11 5 2 607 $3.75 million Fox None Includes the only known February tropical cyclone in the basin
1953 1953 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 14 7 3 1 $6 million Carol None First year of female names for storms.
One of only 4 seasons to have both a preseason and postseason storm.
1954 1954 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 16 7 3 1,069 $752 million Hazel Carol, Edna, Hazel Includes Alice, one of only two storms in the basin to span two calendar years, tying for the latest storm in a season
1955 1955 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 13 9 4 1,518 $1.2 billion Janet Connie, Diane, Ione, Janet
1956 1956 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 12 4 1 76 $67.8 million Betsy None
1957 1957 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 8 3 2 513 $152.5 million Carrie Audrey
1958 1958 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 12 7 3 41 $12 million Helene None
1959 1959 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 14 7 2 59 $23.3 million Gracie Gracie

1960s

Year Map Number of
tropical storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major hurricanes
Deaths Damage
USD
Strongest
storm
Retired names Notes
1960 1960 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 8 4 2 385 $410 million Donna Donna Current extent of the reanalysis project as of July 2016
1961 1961 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 11 8 7 345 $392 million Hattie Carla, Hattie Two Category 5 Hurricanes
Tied for most major hurricanes
1962 1962 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 5 3 1 4 $10 million Ella None
1963 1963 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 9 7 2 7,225 $589 million Flora Flora The sixth deadliest hurricane on record
1964 1964 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 12 6 6 261 $605 million Hilda Cleo, Dora, Hilda
1965 1965 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 6 4 1 76 $1.45 billion Betsy Betsy
1966 1966 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 11 7 3 1,094 $410 million Inez Inez One named storm de-classified in post-analysis
1967 1967 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 8 6 1 64 $217 million Beulah Beulah
1968 1968 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 8 4 0 10 $10 million Gladys None The name "Edna" was retroactively retired, due to the storm in 1954.
There was one subtropical storm with Category 1 hurricane strength.
No major hurricanes, nor category 2 hurricanes.
1969 1969 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 18 12 5 364 $1.7 billion Camille Camille Fourth most active season on record.
Tied for second most hurricanes in a season on record.
Includes one subtropical storm.

1970s

Year Map Number of
tropical storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major hurricanes
Deaths Damage
USD
Strongest
storm
Retired names Notes
1970 1970 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 10 5 2 71 $454 million Celia Celia First season of a 24-year period of decreased activity in the Atlantic (-AMO)
1971 1971 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 13 6 1 45 $213 million Edith None Includes first documented Hurricane to cross Central America, Irene
1972 1972 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 7 3 0 122 $2.1 billion Betty Agnes Includes three subtropical storms
No major hurricanes
1973 1973 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 8 4 1 15 $18 million Ellen None Includes one subtropical storm
1974 1974 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 11 4 2 8,260+ $1.97 billion Carmen Carmen, Fifi Includes four subtropical storms
Fifi was the fourth deadliest hurricane on record
1975 1975 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 9 6 3 80 $100 million Gladys Eloise Includes one subtropical storm
1976 1976 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 10 6 2 72 $100 million Belle None Includes two subtropical storms
1977 1977 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 6 5 1 10 $10 million Anita Anita
1978 1978 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 12 5 2 37 $45 million Greta Greta Includes the January subtropical storm in the Atlantic
1979 1979 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 9 5 2 2,118 $4.3 billion David David, Frederic First year for alternating male/female names.
Includes one subtropical storm.

1980s

Year Map Number of
tropical cyclones
Number of
tropical storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major hurricanes
Deaths Damage
USD
Strongest
storm
Retired names Notes
1980 1980 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 15 11 9 2 256 $1 billion Allen Allen Includes the storm with the highest sustained winds attained so far in the Atlantic
1981 1981 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 18 12 7 3 10 $45 million Harvey None
1982 1982 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 9 6 2 1 141 $100 million Debby None Includes one subtropical storm
1983 1983 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 7 4 3 1 22 $2.6 billion Alicia Alicia Least active hurricane season in the satellite era
1984 1984 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 17 13 5 1 35 $66 million Diana None Includes one subtropical storm
1985 1985 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 13 11 7 3 241 $4.5 billion Gloria Elena, Gloria Hurricane Kate struck Florida on November 21, the latest United States hurricane landfall
1986 1986 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 10 6 4 0 70 $57 million Earl None No major hurricanes
1987 1987 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 14 7 3 1 10 $90 million Emily None
1988 1988 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 19 12 5 3 550 $7 billion Gilbert Gilbert, Joan Included strongest hurricane on record until 2005; first hurricane since 1978 to cross Central America
1989 1989 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 15 11 7 2 112 $10.7 billion Hugo Hugo

1990s

Year Map Number of
tropical cyclones
Number of
tropical storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major hurricanes
Deaths Damage
USD
Strongest
storm
Retired names Notes
1990 1990 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 16 14 8 1 116 $150 million Gustav Diana, Klaus No tropical storms or hurricanes made landfall in the United States
1991 1991 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 12 8 4 2 30 $2.5 billion Claudette Bob
1992 1992 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 9 7 4 1 66 $27 billion Andrew Andrew Hurricane Andrew was the costliest U.S. hurricane until 2005.
Includes one subtropical storm.
1993 1993 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 10 8 4 1 274 $271 million Emily None
1994 1994 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 12 7 3 0 1,184 $1.56 billion Florence None No major hurricanes
1995 1995 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 21 19 11 5 115 $9.3 billion Opal Luis, Marilyn, Opal, Roxanne Tied for third most active season on record
First season of an ongoing period of increased activity in the Atlantic (+AMO)
1996 1996 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 13 13 9 6 179 $3.8 billion Edouard Cesar, Fran, Hortense Cesar was renamed Douglas after it crossed Central America.
Most amount of major hurricanes at the time
1997 1997 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 9 8 3 1 11 $110 million Erika None Includes one subtropical storm
1998 1998 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 14 14 10 3 12,000+ $12.2 billion Mitch Georges, Mitch Four simultaneous hurricanes on September 26, the first time since 1893.
Hurricane Mitch was the deadliest hurricane in over 200 years.
1999 1999 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 16 12 8 5 465 $5.9 billion Floyd Floyd, Lenny Most Category 4 hurricanes on record

2000s

NOTE: In the following tables, all estimates of damage costs are expressed in contemporaneous US dollars (USD).

2000s

Year Map Number of
tropical cyclones
Number of
tropical storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major hurricanes
Deaths Damage
USD
Strongest
storm
Retired names Notes
2000 2000 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 19 15 8 3 79 $1.2 billion Keith Keith Includes one subtropical storm
2001 2001 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 17 15 9 4 105 $7.1 billion Michelle Allison, Iris, Michelle
2002 2002 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 14 12 4 2 53 $2.6 billion Isidore Isidore, Lili Record-tying 8 named storms formed in September
2003 2003 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 21 16 7 3 92 $4.4 billion Isabel Fabian, Isabel, Juan 3 off-season storms
2004 2004 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 17 15 9 6 3,100+ $60.1 billion Ivan Charley, Frances, Ivan, Jeanne Includes one subtropical storm
Record-tying 8 named storms forming in August
2005 2005 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 31 28 15 7 2,280+ $180.4 billion Wilma Dennis, Katrina, Rita, Stan, Wilma Second costliest hurricane season on record
Season holds most activity records, including cyclones, storms, hurricanes, major hurricanes and Category 5's (4)
Most retired names
Only year to use the Greek alphabet
Includes 1 subtropical storm and 1 subtropical depression
2006 2006 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 10 10 5 2 14 $500 million Gordon and Helene None
2007 2007 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 17 15 6 2 423 $3 billion Dean Dean, Felix, Noel Includes one subtropical storm
Two Category 5 Hurricanes that made landfall
2008 2008 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 17 16 8 5 1,047 $47.5 billion Ike Gustav, Ike, Paloma Tied for fifth most active season on record
Only year on record in which a major hurricane existed in every month from July through November
2009 2009 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 11 9 3 2 6 $77 million Bill None
Total 174 151 74 36 9,248 $318 billion Wilma

2010s

Year Map Number of
tropical
cyclones
Number of
tropical
storms
Number of
hurricanes
Number of
major
hurricanes
Deaths Damage
USD
Strongest
storm
Retired names Notes
2010 2010 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 21 19 12 5 314 $4.53 billion Igor Igor, Tomas Tied for third most active season on record
Tied for second most hurricanes in a season on record
Record tying 8 named storms forming in September
2011 2011 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 20 19 7 4 114 $18.59 billion Ophelia Irene Tied for third most active season on record
2012 2012 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 19 19 10 2 354 $77.97 billion Sandy Sandy Tied for third most active season
Tied (with 2016) for most active season before July
Record tying 8 named storms forming in August
2013 2013 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 15 14 2 0 47 $1.51 billion Humberto Ingrid Includes one subtropical storm
No major hurricanes, nor Category 2 hurricanes
Tied (with 1982) for fewest hurricanes since 1930
2014 2014 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 9 8 6 2 21 $439.2 million Gonzalo None
2015 2015 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 12 11 4 2 89 $731.8 million Joaquin Erika, Joaquin
2016 2016 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 16 15 7 4 748 ≥ $16.1 billion Matthew Matthew, Otto Earliest start since 1938
Record for earliest formation of 3rd and 4th storm
Tied (with 2012) for most active season before July
Includes southernmost Category 5 on record, and the first since 2007
First hurricane in 20 years to cross Central America into the Eastern Pacific basin
2017 2017 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 18 17 10 6 3,361 ≥ $282.27 billion Maria Harvey, Irma, Maria, Nate Costliest hurricane season on record
First April system since 2003
Earliest Main Development Region named storm on record
First U.S. major hurricane landfall since Wilma in 2005
Highest rainfall produced by a tropical cyclone in the United States and its territories
First-ever three Category 4 U.S. hurricane landfalls in a single season
Second season to feature multiple Category 5 landfalls after 2007
Only one of four seasons to produce ten hurricanes in a row
Only season on record with three hurricanes with an ACE value over 40
Most ACE produced in a single month in Atlantic basin
Eastermost Major hurricane on record
2018 2018 Atlantic hurricane season summary map 16 15 8 2 144 ≥ $45.9 billion Michael Florence, Michael Includes a record seven subtropical storms
Fourth consecutive season for a storm to develop before the official start
2019 N/A None yet None yet None yet None yet None yet None yet N/A N/A An upcoming Atlantic hurricane season
Total 146 137 66 26 5,251 $449 billion Maria

Number of tropical storms and hurricanes per season

This bar chart shows the number of named storms and hurricanes per year from 1851–2018.

A 2011 study analyzing one of the main sources of hurricanes - the African easterly wave (AEW) - found that the change in AEWs is closely linked to increased activity of intense hurricanes in the North Atlantic. The synoptic concurrence of AEWs in driving the dynamics of the Sahel greening also appears to increase tropical cyclogenesis over the North Atlantic.[18]

Number of storms of each strength since the satellite era

Season Tropical Depressions Named Storms Hurricanes Category ≥2 Major hurricanes (Category ≥3) Category≥4 Category 5
1967 29 8 6 2 1 1 1
1968 14 8[nb 1] 5[nb 2] 0 0 0 0
1969 20 18[nb 3] 12 7 5 1 1
1970 19 10[nb 4] 5 3 2 0 0
1971 22 13 6 2 1 1 1
1972 19 7 3 1 0 0 0
1973 24 8 4 1 1 0 0
1974 21 11[nb 5] 4 3 2 1 0
1975 23 9[nb 6] 6 5 3 1 0
1976 23 10[nb 7] 6 4 2 0 0
1977 16 6 5 1 1 1 1
1978 24 12[nb 8] 5 3 2 2 0
1979 26 9[nb 9] 5[nb 10] 3 2 2 1
1980 15 11 9 5 2 1 1
1981 22 12[nb 11] 7 4 3 1 0
1982 9 6[nb 12] 2 1 1 1 0
1983 7 4 3 1 1 0 0
1984 20 13[nb 13] 5 2 1 1 0
1985 14 11 7 3 3 1 0
1986 10 6 4 1 0 0 0
1987 14 7 3 1 1 0 0
1988 19 12 5 3 3 3 1
1989 15 11 7 4 2 2 1
1990 16 14 8 2 1 0 0
1991 12 8[nb 14] 4[nb 15] 3 2 1 0
1992 10 7[nb 16] 4 3 1 1 1
1993 10 8 4 2 1 0 0
1994 12 7[nb 17] 3 1 0 0 0
1995 21 19 11 8 5 3 0
1996 13[nb 18] 13[nb 19] 9[nb 20] 6 6 2 0
1997 9 8[nb 21] 3 1 1 0 0
1998 14 14 10 7 3 2 1
1999 16 12 8 8 5 5 0
2000 19 15[nb 22] 8 4 3 2 0
2001 17 15 9 5 4 2 0
2002 14 12 4 3 2 1 0
2003 21 16 7 4 3 2 1
2004 16 15 9 7 6 4 1
2005 31 28[nb 23] 15 8 7 5 4
2006 10 10[nb 24] 5 2 2 0 0
2007 17 15 6 2 2 2 2
2008 17 16 8 6 5 4 0
2009 11 9 3 3 2 1 0
2010 21 19 12 9 5 4 0
2011 20 19 7 4 4 2 0
2012 19 19 10 5 2 0 0
2013 15 14[nb 25] 2 0 0 0 0
2014 9 8 6 3 2 1 0
2015 12 11 4 2 2 1 0
2016 16 15[nb 26] 7 4 4 2 1
2017 18[nb 27] 17[nb 28] 10 8 6 4 2
2018 16 15 8 5 2 2 1
  1. ^ This includes one subtropical hurricane that was not named at the time.
  2. ^ This includes one subtropical hurricane that was not named at the time.
  3. ^ This includes one subtropical storm that was not named at the time.
  4. ^ This includes three subtropical storms that were not named at the time.
  5. ^ This includes one subtropical storm that was not named at the time.
  6. ^ This includes one subtropical storm that was not named at the time.
  7. ^ This includes two subtropical storms that were not named at the time.
  8. ^ This includes one subtropical storm that was not named at the time.
  9. ^ This includes one subtropical hurricane that was not named at the time.
  10. ^ This includes one subtropical hurricane that was not named at the time.
  11. ^ This includes one subtropical storm that was not named at the time.
  12. ^ This includes one subtropical storm that was not named at the time.
  13. ^ This includes one subtropical storm that was not named at the time.
  14. ^ This includes one tropical hurricane that was not formally named but was nicknamed "the Perfect Storm".
  15. ^ This includes one tropical hurricane that was not formally named but was nicknamed "the Perfect Storm".
  16. ^ This includes one subtropical storm that was not named at the time.
  17. ^ This does not include two additional tropical storm-force cyclones formed late in the season that may have been subtropical or tropical but were each reported by the NHC as extropical.
  18. ^ This does not include one subtropical hurricane that formed over the Great Lakes and was not formally named but was nicknamed "Huron".
  19. ^ This does not include one subtropical hurricane that formed over the Great Lakes and was not formally named but was nicknamed "Huron".
  20. ^ This does not include one subtropical hurricane that formed over the Great Lakes and was not formally named but was nicknamed "Huron".
  21. ^ This includes one subtropical storm that was not named at the time.
  22. ^ This includes one subtropical storm that was not named at the time.
  23. ^ This includes one subtropical storm that was not named at the time.
  24. ^ This includes one tropical storm that was not named at the time.
  25. ^ This includes one subtropical storm that was not named at the time.
  26. ^ This does not include one additional tropical storm-force cyclone over the Bay of Biscay that may have been subtropical but was reported by the NHC as extropical.
  27. ^ This does not include one subtropical storm that formed over the Mediterranean Sea and was not reported on by the NHC.
  28. ^ This does not include one subtropical storm that formed over the Mediterranean Sea and was not reported on by the NHC.

See also

Parent topics

Atlantic hurricane topics

Other tropical cyclone basins

References

  1. ^ Landsea, Chris (contributor from the NHC). "Total and Average Number of Tropical Cylones by Month (1851-2017)". aoml.noaa.gov. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory. Archived from the original on September 1, 2018.
  2. ^ a b Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, Hurricane Research Division. "Frequently Asked Questions: When is hurricane season?". NOAA. Archived from the original on July 18, 2006. Retrieved July 25, 2006.
  3. ^ McAdie, Colin (May 10, 2007). "Tropical Cyclone Climatology". National Hurricane Center. Archived from the original on May 28, 2007. Retrieved June 9, 2007.
  4. ^ "Atlantic hurricane best track (HURDAT version 2)". Hurricane Research Division (Database). National Hurricane Center. May 1, 2018. Retrieved April 20, 2019.
  5. ^ Associated Press (June 15, 1941). "Hurricane Bureau Begins Season's Vigil Tonight". St. Petersburg Times. Retrieved July 9, 2011.
  6. ^ a b Associated Press (June 15, 1959). "1959 Hurricane Season Opens Officially Today". Meridian Record. Retrieved July 9, 2011.
  7. ^ Associated Press (June 15, 1955). "Hurricane Season Opens; New England Joins Circuit". The Robesonian. Retrieved July 9, 2011.
  8. ^ a b Associated Press (June 15, 1960). "1960 Hurricane Season Open As Planes Prowl". The Evening Independent. Retrieved July 9, 2011.
  9. ^ Neal Dorst (January 21, 2010). "Subject: G1) When is hurricane season ?". National Hurricane Center. Archived from the original on June 28, 2011. Retrieved July 9, 2011.
  10. ^ Brownsville Herald (June 1, 1965). Hurricane Season Officially Opened.
  11. ^ United Press International (May 30, 1966). "Hurricane Season Opens This Week". The News and Courier. Retrieved July 9, 2011.
  12. ^ National Hurricane Center (2011). "Atlantic Graphical Tropical Weather Outlook". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on June 23, 2011. Retrieved July 9, 2011.
  13. ^ United States Department of Commerce (2006). Assessment: Hurricane Katrina, August 23–31, 2005. Retrieved on 2008-09-03.
  14. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on October 6, 2008. Retrieved November 5, 2011.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) [1]
  15. ^ Hurricane Research Division (2008). "Chronological List of All Hurricanes which Affected the Continental United States: 1851-2007". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved March 21, 2008.
  16. ^ Indianola, Texas
  17. ^ Dorst, Neal (October 23, 2012). "They Called the Wind Mahina: The History of Naming Cyclones" (PPTX). Hurricane Research Division, Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. p. Slides 49–51.
  18. ^ Wang and Gillies (2011). "Observed Change in Sahel Rainfall, Circulations, African Easterly Waves, and Atlantic Hurricanes Since 1979". doi:10.1155/2011/259529.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
1959 Atlantic hurricane season

The 1959 Atlantic hurricane season had a then record-tying number of tropical cyclones – five – develop before August 1. The season was officially to begin on June 15, 1959 and last until November 15, 1959, the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin, however in actuality the season began early when Tropical Storm Arlene formed on May 28. Tropical Storm Arlene struck Louisiana and brought minor flooding to the Gulf Coast of the United States. The next storm, Beulah, formed in the western Gulf of Mexico and brought negligible impact to Mexico and Texas. Later in June, an unnamed hurricane, nicknamed the Escuminac disaster, caused minor damage in Florida and devastated coastal Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, after becoming extratropical. Hurricane Cindy brought minor impact to The Carolinas. In late July, Hurricane Debra produced flooding in the state of Texas. Tropical Storm Edith in August and Hurricane Flora in September caused negligible impact on land.

The most significant storm of the season was Hurricane Gracie, which peaked as a 140 mph (220 km/h) Category 4 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale. After weakening slightly, Gracie made landfall as a 130 mph (215 km/h) Category 4 hurricane in South Carolina on August 29. It brought strong winds, rough seas, heavy rainfall, and tornadoes to the state, as well as North Carolina and Virginia. Overall, Gracie caused 22 fatalities and $14 million in damage. Following Hurricane Gracie was Hurricane Hannah, a long-lived storm that did not cause any known impact on land. The last two tropical cyclones, Tropical Storm Irene and Hurricane Judith, both caused minor coastal and inland flooding in Florida. The storms of the 1959 Atlantic hurricane season were collectively attributed to $24 million (1959 USD) and 64 fatalities.

1962 Atlantic hurricane season

The 1962 Atlantic hurricane season was the least active since 1939, with only five named storms. Although the season officially began on June 15, the first storm did not form until August 26. Hurricane Alma brushed the Outer Banks before becoming extratropical southeast of New England, destroying hundreds of boats and producing beneficial rainfall. In late August, Tropical Storm Becky developed unusually far east in the Atlantic Ocean, becoming the easternmost storm on record to recurve to the northeast. Celia followed in the September, forming east of the Lesser Antilles and executing a loop near Bermuda before dissipating. Hurricane Daisy was the costliest of the season, leaving about $1.1 million in damage in New England (1962 USD). The storm dropped the highest rainfall total on record in Maine, and its precipitation caused 22 traffic fatalities. The final hurricane – Ella – was also the strongest, remaining offshore of the eastern United States but causing two deaths.

In addition to the five named storms, there were three non-developing tropical depressions. The first struck Texas in August, causing street flooding and killing three. The second of three formed off the west coast of Florida and flooded widespread areas after 1 in 100 year rainfall. The floods affected 5,000 houses and caused millions in damage. The third of three non-developing storms moved across the Caribbean before striking Nicaragua in October. The season officially ended on November 15.

1983 Atlantic hurricane season

The 1983 Atlantic hurricane season was the least active Atlantic hurricane season in 53 years, during which only four tropical storms formed. The season officially began on June 1, 1983, and lasted until November 30, 1983. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most storms form in the Atlantic basin. The season had very little activity, with only seven tropical depressions, four of which reached tropical storm strength or higher. This led to the lowest Accumulated Cyclone Energy count since 1950, but not since 1900.

The season began later than normal; the first tropical depression formed on July 29 and the second on July 31. Neither tropical depressions strengthened and they dissipated soon thereafter. Hurricane Alicia formed as Tropical Depression Three on August 15, quickly intensified into a hurricane on August 16 and made landfall in Texas on August 18. Alicia caused $3 billion in damage in Texas. Hurricane Barry formed on August 25, crossed Florida and strengthened into a hurricane. Barry made landfall near the Mexico–United States border, and dissipated over land on August 30.

Hurricane Chantal, the third and final hurricane in 1983, formed on September 10. It strengthened into a hurricane, but stayed out at sea, and became absorbed by a front on September 15. Tropical Depression Six formed on September 19 and caused heavy rains in the Caribbean before degenerating into a wave on September 21. Tropical Storm Dean was the final storm of the season, forming on September 26. It originally tracked to the north, peaking at 55 mph (89 km/h) winds (85 km/h), and made landfall in the Delmarva Peninsula on September 29. It dissipated over the coast of Virginia on September 30.

1991 Atlantic hurricane season

The 1991 Atlantic hurricane season was the first season since 1984 in which no hurricanes developed from tropical waves, which are the source for most North Atlantic tropical cyclones. The hurricane season officially began on June 1, and ended on November 30. It was the least active in four years due to higher than usual wind shear across the Atlantic Ocean. The first storm, Ana, developed on July 2 off the southeast United States and dissipated without causing significant effects. Two other tropical storms in the season – Danny and Erika – did not significantly affect land. Danny dissipated east of the Lesser Antilles, and Erika passed through the Azores before becoming extratropical. In addition, there were four non-developing tropical depressions. The second depression of the season struck Mexico with significant accompanying rains.

The most significant storm of the season was Hurricane Bob, which at the time was among the ten costliest United States hurricanes. After brushing the Outer Banks of North Carolina and Long Island in New York, the hurricane made landfall on Rhode Island. It caused $1.5 billion in damage (1991 USD), mostly in Massachusetts, and 17 fatalities. The strongest hurricane of the season was Claudette, which reached peak winds of 135 mph (215 km/h) near Bermuda. It passed near the island but did not cause any damage. Tropical Storm Fabian was the only tropical storm to move over or near Cuba or Florida, producing heavy rainfall but no damage. Hurricane Grace, the final named storm of the season, provided the energy that led to the development of a powerful nor'easter known as the Perfect Storm. Originating from an extratropical storm, the Perfect Storm intensified while moving westward toward New England, leaving $200 million in damage and causing coastal damage from Puerto Rico to Florida and northward through Canada. It later transitioned into a hurricane over the Gulf Stream, finally dissipating over Nova Scotia on November 2.

1994 Atlantic hurricane season

The 1994 Atlantic hurricane season was the final season in the most recent low-activity era (“cold phase”) of tropical cyclone formation in the Atlantic. It produced seven named tropical cyclones and three hurricanes, a total below the seasonal average. The season officially started on June 1 and ended on November 30, dates which conventionally limit the period during which most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic Ocean. The first tropical cyclone, Tropical Storm Alberto, developed on June 30, while the last storm, Hurricane Gordon, dissipated on November 21. The season was unusual in that it produced no major hurricanes, which are those of Category 3 status or higher on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane scale. The most intense hurricane, Hurricane Florence, peaked as a Category 2 storm with winds of 110 mph (180 km/h). Aside from Chris, Florence, and Gordon, none of the storms exceeded tropical storm intensity.

Tropical Storm Alberto produced significant rainfall and flooding in the Southeastern United States, damaging or destroying over 18,000 homes. In August, Tropical Storm Beryl produced heavy rainfall in Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina, with moderate to heavy rainfall throughout several other states. Beryl caused numerous injuries, many of which occurred from a tornado associated with the tropical storm. Tropical Storm Debby killed nine people in the Caribbean in September. Hurricane Gordon was the most significant storm of the season, causing damage from Costa Rica to North Carolina among its six landfalls. Extreme flooding and mudslides from Gordon caused approximately 1,122 fatalities in Haiti. In addition, a nor'easter in December may have had tropical characteristics, though due to the uncertainty, it was not classified as a tropical system.

1995 Atlantic hurricane season

The 1995 Atlantic hurricane season was a hyperactive Atlantic hurricane season that is generally considered to be the start of an ongoing era of high-activity tropical cyclone formation in the Atlantic basin. It is tied with 1887, 2010, 2011, and 2012 for having the third most number of named storms. The season produced twenty-one tropical cyclones, nineteen named storms, as well as eleven hurricanes and five major hurricanes. The season officially began on June 1 and ended on November 30, dates which conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones develop in the Atlantic basin. The first tropical cyclone, Hurricane Allison, developed on June 2, while the season's final storm, Hurricane Tanya, transitioned into an extratropical cyclone on November 1.

There were four particularly destructive hurricanes during the season, including Luis, Marilyn, Opal and Roxanne. Hurricanes Luis and Marilyn both caused catastrophic damage in the Leeward Islands and Virgin Islands. The former storm was the first hurricane to affect those regions since Hurricane Hugo, while the latter was the most devastating cyclone on those islands since Hugo in 1989. Opal, the strongest and most intense storm of the season, caused devastation along portions of the Gulf Coast of the United States. Roxanne, a rare late-season major hurricane, caused significant damage when it made landfall in Quintana Roo. Additionally, Erin produced moderate damage in Florida. Felix generated strong waves, causing heavy beach erosion in the Northeastern United States and drowning nine people. Iris caused flooding that left five deaths in the Lesser Antilles. Collectively, the tropical cyclones of the season caused about $12.32 billion (1995 USD) in damage and at least 182 deaths.

1997 Atlantic hurricane season

The 1997 Atlantic hurricane season was a below-average season and is the most recent season to feature no tropical cyclones in August – typically one of the most active months. The season officially began on June 1, and lasted until November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. The 1997 season was inactive, with only seven named storms forming, with an additional tropical depression and an unnumbered subtropical storm. It was the first time since the 1961 season that there were no active tropical cyclones in the Atlantic basin during the entire month of August. A strong El Niño is credited with reducing the number of storms in the Atlantic, while increasing the number of storms in the Eastern and Western Pacific basin to 19 and 29 storms, respectively. As is common in El Niño years, tropical cyclogenesis was suppressed in the tropical latitudes, with only two becoming tropical storms south of 25°N.

The first system, an operationally unnoticed subtropical storm, developed north of The Bahamas on June 1 and dissipated by the following day without impact. Tropical Storm Ana developed offshore South Carolina on June 30 and dissipated on July 4, after causing minor affects in North Carolina. Hurricane Bill was a short-lived storm between that lasted from July 11 to July 13 and produced light rainfall in Newfoundland. As Bill as dissipating, Tropical Storm Claudette developed and caused rough seas in North Carolina. The most devastating storm was Hurricane Danny, which caused extensive flooding, particularly in southern Alabama. Danny resulted in 9 fatalities and about $100 million (1997 USD) in damage. The outer bands of Hurricane Erika brought rough seas and gusty winds to the Lesser Antilles, causing two deaths and $10 million in losses. The precursor to Tropical Storm Grace caused minor flooding in Puerto Rico. Tropical Depression Five and Tropical Storms Fabian did not impact land. Collectively, the storms of the 1997 Atlantic hurricane season resulted in 12 fatalities and approximately $111.46 million in damage.

2001 Atlantic hurricane season

The 2001 Atlantic hurricane season was a fairly active Atlantic hurricane season that produced 17 tropical cyclones, 15 named storms, nine hurricanes, and four major hurricanes. The season officially lasted from June 1, 2001, to November 30, 2001, dates which by convention limit the period of each year when tropical cyclones tend to form in the Atlantic Ocean basin. The season began with Tropical Storm Allison on June 4, and ended with Hurricane Olga, which dissipated on December 6. The most intense storm was Hurricane Michelle, which attained Category 4 strength on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale.

The most damaging storms of the season were Tropical Storm Allison, which caused extensive flooding in Texas, Hurricane Iris, which struck Belize, and Hurricane Michelle, which affected several countries. Three tropical cyclones made landfall on the United States, three directly affected Canada, and three directly affected Mexico and Central America. Overall, the season caused 117 fatalities, and $11.3 billion (2001 USD) in damage. Due to their severe damage, the names Allison, Iris, and Michelle were retired by the World Meteorological Organization.

2002 Atlantic hurricane season

The 2002 Atlantic hurricane season was a borderline-average Atlantic hurricane season. It officially started on June 1, 2002 and ended on November 30, dates which conventionally limit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones develop in the Atlantic Ocean. The season produced fourteen tropical cyclones, of which twelve developed into named storms; four became hurricanes, and two attained major hurricane status. While the season's first cyclone did not develop until July 14, activity quickly picked up; the 2002 season tied with 2010 in which a record number of tropical storms, eight, developed in the month of September. It ended early however, with no tropical storms forming after October 6—a rare occurrence caused partly by El Niño conditions. The most intense hurricane of the season was Hurricane Isidore with a minimum central pressure of 934 mbar, although Hurricane Lili attained higher winds and peaked at Category 4 whereas Isidore only reached Category 3. The season's low activity is reflected in the low cumulative accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) rating of 67. ACE is, broadly speaking, a measure of the power of the hurricane multiplied by the length of time it existed, so low number reflects the small number of strong storms and preponderance of tropical storms.

The season was less destructive than normal, causing an estimated $2.47 billion (2002 USD) in property damage and 23 fatalities.

Most destruction was due to Isidore, which caused about $1.28 billion (2002 USD) in damage and killed seven people in the Yucatán Peninsula and later the United States, and Hurricane Lili, which caused $1.16 billion (2002 USD) in damage and 15 deaths as it crossed the Caribbean Sea and eventually made landfall in Louisiana.

2003 Atlantic hurricane season

The 2003 Atlantic hurricane season was a very active Atlantic hurricane season with tropical activity before and after the official bounds of the season—the first such occurrence since the 1964 season. The season produced 21 tropical cyclones, of which 16 developed into named storms; seven cyclones attained hurricane status, of which three reached major hurricane status. With sixteen storms, the season was tied for the sixth-most active Atlantic hurricane season on record. The strongest hurricane of the season was Hurricane Isabel, which reached Category 5 status on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane scale northeast of the Lesser Antilles; Isabel later struck North Carolina as a Category 2 hurricane, causing $5.5 billion in damage (2003 USD) and a total of 51 deaths across the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States.

The season began with Subtropical Storm Ana on April 20, prior to the official start of the season; the bounds of the season are from June 1 to November 30, which conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. In early September, Hurricane Fabian struck Bermuda as a Category 3 hurricane, where it was the worst hurricane since 1926; on the island it caused four deaths and $300 million in damage (2003 USD). Hurricane Juan caused considerable destruction to Nova Scotia, particularly Halifax, as a Category 2 hurricane, the first hurricane of significant strength to hit the province since 1893. Additionally, Hurricanes Claudette and Erika struck Texas and Mexico, respectively, as minimal hurricanes.

2004 Atlantic hurricane season

The 2004 Atlantic hurricane season was a very deadly, destructive, and hyperactive Atlantic hurricane season, with over 3,200 deaths and more than $61 billion (2004 USD) in damage. More than half of the 16 tropical cyclones brushed or struck the United States. Due to the development of a Modoki El Niño – a rare type of El Niño in which unfavorable conditions are produced over the eastern Pacific instead of the Atlantic basin due to warmer sea surface temperatures farther west along the equatorial Pacific – activity was above average. The season officially began on June 1 and ended on November 30, though the season's last storm, Otto, dissipated on December 3, extending the season beyond its traditional boundaries. The first storm, Alex, developed offshore of the Southeastern United States on July 31, one of the latest dates on record to see the formation of the first system in an Atlantic hurricane season. It brushed the Carolinas and the Mid-Atlantic, causing one death and $7.5 million (2004 USD) in damage. Several storms caused only minor damage, including tropical storms Bonnie, Earl, Hermine, and Matthew. In addition, hurricanes Danielle, Karl, and Lisa, Tropical Depression Ten, Subtropical Storm Nicole and Tropical Storm Otto had no effect on land while tropical cyclones.

There are four notable storms: Hurricane Charley, that made landfall in Florida as a Category 4 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale (SSHWS), causing $16 billion in damage in the United States alone. Later in August, Hurricane Frances struck the Bahamas and Florida, causing at least 49 deaths and $10.1 billion in damage. The costliest and most intense storm was Hurricane Ivan. It was a Category 5 hurricane that devastated multiple countries adjacent to the Caribbean Sea, before entering the Gulf of Mexico and causing catastrophic damage on the Gulf Coast of the United States, especially in the states of Alabama and Florida. Throughout the countries it passed through, Ivan caused 129 fatalities and over $26.1 billion in damage. The deadliest storm was Hurricane Jeanne. In Haiti, torrential rainfall in the mountainous areas resulted in mudslides and severe flooding, causing at least 3,006 fatalities. Jeanne also struck Florida, inflicting extensive destruction. Overall, the storm caused at least $7.94 billion in damage and 3,042 deaths, ranking it as one of the deadliest Atlantic hurricanes in history.

Collectively, the storms of this season caused at least 3,270 deaths and about $61.2 billion in damage, making it the costliest Atlantic hurricane season at the time, until surpassed by the following year, 2012, and then 2017. With six hurricanes reaching at least Category 3 intensity, 2004 also had the most major hurricanes since 1996. However, that record would also be surpassed in 2005, with seven major hurricanes that year. In the spring of 2005, four names were retired: Charley, Frances, Ivan, and Jeanne. This tied the then-record most names retired with 1955, 1995, and 2017, while five were retired in 2005.

2005 Atlantic hurricane season

The 2005 Atlantic hurricane season was the most active Atlantic hurricane season in recorded history, shattering numerous records. The impact of the season was widespread and catastrophic. Its storms caused an estimated total of 3,960 deaths and approximately $180.7 billion in damage, making it the second costliest season on record, surpassed only by the 2017 season.

Of the storms that made landfall, five of the season's seven major hurricanes—Dennis, Emily, Katrina, Rita, and Wilma—were responsible for the majority of the destruction. Stan was the most destructive storm that was not a major hurricane. The Mexican states of Quintana Roo and Yucatán and the U.S. states of Florida and Louisiana were each struck twice by major hurricanes; Cuba, the Bahamas, Haiti, Mississippi, Texas, Alabama, and Tamaulipas were each struck once and brushed by at least one more.

The most devastating effects of the season were felt on the United States' Gulf Coast, where a 30-foot (9.1 m) storm surge from Hurricane Katrina caused severe flooding that destroyed most structures on the Mississippi coastline; subsequent levee failures in New Orleans, Louisiana caused by the storm crippled the city. Furthermore, Hurricane Stan combined with an extratropical system to cause deadly mudslides across Central America, with Guatemala being hardest-hit.

The 2005 season was the first to observe more tropical storms and cyclones in the Atlantic than in the West Pacific; on average, the latter experiences 26 tropical storms per year while the Atlantic only averages 12. This event was repeated in the 2010 season; however, the 2010 typhoon season broke the record for the fewest storms observed in a single year, while the 2005 typhoon season featured near-average activity.

The season officially began on June 1, 2005, and lasted until November 30, although it effectively persisted into January 2006 due to continued storm activity. A record twenty-eight tropical and subtropical storms formed, of which a record fifteen became hurricanes. Of these, a record-tying seven strengthened into major hurricanes, a record-tying five became Category 4 hurricanes and a record four reached Category 5 strength, the highest categorization for hurricanes on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. Among these Category 5 storms were hurricanes Katrina and Wilma, respectively the second costliest and the most intense (by lowest barometric pressure) Atlantic hurricanes on record. The 2005 season was also notable because the annual pre-designated list of storm names was used up and six Greek letter names had to be used.

2006 Atlantic hurricane season

The 2006 Atlantic hurricane season was the least active since 1997 as well as the first season since 2001 in which no hurricanes made landfall in the United States, and was the first since 1994 in which no tropical cyclones formed during October. Following the intense activity of 2005, forecasters predicted that the 2006 season would be only slightly less active. Instead activity was slowed by a rapidly forming moderate El Niño event, the presence of the Saharan Air Layer over the tropical Atlantic, and the steady presence of a robust secondary high-pressure area to the Azores high centered on Bermuda. There were no tropical cyclones after October 2.Tropical Storm Alberto was indirectly responsible for two deaths when it made landfall in Florida. Hurricane Ernesto caused heavy rainfall in Haiti, and directly killed at least seven in Haiti and the United States. Four hurricanes formed after Ernesto, including the strongest storms of the season, Hurricanes Helene and Gordon. In total, the season was responsible for 14 deaths and $500 million (2006 USD; $621 million 2019 USD) in damage. The calendar year 2006 also saw Tropical Storm Zeta, which arose in December 2005 and persisted until early January, only the second such event on record. The storm can be considered a part of the 2005 and 2006 seasons, although it occurred outside the June 1 – November 30 period during which most Atlantic basin tropical cyclones form.

2007 Atlantic hurricane season

The 2007 Atlantic hurricane season was an above average Atlantic hurricane season, but most of the storms were weak and short-lived. Despite the high activity of weak storms during 2007, it was the first season to feature more than one Category 5 landfalling hurricane, a feat that would not be matched until ten years later. It produced 17 tropical cyclones, 15 tropical storms, six hurricanes, and two major hurricanes. It officially started on June 1 and ended on November 30, dates which conventionally delimit the period during which most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic Ocean, although as shown by Subtropical Storm Andrea and Tropical Storm Olga in early May and early December, respectively, the formation of tropical cyclones is possible at any time of the year. The first system, Subtropical Storm Andrea, developed on May 9, while the last storm, Tropical Storm Olga, dissipated on December 13. The most intense hurricane, Dean, is tied for the eighth most intense Atlantic hurricane ever recorded as well as the third most intense Atlantic hurricane at landfall. The season was one of only six on record for the Atlantic with more than one Category 5 hurricane. It was the second on record in which an Atlantic hurricane, Felix, and an eastern Pacific hurricane, Henriette, made landfall on the same day. September had a record-tying eight storms, although the strengths and durations of most of the storms were low. Aside from hurricanes Dean and Felix, none of the storms in the season exceeded Category 1 intensity.

Pre-season forecasts by Colorado State University called for 14 named storms and 7 hurricanes, of which three were expected to attain major hurricane status. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) later issued its initial forecast, which predicted 13 to 17 named storms, 7 to 10 hurricanes and three to five major hurricanes. After several revisions in the projected number of storms, NOAA and CSU lowered their forecasts by the middle of the season.

Several storms made landfall or directly affected land. Hurricanes Dean and Felix made landfall at Category 5 intensity, causing severe damage in parts of Mexico and Central America, respectively. Both storm names, as well as Noel, the name of a hurricane that affected the Caribbean, were retired from the naming list of Atlantic hurricanes. The United States was affected by five cyclones, although the storms were generally weak; three tropical depressions and only two tropical storms, Barry and Gabrielle, and one hurricane, Humberto, made landfall in the country. Elsewhere, three storms directly affected Canada, although none severely. The combined storms killed at least 478 people and caused about $3.42 billion (2007 USD, $4.13 billion 2019 USD) in damage.

2008 Atlantic hurricane season

The 2008 Atlantic hurricane season was the most disastrous Atlantic hurricane season since 2005, causing over 1,000 deaths and nearly $50 billion in damages. It was an above-average season, featuring sixteen named storms, eight of which became hurricanes, and five which further became major hurricanes, the highest number since the record-breaking 2005 season. It officially started on June 1 and ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. However, the formation of Tropical Storm Arthur caused the season to start one day early. This season is the fifth most costly on record, behind only the 2004, 2005, 2012 and 2017 seasons, with over $49.5 billion in damage (2008 USD). It was the only year on record in which a major hurricane existed in every month from July through November in the North Atlantic.Bertha became the longest-lived July tropical cyclone on record for the basin, the first of several long-lived systems during 2008.

The season was devastating for Haiti, where over 800 people were killed by four consecutive tropical cyclones (Fay, Gustav, Hanna, and Ike), especially Hurricane Hanna, in August and September. Hurricane Paloma's outer rain bands also made landfall over Haiti. Ike was also the most destructive storm of the season, as well as the strongest in terms of minimum barometric pressure, devastating Cuba as a major hurricane and later making landfall near Galveston, Texas as a large high-end Category 2 hurricane. One very unusual feat was a streak of tropical cyclones affecting land. All but one system impacted land in 2008. The unprecedented number of storms with impact led to one of the deadliest and destructive seasons in the history of the Atlantic basin, especially with Ike, as its overall damages made it the second-costliest hurricane in the Atlantic at the time, although it would later drop to sixth after hurricanes Sandy, Harvey, Irma, and Maria.

2009 Atlantic hurricane season

The 2009 Atlantic hurricane season was a below-average Atlantic hurricane season that produced eleven tropical cyclones, nine named storms, three hurricanes, and two major hurricanes. It officially began on June 1 and ended on November 30, dates that conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones develop in the Atlantic basin. The season's first tropical cyclone, Tropical Depression One, developed on May 28, while the final storm, Hurricane Ida, dissipated on November 10. The most intense hurricane, Bill, was a powerful Cape Verde-type hurricane that affected areas from the Leeward Islands to Newfoundland. The season featured the lowest number of tropical cyclones since the 1997 season, and only one system, Claudette, made landfall in the United States. Forming from the interaction of a tropical wave and an upper level low, Claudette made landfall on the Florida Panhandle with maximum sustained winds of 45 mph (75 km/h) before quickly dissipating over Alabama. The storm killed two people and caused $228,000 (2009 USD) in damage.

Pre-season forecasts issued by Colorado State University (CSU) called for fourteen named storms and seven hurricanes, of which three were expected to attain major hurricane status. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) later issued its initial forecast, which predicted nine to fourteen named storms, four to seven hurricanes, and one to three major hurricanes. After several revisions in the projected number of named storms, both agencies lowered their forecasts by the middle of the season.

Several storms made landfall or directly affected land outside of the United States. Tropical Storm Ana brought substantial rainfall totals to many of the Caribbean islands, including Puerto Rico, which led to minor street flooding. Hurricane Bill delivered gusty winds and rain to the island of Newfoundland, while Tropical Storm Danny affected the U.S. state of North Carolina, and Erika affected the Lesser Antilles as a poorly organized tropical system. Hurricane Fred affected the Cape Verde Islands as a developing tropical cyclone and Tropical Storm Grace briefly impacted the Azores, becoming the farthest northeast forming storm on record. The season's final storm, Ida, affected portions of Central America before bringing significant rainfall to the Southeast United States as an extratropical cyclone.

2010 Atlantic hurricane season

The 2010 Atlantic hurricane season was the first in a group of three very active Atlantic hurricane seasons. It is tied alongside 1887, 1995, 2011, and 2012 with 19 tropical storms, the third highest count in recorded history. It featured 12 hurricanes, tied with 1969 for the second highest total. Only the quintessential 2005 season saw more activity. The overall tropical cyclone count in the Atlantic exceeded that in the West Pacific for only the second time on record. The season officially began on June 1 and ended on November 30, dates that conventionally delimit the period during each year when tropical cyclone formation is most likely. The first cyclone, Alex intensified into the first June hurricane since Allison in 1995. The month of September featured eight named storms, tying 2002 and 2007 for the record. October featured five hurricanes, just short of the record set in 1870. Finally, Hurricane Tomas became the latest hurricane on record to move through the Windward Islands in late October. Activity was represented with an accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) value of 165 units, which was the eleventh highest value on record at the time.

Numerous tropical cyclones affected countries bordering the Atlantic Ocean throughout 2010. Alex caused 52 deaths and up to $1.52 billion (2010 USD) in damage as it struck northern Mexico in June. The next month, Tropical Storm Bonnie struck Florida as a weak cyclone, leaving one dead. Tropical Storm Colin led to one drowning death, and rip currents produced by Tropical Depression Five killed two people. Hurricane Danielle passed east of Bermuda while Earl moved parallel to the East Coast of the United States and into Nova Scotia throughout late August, resulting in 2 and 8 deaths, respectively. In early September, Tropical Storm Hermine caused significant flooding across Texas and killed 8 people. The strongest hurricane of the year, Igor, killed four as it traversed the Atlantic and across Newfoundland. Latin America was badly hit by Hurricane Karl and Tropical Storm Matthew, with 22 and 126 deaths, respectively. In late September, Tropical Storm Nicole produced torrential rainfall from the Caribbean into the U.S. East Coast, resulting in 16 fatalities. Hurricane Paula caused a tourist to drown offshore Cozumel in mid-October, while Hurricane Richard left two dead in Belize later that month. The season concluded with Tomas which caused 35 fatalities along its track through the Caribbean and into the Atlantic.

2019 Atlantic hurricane season

The 2019 Atlantic hurricane season is an upcoming event in the annual formation of tropical cyclones in the Northern Hemisphere. The season will officially begin on June 1, 2019, and end on November 30, 2019. These dates historically describe the period each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin and are adopted by convention. However, tropical cyclogenesis is possible at any time of the year.

Atlantic hurricane

An Atlantic hurricane or tropical storm is a tropical cyclone that forms in the Atlantic Ocean, usually between the months of June and November. A hurricane differs from a cyclone or typhoon only on the basis of location. A hurricane is a storm that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean and northeastern Pacific Ocean, a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, and a cyclone occurs in the south Pacific or Indian Ocean.Tropical cyclones can be categorized by intensity. Tropical storms have one-minute maximum sustained winds of at least 39 mph (34 knots, 17 m/s, 63 km/h), while hurricanes have one-minute maximum sustained winds exceeding 74 mph (64 knots, 33 m/s, 119 km/h). Most North Atlantic tropical storms and hurricanes form between June 1 and November 30. The United States National Hurricane Center monitors the basin and issues reports, watches, and warnings about tropical weather systems for the North Atlantic Basin as one of the Regional Specialized Meteorological Centers for tropical cyclones, as defined by the World Meteorological Organization.In recent times, tropical disturbances that reach tropical storm intensity are named from a predetermined list. Hurricanes that result in significant damage or casualties may have their names retired from the list at the request of the affected nations in order to prevent confusion should a subsequent storm be given the same name. On average, in the North Atlantic basin (from 1966 to 2009) 11.3 named storms occur each season, with an average of 6.2 becoming hurricanes and 2.3 becoming major hurricanes (Category 3 or greater). The climatological peak of activity is around September 10 each season.In March 2004, Catarina was the first hurricane-intensity tropical cyclone ever recorded in the Southern Atlantic Ocean. Since 2011, the Brazilian Navy Hydrographic Center has started to use the same scale of the North Atlantic Ocean for tropical cyclones in the South Atlantic Ocean and assign names to those which reach 35 kn (65 km/h; 40 mph).

Tropical cyclone naming

Tropical cyclones and subtropical cyclones are named by various warning centers to provide ease of communication between forecasters and the general public regarding forecasts, watches, and warnings. The names are intended to reduce confusion in the event of concurrent storms in the same basin. Generally once storms produce sustained wind speeds of more than 33 knots (61 km/h; 38 mph), names are assigned in order from predetermined lists depending on which basin they originate. However, standards vary from basin to basin: some tropical depressions are named in the Western Pacific, while tropical cyclones must have a significant amount of gale-force winds occurring around the centre before they are named in the Southern Hemisphere.

Before the formal start of naming, tropical cyclones were named after places, objects, or saints' feast days on which they occurred. The credit for the first usage of personal names for weather systems is generally given to the Queensland Government Meteorologist Clement Wragge, who named systems between 1887 and 1907. This system of naming weather systems subsequently fell into disuse for several years after Wragge retired, until it was revived in the latter part of World War II for the Western Pacific. Formal naming schemes and naming lists have subsequently been introduced and developed for the Eastern, Central, Western and Southern Pacific basins, as well as the Australian region, Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean.

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