Atlantic Aircraft

Atlantic Aircraft Corporation, also known as Fokker-America and Atlantic-Fokker, was a US subsidiary of the Dutch Fokker Company, responsible for sales and information about Fokker imports, and eventually constructing various Fokker designs.[1]

History

In 1920 Anthony Fokker had established the Netherlands Aircraft Manufacturing Company of Amsterdam as his American sales office.[2] The company's representatives were Robert B.C. Noorduyn and Frits Cremer, a friend and test-pilot for Anthony Fokker since before WW1. They successfully sold aircraft imported from Europe in the United States. But Fokker's typical construction of wooden wings and a steel-tube fuselage, both covered with fabric, also attracted the attention of the US Army.[3] This resulted in an order to equip their De Havilland DH.4s with steel fuselages. The only restriction was that these had to be manufactured in the United States, therefore Fokker founded the Atlantic Aircraft Corporation in May 1924. The company was based in Hasbrouck Heights, New Jersey, and Teterboro, New Jersey. Lorillard Spencer became the president and Robert B.C. Noorduyn the General Manager.

The Netherlands Aircraft Manufacturing Company was succeeded by the Fokker Aircraft Corporation which held the license rights of the Fokker designs and remained responsible for selling the aircraft from the Dutch Fokker factory. In September 1925 the Fokker Aircraft Corporation took over the stocks and orders of the Atlantic Aircraft Corporation, which since then had become a full subsidiary of it. In 1925 the company also began to manufacture one of Noorduyn's own designs, the Fokker Universal.

In 1927 the Fokker Aircraft Corporation of America was founded, which took over the Fokker Aircraft Corporation.[4] A factory at Passaic, New Jersey, was added in 1927, and another at Glen Dale, West Virginia, in August 1928.[5] Although the company had changed its name, many of its products continued to be referred to as "Atlantic" or "Atlantic Fokker" for some years.

Fokker Aircraft Company of America became a subsidiary of General Motors Corporation which acquired a 40 percent holding in May 1929, but ended operations the following year as a combination of the effect of the Great Depression and bad publicity surrounding the 1931 crash of a Transcontinental & Western Air Fokker F.10 that killed celebrated football coach Knute Rockne.[6] Fokker ended his association with the American company in 1931. GMC renamed their aviation subsidiary General Aviation Manufacturing Corporation, which in turn became part of North American Aviation, Inc in 1934.[1]

Aircraft Types

Atlantic Model 1
Fokker DH-4M-2
Atlantic Model 2
Fokker S-3 (see also the unrelated Atlantic Model 2)
Atlantic Model 3
Fokker AO-1, Fokker CO-4 Mail, Fokker C-4
Atlantic Model 4
Fokker Universal
Atlantic Model 5
Fokker XLB-2
Atlantic Model 6
Fokker F.VII, Fokker F7
Atlantic Model 7
Fokker C-2 Civil Version
Atlantic XHB-2
design only, never built
Fokker XA-7
Fokker XB-8
Fokker F-10
Fokker F-11
Fokker F-14
Fokker F-32
Fokker Super Universal
General Aviation GA-43
General Aviation PJ
General Aviation XFA

References

  1. ^ a b "The Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum Directory of Airplanes their Designers and Manufacturers" ed. Dana Bell, Greenhill Books Ltd. London ISBN 1-85367-490-7, 2002, page 88
  2. ^ "Fokker Aircraft Builders To The World", Thijs Postma, Jane's Incorporated, NY, ISBN 0-7106-0059-3, 1980, page 49
  3. ^ "Fokkers 'Roaring Twenties'", Peter F.A. van de Noort, Rebo Produkties, ISBN 90-366-0353-6, page 13 (in Dutch)
  4. ^ "Fokkers 'Roaring Twenties'", Peter F.A. van de Noort, Rebo Produkties, ISBN 90-366-0353-6, page 30 (in Dutch)
  5. ^ "The New Illustrated Encyclopedia of Aircraft" Edited by David Mondey, revised and updated by Michael Taylor (Greenwich Editions 10 Blenheim Cort, Brewery RD. London N7 9NT ISBN 0-86288-268-0), 2000, page 111
  6. ^ "World Encyclopedia of Aircraft Manufacturers" by Bill Gunston, Naval Institute Press Annapolis, MD, ISBN 0-7509-3981-8, 2006, page 31

External links

2006 transatlantic aircraft plot

The 2006 transatlantic aircraft plot was a terrorist plot to detonate liquid explosives, carried on board airliners travelling from the United Kingdom to the United States and Canada, disguised as soft drinks. The plot was discovered by British police during an extensive surveillance operation. As a result of the plot, unprecedented security measures were initially put in place at airports. The measures were gradually relaxed in the following weeks, but passengers are still not allowed to carry liquid containers larger than 100 ml onto commercial aircraft in the UK and many other countries, as of 2019.

Of 24 suspects who were arrested in and around London on the night of 9 August 2006, eight were initially tried for terrorism offences in connection with the plot. The first trial took place from April to September 2008. The jury failed to reach a verdict on charges of conspiracy to kill by blowing up aircraft but did find three men guilty of conspiracy to murder and acquitted one other of all charges. In September 2009, a second trial (of the now seven originally accused but with the addition of another man) found three men guilty of conspiracy to kill by blowing up aircraft and one other guilty of conspiracy to murder, while the 'additional' man was cleared of all terrorism charges.In July 2010, a further three of the accused were found guilty at a third trial at Woolwich Crown Court of conspiracy to murder. Thus, of the nine men tried, two were acquitted and seven found guilty of conspiracy charges.

Airco DH.4

The Airco DH.4 was a British two-seat biplane day bomber of the First World War. It was designed by Geoffrey de Havilland (hence "DH") for Airco, and was the first British two-seat light day-bomber to have an effective defensive armament.

The DH.4 was developed as a light two-seat combat aircraft, intended to perform both aerial reconnaissance and day bomber missions. One of the early aims of the design was for it to be powered by the newly-developed Beardmore Halford Pullinger (BHP) engine, capable of generating up to 160 hp. During its first years of flight, it was tried with several different engines, perhaps the best of which was the 375 hp (280 kW) Rolls-Royce Eagle engine. Armament and ordnance for the aircraft consisted of one 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Vickers machine gun for the pilot and one 0.303 in (7.7 mm) Lewis gun on a Scarff ring mounting for the observer. In addition, either a pair of 230 lb (100 kg) bombs or a maximum payload of four 112 lb (51 kg) bombs could be carried.

The DH.4 performed its first flight in August 1916; less than a year later, it entered operational service in France on 6 March 1917 with No. 55 Squadron of the Royal Flying Corps (RFC). The majority of DH.4s were actually manufactured as general purpose two-seaters in the United States, the majority of which were intended to be used in service with the American expeditionary forces being deployed to fight in France. Following the signing of the Armistice of 11 November 1918, which effectively marked the end of the First World War, many DH.4s were determined to be surplus and sold, often to civil operators. Shortly after the conflict, the U.S. Army issued contracts to several companies to remanufacture many of their DH.4s to the improved DH.4B standard; and continued to operate the type into the early 1930s.

Fokker F-10

The Fokker F-10 was an enlarged development of the Fokker F.VII airliner, built in the late 1920s by the Fokker Aircraft Corporation of America. It carried 12 passengers, four more than the F.VII, and had a larger wing and more powerful engines.

Fokker F-11

The Fokker F-11 was a luxury flying boat produced as an 'air yacht' in the United States in the late 1920s. Technically the aircraft was the Fokker Aircraft Corporation of America's Model 9. It was sold in North America as the Fokker F-11 and was offered in Europe as the Fokker B.IV. By the time the first six aircraft had been constructed, it was already evident that the design was not going to sell well. A few were sold, two to notable multi-millionaires; Harold Vanderbilt and Garfield Wood each purchasing one. One was bought by Air Ferries in San Francisco. The F-11A cost $40,000 but the price was slashed to $32,500 as the depression set in during 1930. The F-11 was a commercial failure.

Fokker F-14

The Fokker F-14 was an American seven/nine passenger transport aircraft designed by Fokker and built by their Atlantic Aircraft factory in New Jersey.

Fokker F-32

The Fokker F-32 was a passenger aircraft built by the Fokker Aircraft Corporation of America in 1929 in their Teterboro, New Jersey factory.

It was the first four-engined aircraft designed and built in the United States. Ten examples were built, but they only entered limited commercial service; their high cost and problems with the cooling of the after engines proved prohibitive. The United States Army Air Forces evaluated the F-32 as the YC-20, but did not purchase it.

Fokker F.VII

The Fokker F.VII, also known as the Fokker Trimotor, was an airliner produced in the 1920s by the Dutch aircraft manufacturer Fokker, Fokker's American subsidiary Atlantic Aircraft Corporation, and other companies under licence.

Fokker S.III

The Fokker S.III was a biplane trainer aircraft of the 1920s. It was of conventional configuration, seating the pilot and instructor in tandem, open cockpits. The single-baywings were staggered and of unequal span.

In 1927, Fokker's US subsidiary, Atlantic Aircraft imported a single example, in an attempt to interest the US Army in the type, but this did not result in a sale. The aircraft was eventually purchased by the Wright Aeronautical Corporation and used as an engine testbed until broken up in 1929.

Fokker Super Universal

The Fokker Super Universal was an airliner produced in the United States in the late 1920s, an enlarged and improved version of the Fokker Universal, fitted with cantilever wings and an enclosed cockpit. It was subsequently also manufactured under license in Canada, and in Japan as the Nakajima-Fokker Super Universal and for the IJAAF as the Nakajima Ki-6 and later in the puppet state of Manchukuo as the Manshū Super Universal.

Fokker Universal

The Fokker Universal was the first aircraft built in the United States that was based on the designs of Dutch-born Anthony Fokker, who had designed aircraft for the Germans during World War I. About half of the 44 Universals that were built between 1926 and 1931 in the United States were used in Canada. Among the famous pilots who flew the Fokker Universal were Punch Dickins and Walter Gilbert.

Fokker XA-7

The General Aviation / Fokker XA-7 was a prototype attack aircraft ordered in December 1929, and first flown in January 1931 by Fokker and then General Aviation Corporation after it bought Fokker-America in 1930, and entered in a competition held by the United States Army. However, the Curtiss A-8 won the competition, and A-7 development was not continued.

Fokker XB-8

The Fokker XB-8 was a bomber built for the United States Army Air Corps in the 1920s, derived from the high-speed Fokker O-27 observation aircraft.

Fokker XHB-2

The Fokker XHB-2 was a proposed heavy bomber envisaged by the Fokker Aircraft Corporation of America in 1927. The leadership of the United States Army Air Corps found the XHB-2 design too radical to be a real proposition, so the design remained a paper project only.

General Aviation PJ

The General Aviation PJ was a flying boat produced in the United States in the 1930s as a search-and-rescue aircraft for the Coast Guard. Originally designated FLB (for "Flying Life Boat"), it was a conventional high-wing cantilever monoplane with a flying boat hull and outrigger pontoons mounted on the wings slightly outboard of mid-span. The twin pusher engines were carried in separate nacelles on pylons above the wings. The hull was a monocoque metal structure, and the wing was a wooden structure skinned with plywood. The basic design was based on that of the Fokker F.11, but substantially enlarged (Fokker's American operation was renamed General Aviation after purchase by General Motors in 1930). While not a true amphibian and able to land on dry land, the PJ was equipped with retractable undercarriage that functioned as its own, self-carrying beaching trolley.

Five examples were operated by the US Coast Guard during the 1930s, named Antares, Altair, Acrux, Acamar, and Arcturus (hull numbers FLB-51 through FLB-55). In 1933, Antares underwent a major refit that included a redesign of her engine nacelles, converting these to tractor configuration.

James Fitzmaurice

James Michael Christopher Fitzmaurice DFC (6 January 1898 – 26 September 1965) was an Irish aviation pioneer. He was a member of the crew of the Bremen, which made the first successful trans-Atlantic aircraft flight from East to West on 12–13 April 1928.

Lorillard S. Spencer

Lorillard Suydam Spencer Sr. (July 4, 1883 - June 9, 1939) was president of Atlantic Aircraft and was prominent in Newport, Rhode Island society. He served as the military secretary to Charles Seymour Whitman, the New York Governor.

Pakistan Maritime Museum

Pakistan Maritime Museum (Urdu: پاک بحریہ متحف ‎) is a naval museum and park situated near PNS Karsaz on Habib Ebrahim Rehmatoola Road (Karsaz Road) in Karachi, Pakistan.The main museum building is located inside the park of 28 acres. It comprises six galleries and an auditorium. The museum is based on modern concepts of presentation and interactive education. Different artifacts of maritime and naval heritage have been incorporated through attractive dioramas, relief sculpture, murals and miniature paintings, touch screen computers, taxidermy and ancient weapons. A computer based maritime information retrieval system has also been incorporated to facilitate the visitors and students for easy access.Besides all of the above, the museum also displays Daphne Class Submarine PNS Hangor (S131), the minesweeper, PNS Mujahid (M164), Breguet Atlantic aircraft and a wooden barge that was given to the Naval Chief by Her Majesty during the 1960s.

Sud Aviation Super-Caravelle

The Sud Aviation Super-Caravelle was an early design for a supersonic transport. Unlike most competing designs which envisioned larger trans-Atlantic aircraft and led to the likes of the Boeing 2707, the Super-Caravelle was a much smaller, shorter range design intended to replace their earlier and very successful Caravelle. Design work started in 1960 and was announced in 1961 at the Paris Air Show, but was later merged with similar work at the British Aircraft Corporation (originally the Bristol 223) to create the Concorde project in November 1962. After work had begun on designing Concorde, the Super Caravelle name was instead used on a lengthened version of the original Caravelle design, the SE-210B.

The Super-Caravelle looks very much like a smaller version of Concorde. It used Concorde's unique ogive wing planform, and was otherwise similar in shape and layout with the exception of the nose area, which was more "conventional" and only the outermost section over the radar "drooped" for visibility on takeoff and landing. In normal use it was designed to carry 70 passengers between 2,000 to 3,000 km (1,200 to 1,900 miles) at about Mach 2. The size and range requirements were set to make the Super-Caravelle "perfect" for Air France's European and African routes.

Concorde was originally to be delivered in two versions, a longer-range transatlantic version similar to the Bristol 223 that was eventually delivered as Concorde, and a smaller version for shorter range routes similar to the Super-Caravelle. After consultations with prospective customers, the smaller design was dropped.

Virgin Atlantic

Virgin Atlantic, a trading name of Virgin Atlantic Airways Limited and Virgin Atlantic International Limited, is a British airline with its head office in Crawley, England. The airline was established in 1984 as British Atlantic Airways, and was originally planned by its co-founders Randolph Fields and Alan Hellary to fly between London and the Falkland Islands. Soon after changing the name to Virgin Atlantic Airways, Fields sold his shares in the company after disagreements with Sir Richard Branson over the management of the company. The maiden flight from Gatwick Airport to Newark Liberty International Airport took place on 22 June 1984.

The airline along with Virgin Holidays is controlled by a holding company, Virgin Atlantic Limited, which is 51% owned by the Virgin Group and 49% by Delta Air Lines. It is administratively separate from other Virgin-branded airlines. Virgin Atlantic Airways Limited and Virgin Atlantic International Limited both hold Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) Type A Operating Licences (AOC numbers 534 and 2435 respectively), both of which permit these airlines, operating as Virgin Atlantic Airways, to carry passengers, cargo and mail on aircraft with 20 or more seats.Virgin Atlantic uses a mixed fleet of Airbus and Boeing wide-body aircraft and operates to destinations in North America, the Caribbean, Africa, the Middle East and Asia from its main bases in London (Heathrow and Gatwick), and its secondary base at Manchester. The airline also operates seasonal flights from Glasgow and Belfast. Virgin Atlantic aircraft consist of three cabins: Economy, Premium (formerly Premium economy) and Upper Class (business).

In 2012, Virgin Atlantic carried 5.4 million passengers, making it the seventh-largest UK airline in terms of passenger volume. On 31 December 2013, it reported a £51 million group pre-tax loss (approximately US$87 million); however, in the year to 31 December 2014 the airline reported a return to pre-tax profit of £14.4 million. In July 2017, Virgin Atlantic announced its intention to form a joint venture with Air France–KLM. Under the agreement, Air France–KLM will acquire a 31% stake in Virgin Atlantic currently held by Virgin Group for £220 million. The deal was completed in early 2019.

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