Atari ST character set

The Atari ST character set[1] is the character set of the Atari ST personal computer family including the Atari STE, TT and Falcon. It is based on code page 437, the original character set of the IBM PC, and like that set includes ASCII codes 32–126, extended codes for accented letters (diacritics), and other symbols. It differs from code page 437 in using other dingbats at code points 0–31, in exchanging the box-drawing characters 176–223 for the Hebrew alphabet and other symbols, and exchanging code points 158, 236 and 254–255 with the symbols for sharp S, line integral, cubed and macron.

The Atari ST family of computers contained this font stored in ROM in three sizes; as an 8×16 pixels-per-character font used in the high-resolution graphics modes, as an 8×8 pixels-per-character font used in the low- and medium-resolution graphics modes, and as a 6×6 pixels-per-character font used for icon labels in any graphics mode.[1]

All 256 codes were assigned a graphical character in ROM, including the codes from 0 to 31 that in ASCII were reserved for non-graphical control characters.

Digital Research's Intel-based original GEM for IBM compatible PCs utilized the similar GEM character set. It has swapped ¢ and ø and has also swapped ¥ and Ø (meaning GEM is more similar to code page 865 by placement of Ø and ø). It also has the currency sign (¤) at codepoint 158, “ at codepoint 169, ” at codepoint 170, ‹ at codepoint 171, › at codepoint 172, section sign (§) at codepoint 184, double dagger (‡) at codepoint 185, „ at codepoint 192, horizontal ellipsis (…) codepoint 193, per mille sign (‰) at codepoint 194, bullet (•) at codepoint 195, en dash (–) at codepoint 196, em dash (—) at codepoint 197, degree sign (°) at code point 198, the S with caron (uppercase and lowercase) and various uppercase Latin accented letters (in codepoint order, they are Á, Â, È, Ê, Ë, Ì, Í, Î, Ï, Ò, Ó, Ô, Š, š, Ù, Ú, Û, and Ÿ) at codepoints 199-216, sharp s (ß) at codepoint 217, various spaces at codepoints 218-223, bullet operator (∙) at codepoint 249, black square (■) at codepoint 254 (as in code page 437), empty set (∅) at code point 255, GEM-specific characters at codepoints 5, 6, and 7, various black triangles (in codepoint order, they are ▴, ▾, ▸, ◂, ►, ◄) at codepoints 12-17 (codepoints 16 and 17 match code page 437), ⧓ at codepoint 18, ▂ at codepoint 19, ¶ (which is not filled in the system font) at codepoint 20, § (duplicate) at codepoint 21, ↕ at codepoint 22, ↨ at code point 23, and codepoints 24-31 match code page 437.

Atari ST character set 8x16
The Atari ST character set as rendered in the 8×16 high-resolution system font.
Atari ST character set 8x8
The 8×8 low- and medium resolution system font.

Character set

The following table shows the Atari ST character set. Each character is shown with a potential Unicode equivalent if available. Differences from code page 437 are shown boxed.

Although the ROM provides a graphic for all 256 different possible 8-bit codes, some APIs will not print some of these code points, in particular the range 0–31 and the code at 127. Instead they will interpret them as control characters.

Atari ST character set[2][3][4][5][6][7]
_0 _1 _2 _3 _4 _5 _6 _7 _8 _9 _A _B _C _D _E _F
0_
0
NUL[a]
0000
[b]
21E7
[b]
21E9
[b]
21E8
[b]
21E6
[b]
274E
Atari ST character 0x06.png[b]
 
Atari ST character 0x07.png[b]
 
[b]
2713
🕒
1F552
🔔
1F514

266A

240C

240D
Atari ST character 0x0E.png[c]
 
Atari ST character 0x0F.png[c]
 
1_
16
0[d]
 
1[d]
 
2[d]
 
3[d]
 
4[d]
 
5[d]
 
6[d]
 
7[d]
 
8[d]
 
9[d]
 
ə
0259

241B
Atari ST character 0x1C.png[e]
 
Atari ST character 0x1D.png[e]
 
Atari ST character 0x1E.png[e]
 
Atari ST character 0x1F.png[e]
 
2_
32
SP
0020
!
0021
"
0022
#
0023
$
0024
%
0025
&
0026
'
0027
(
0028
)
0029
*
002A
+
002B
,
002C
-
002D
.
002E
/
002F
3_
48
0
0030
1
0031
2
0032
3
0033
4
0034
5
0035
6
0036
7
0037
8
0038
9
0039
:
003A
;
003B
<
003C
=
003D
>
003E
?
003F
4_
64
@
0040
A
0041
B
0042
C
0043
D
0044
E
0045
F
0046
G
0047
H
0048
I
0049
J
004A
K
004B
L
004C
M
004D
N
004E
O
004F
5_
80
P
0050
Q
0051
R
0052
S
0053
T
0054
U
0055
V
0056
W
0057
X
0058
Y
0059
Z
005A
[
005B
\
005C
]
005D
^
005E
_
005F
6_
96
`
0060
a
0061
b
0062
c
0063
d
0064
e
0065
f
0066
g
0067
h
0068
i
0069
j
006A
k
006B
l
006C
m
006D
n
006E
o
006F
7_
112
p
0070
q
0071
r
0072
s
0073
t
0074
u
0075
v
0076
w
0077
x
0078
y
0079
z
007A
{
007B
|
007C
}
007D
~
007E
Δ
0394
8_
128
Ç
00C7
ü
00FC
é
00E9
â
00E2
ä
00E4
à
00E0
å
00E5
ç
00E7
ê
00EA
ë
00EB
è
00E8
ï
00EF
î
00EE
ì
00EC
Ä
00C4
Å
00C5
9_
144
É
00C9
æ
00E6
Æ
00C6
ô
00F4
ö
00F6
ò
00F2
û
00FB
ù
00F9
ÿ
00FF
Ö
00D6
Ü
00DC
¢
00A2
£
00A3
¥
00A5
ß
00DF
ƒ
0192
A_
160
á
00E1
í
00ED
ó
00F3
ú
00FA
ñ
00F1
Ñ
00D1
ª
00AA
º
00BA
¿
00BF

2310
¬
00AC
½
00BD
¼
00BC
¡
00A1
«
00AB
»
00BB
B_
176
ã
00E3
õ
00F5
Ø
00D8
ø
00F8
œ
0153
Œ
0152
À
00C0
Ã
00C3
Õ
00D5
¨
00A8
´
00B4

2020

00B6
©
00A9
®
00AE

2122
C_
192
ij
0133
IJ
0132
א
05D0
ב
05D1
ג
05D2
ד
05D3
ה
05D4
ו
05D5
ז
05D6
ח
05D7
ט
05D8
י
05D9
כ
05DB
ל
05DC
מ
05DE
נ
05E0
D_
208
ס
05E1
ע
05E2
פ
05E4
צ
05E6
ק
05E7
ר
05E8
ש
05E9
ת
05EA
ן
05DF
ך
05DA
ם
05DD
ף
05E3
ץ
05E5
§
00A7

2227

221E
E_
224
α
03B1
β
03B2
Γ
0393
π
03C0
Σ
03A3
σ
03C3
µ
00B5
τ
03C4
Φ
03A6
Θ
0398
Ω
03A9
δ
03B4

222E
ϕ
03D5

2208

2229
F_
240

2261
±
00B1

2265

2264

2320

2321
÷
00F7

2248
°
00B0

2022
·
00B7

221A

207F
²
00B2
³
00B3
¯
00AF
  1. ^ 0 may draw a blank space in some API.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h 1–8 are used in GEM AES user interface elements such as icons for closing, resizing and maximizing windows.
  3. ^ a b 14–15 (0Ehex–0Fhex) are 2 pieces that form an Atari "Fuji" logo, sometimes used together as an alternative to the title "Desk" for the leftmost menu in Atari ST software.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j 16–25 (10hex–19hex) are alternate representations of the digits 0–9 in the style of a seven-segment display. There are no direct Unicode equivalents although Unicode does have several other alternative sets of digits.
  5. ^ a b c d 28–31 (1Chex–1Fhex) are 4 pieces that form the image of J. R. "Bob" Dobbs from the satirical Church of the SubGenius, a rarely used easter egg.

Alt codes

Utilizing the Alt Numpad input method, users can enter a character by holding down the Alt key and entering the three-digit decimal code point on the Numpad. This provides a way to enter special characters not provided directly on the keyboard.[2]

Euro variants

The Atari ST character set long pre-dates the introduction of the Euro currency and thus does not provide a code point for the Euro sign (U+20AC, €). However, some software (such as Calamus) utilized code point 238 (0xEE) for this purpose.[8][9] This code point is normally assigned to the mathematical element-of sign (U+2208, ∈), and to the Greek lowercase epsilon (U+03B5, ε) in code page 437. Alternatively, the rarely used logical conjunction sign (U+2227, ∧) at code point 222 (0xDE) could be replaced by the euro sign.[10]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Feagans, John (May 1986). "How do Europeans access special characters in the Atari ST character set? What is the 6x6 font used for?" (PDF). Atari ST Developers Question and Answer Bulletin. Sunnyvale, CA, USA: Atari Corp. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-02-19. Retrieved 2017-02-19.
  2. ^ a b "Atari Wiki - The Atari character set". Archived from the original on 2017-01-16. Retrieved 2017-01-16.
  3. ^ Bettencourt, Rebecca G. (2016-08-01) [1999]. "Character Encodings - Legacy Encodings - Atari ST". Kreative Korporation. Retrieved 2016-08-09.
  4. ^ Kostis, Kosta; Lehmann, Alexander. "Atari ST/TT Character Encoding". 1.56. Archived from the original on 2017-01-16. Retrieved 2017-01-16.
  5. ^ "Codepages / Ascii Table Atari ST/TT Character Encoding". ASCII.ca. 2016 [2006]. Archived from the original on 2017-01-16. Retrieved 2017-01-16.
  6. ^ Verdy, Philippe; Haible, Bruno; Zibis, Ulf; Rinquin, Yves-Marie K. (2015-10-08) [1998]. "AtariST to Unicode". 1.3. Retrieved 2016-12-09.
  7. ^ Flohr, Guido (2016) [2006]. "Locale::RecodeData::ATARI_ST - Conversion routines for ATARI-ST". CPAN libintl-perl. 1.1. Archived from the original on 2017-01-14. Retrieved 2017-01-14.
  8. ^ Dunkel, Ulf (July 1999). "Calamus (2)". ST Computer (in German). Retrieved 2017-01-16.
  9. ^ Hädrich, Johannes (2002-12-14). "Calamus: RTF 3.0 mit grossem Qualitaetssprung" (in German). Archived from the original on 2017-01-16. Retrieved 2017-01-16.
  10. ^ Flohr, Guido (2016) [2006]. "Locale::RecodeData::ATARI_ST_EURO - Conversion routines for ATARI-ST-EURO". CPAN libintl-perl. 1.1. Archived from the original on 2017-01-14. Retrieved 2017-01-14.
ATASCII

The ATASCII character set, from ATARI Standard Code for Information Interchange, alternatively ATARI ASCII, is the variation on ASCII used in the Atari 8-bit family of home computers. The first of this family were the Atari 400 and 800, released in 1979, and later models were released throughout the 1980s. The last computer to use the ATASCII character set was the Atari XEGS which was released in 1987. The Atari ST family of computers used the different Atari ST character set.

Like most other non-standard ASCIIs, ATASCII has its own special block graphics symbols (arrows, blocks, circles, line segments, playing card suits, etc.) corresponding to the control character locations of the standard ASCII table (characters 0–31), and a few other character locations.

Atari Falcon

The Atari Falcon030 Computer System is a personal computer released by Atari Corporation in 1992. The machine is based on a Motorola 68030 main CPU, and had a Motorola 56000 digital signal processor, a feature which distinguished it from most other microcomputers of the era.

The Falcon was the ultimate version of the Atari ST line. In comparison to previous models of the ST series, the Falcon included the 56000 mostly for sound processing, and the new VIDEL programmable graphics system, which greatly improved graphics capabilities.

The Falcon was produced only for a short period before the company stopped production of all systems other than the upcoming Atari Jaguar. It was Atari's final computer product.

Atari MEGA STE

The Atari Mega STE was Atari Corporation's last ST series personal computer, released in 1991. The MEGA STE was essentially a late-model 680x0-based STE mounted in the case of the otherwise unrelated Atari TT computer, although a number of TT features were also blended in. The resulting machine was a more business-like version of the ST line.

Atari STacy

The STacy was a portable version of the Atari ST.The computer was originally designed to operate on 12 standard C cell flashlight batteries for portability. When Atari realized how quickly the machine would use up a set of batteries (especially when rechargeable batteries of the time supplied insufficient power compared to the intended alkalines), they simply glued the lid of the battery compartment shut.The STacy has features similar to the Macintosh Portable, a version of their Macintosh computer which contained a built in keyboard and monitor.

Thanks to its built-in MIDI, the STacy enjoyed success for running music-sequencer software and as a controller of musical instruments among both amateurs and well-known musicians.

Atari TOS

TOS (The Operating System; also Tramiel Operating System, from Jack Tramiel, owner of Atari Corp. at the time) is the operating system of the Atari ST range of computers. This range includes the 520ST and 1040ST, their STF/M/FM and STE variants and the Mega ST/STE. Later, 32-bit machines (TT, Falcon030) were developed using a new version of TOS, called MultiTOS, which allowed multitasking. More recently, users have further developed TOS into FreeMiNT.

Atari TT030

The Atari TT030 is a member of the Atari ST family, released in 1990. It was originally intended to be a high-end Unix workstation, however Atari took two years to release a port of Unix SVR4 for the TT, which prevented the TT from ever being seriously considered in its intended market.

In 1992, the TT was replaced by the Atari Falcon, a low-cost consumer-oriented machine with greatly improved graphics and sound capability, but with a slower and severely bottle-necked CPU. The Falcon possessed only a fraction of the TT's raw CPU performance. Though well priced for a workstation machine, the TT's high cost kept it mostly out of reach of the existing Atari ST market until after the TT was discontinued and sold at discount.

The nascent open source movement eventually filled the void. Thanks to open hardware documentation, the Atari TT, along with the Amiga and Atari Falcon, were the first non-Intel machines to have Linux ported to them, though this work did not stabilize until after the TT had already been discontinued by Atari. By 1995 NetBSD had also been ported to the Atari TT.

Calamus (DTP)

Calamus is a desktop publishing application, built for the Atari ST computer. The first version was released on July 1, 1987 by the former German software company DMC GmbH. Calamus was discontinued in March 2018 and is no longer supported by its German owner company, invers Software. It is also able to run under a built-in and transparent Atari emulator on Windows, or on other platforms such as Mac OS 9 and Mac OS X, using any available TOS emulator.

Calamus is a software RIP application which generates high-quality output in any resolution. It was one of the first DTP applications supporting an own vector font format, notable for its support for automatic kerning even where adjacent characters are set in different fonts or at different sizes. Its high modularity offers features for almost every purpose in desktop publishing. Calamus also was one of the first DTP apps to support real virtual objects and frames, nondestructive vector masks, and editable PS/PDF import. Its (adjustable) measurement base of 1/10,000mm allows accurate positioning of elements.

Calamus was ported to Windows by MGI Software and was released as Calamus 95.

The current and last version of Calamus is Calamus SL 2015, also available as SLC 2015 (complete edition with all additional modules) and LE 2015 (lite edition with restricted number of modules).

Code page 437

Code page 437 is the character set of the original IBM PC (personal computer). It is also known as CP437, OEM-US, OEM 437, PC-8, or DOS Latin US. The set includes ASCII codes 32–126, extended codes for accented letters (diacritics), some Greek letters, icons, and line-drawing symbols. It is sometimes referred to as the "OEM font" or "high ASCII", or as "extended ASCII" (one of many mutually incompatible ASCII extensions).

This character set remains the primary font in the core of any EGA and VGA-compatible graphics card. Text shown when a PC reboots, before any other font can be loaded from a storage medium, typically is rendered in this character set. Many file formats developed at the time of the IBM PC are based on code page 437 as well.

GEM character set

The GEM character set is the character set of Digital Research's graphical user interface GEM on Intel platforms. It is based on code page 437, the original character set of the IBM PC, and like that set includes ASCII codes 32–126, extended codes for accented letters (diacritics), and other symbols. It differs from code page 437 in using other dingbats at code points 0–31, in exchanging the box-drawing characters 176–223 for international characters and other symbols, and exchanging code point 236 with the symbol for line integral.. However, GEM is more similar to code page 865 because the codepoints of Ø and ø match the codepoints in that codepage.

The Motorola-based GEM adaption for the Atari ST family of computers utilized the similar Atari ST character set. It has swapped ¢ and ø and has also swapped ¥ and Ø (to match code page 437 more). It also has the sharp S (sharp s) at code point 158, reversed not sign (⌐) at code point 169 (as in code page 437), not sign (¬) at code point 170 (as in code page 437), ½ at code point 171 (as in code page 437), ¼ at code point 172 (as in code page 437), ¨ (diaeresis) at code point 184, ´ (acute) at code point 185, ij at code point 192, IJ at code point 193, Hebrew characters at code points 194-220, section sign (§) at code point 221, logical and at code point 222, infinity sign at code point 223, bullet (•) at codepoint 249, cubed sign (superscript three) at code point 254, the macron at code point 255, ATARI-specific characters at codepoints 5, 6, 7, 14, 15, 28, 29, 30, and 31, LED 0-9 at codepoints 16-25, and ə (Schwa) at codepoint 26. Codepoints 12, 13, and 27 are mapped to the C0 controls.

A slight adaption for Ventura Publisher is the similar Ventura International character set, it has code points 0-31, 127, and 218-255 empty, and has swapped ¢ and ø and has also swapped ¥ and Ø (to match code page 437 more).

In contrast to this, the GEM-derived file manager ViewMAX, which shipped with some versions of DR DOS as a DOSSHELL replacement, does not use the GEM character set, but loads its display fonts from DOS .CPI files depending on the system's current code page.

Graphics Environment Manager

GEM (for Graphics Environment Manager) was an operating environment created by Digital Research (DRI) for use with the DOS operating system on Intel 8088 and Motorola 68000 microprocessors.

GEM is known primarily as the graphical user interface (GUI) for the Atari ST series of computers, and was also supplied with a series of IBM PC-compatible computers from Amstrad. It was also available for the standard IBM PC, at a time when the 6 MHz IBM PC AT (and the very concept of a GUI) was brand new. It was the core for a small number of DOS programs, the most notable being Ventura Publisher. It was ported to a number of other computers that previously lacked graphical interfaces, but never gained popularity on those platforms. DRI also produced X/GEM for their FlexOS real-time operating system with adaptations for OS/2 Presentation Manager and the X Window System under preparation as well.

IJ (digraph)

IJ (lowercase ij; Dutch pronunciation: [ɛi] (listen)) is a digraph of the letters i and j. Occurring in the Dutch language, it is sometimes considered a ligature, or even a letter in itself. In most fonts that have a separate character for ij, the two composing parts are not connected but are separate glyphs, which are sometimes slightly kerned.

An ij in written Dutch usually represents the diphthong [ɛi]. In Standard Dutch and most Dutch dialects, there are two possible spellings for the diphthong [ɛi]: ij and ei. That causes confusion for schoolchildren, who need to learn which words to write with ei and which with ij. To distinguish between the two, the ij is referred to as the lange ij ("long ij"), the ei as korte ei ("short ei") or simply E – I. In certain Dutch dialects (notably West Flemish and Zeelandic) and the Dutch Low Saxon dialects of Low German, a difference in the pronunciation of ei and ij is maintained. Whether it is pronounced identically to ei or not, the pronunciation of ij is often perceived as being difficult by people who do not have either sound in their native language. The tendency for native English-speakers is to pronounce ij as [aɪ], like the English vowel y in by, which does not normally lead to confusion among native listeners since the same pronunciation occurs in a number of dialects (such as that of Amsterdam, which is home of the body of water called the IJ).

The ij originally represented a 'long i'. This can still be seen in the etymology of some words and in the Dutch form of several foreign placenames: Berlin and Paris are spelled Berlijn and Parijs. Nowadays, the pronunciation follows the spelling, and they are pronounced with [ɛi]. The IJ is distinct from the letter Y. Particular when writing capitals, Y used to be common instead of IJ. In fact, that was the official spelling in the early 19th century. That practice has now long been deprecated, but the standard Dutch pronunciation of the letter Y is still ij when the alphabet is read. Also, in scientific disciplines such as mathematics and physics, the symbol y is usually pronounced ij.To distinguish the Y from IJ in common speech, however, Y is often called Griekse IJ ("Greek Y"), i-grec (the latter from French, with the stress on grec: [iˈgrɛk]), or Ypsilon. In Dutch, the letter Y now occurs only in loanwords, proper nouns, or in (variantly spelled) Old Dutch, while in the related language Afrikaans, Y has completely replaced IJ. Furthermore, the names of Dutch immigrants to the United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand were often anglicised, with the IJ becoming a Y. For example, the surname Spijker was often changed into Spyker and Snijder into Snyder.

PETSCII

PETSCII (PET Standard Code of Information Interchange), also known as CBM ASCII, is the character set used in Commodore Business Machines (CBM)'s 8-bit home computers, starting with the PET from 1977 and including the C16, C64, C116, C128[1], CBM-II, Plus/4, and VIC-20.

ST BOOK

The ST BOOK is a portable computer released in 1991 by Atari. It was based on the Atari STE. The ST BOOK was vastly more portable than the previous Atari portable, the STacy, but it sacrificed several features in order to achieve this: notably the backlight, and internal floppy disc drive.The screen is highly reflective. It supports the 640×400 1-bit mono mode only and no external video port was provided. For its limitations, it gained some popularity as being the most utterly portable full-featured computer of the day (slim, light, quiet, reliable, and with a long battery life, even by modern standards for all 5).

The ST BOOK is shipped with a modified version of TOS 2.06.

ZX80 character set

The ZX80 character set is the character encoding used by the Sinclair Research ZX80 microcomputer with its original 4K BASIC ROM. The encoding uses one byte per character for 256 code points. It has no relationship with previously established ones like ASCII or EBCDIC, but it is related though not identical to the character set of the successor ZX81.

ZX81 character set

The ZX81 character set is the character encoding used by the Sinclair Research ZX81 family of microcomputers including the Timex Sinclair 1000 and Timex Sinclair 1500. The encoding uses one byte per character for 256 code points. It has no relationship with previously established ones like ASCII or EBCDIC, but it is related though not identical to the character set of the predecessor ZX80.

ZX Spectrum character set

The ZX Spectrum character set is the variant of ASCII used in the British Sinclair ZX Spectrum family computers. It is based on ASCII-1967 but the characters ^, ` and DEL are replaced with ↑, £ and ©. It also differs in its use of the C0 control codes other than the common BS and CR, and it makes use of the 128 high-bit characters beyond the ASCII range. The ZX Spectrum's main set of printable characters and system font are also used by the Jupiter Ace computer.

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