Ataraxia (ἀταραξία, literally, "unperturbedness", generally translated as "imperturbability", "equanimity", or "tranquillity") is a Greek term first used in Ancient Greek philosophy by Pyrrho and subsequently Epicurus and the Stoics for a lucid state of robust equanimity characterized by ongoing freedom from distress and worry. In non-philosophical usage, the term was used to describe the ideal mental state for soldiers entering battle.
Achieving ataraxia is a common goal for Pyrrhonism, Epicureanism, and Stoicism, but the role and value of ataraxia within each philosophy varies in accordance with their philosophical theories. The mental disturbances that prevent one from achieving ataraxia vary among the philosophies, and each philosophy has a different understanding as to how to achieve ataraxia.
Ataraxia is the central aim of Pyrrhonist practice. Pyrrhonists view ataraxia as necessary for bringing about eudaimonia (happiness) for a person, representing life's ultimate purpose. The Pyrrhonist method for achieving ataraxia is through achieving epoché (i.e., suspension of judgment) regarding all matters of dogma (i.e., non-evident belief). The Pyrrhonist philosopher Sextus Empiricus summarized Pyrrhonism as "a disposition to oppose phenomena and noumena to one another in any way whatever, with the result that, owing to the equipollence among the things and statements thus opposed, we are brought first to epoché and then to ataraxia... Epoché is a state of the intellect on account of which we neither deny nor affirm anything. Ataraxia is an untroubled and tranquil condition of the soul."
Sextus gave this detailed account of ataraxia:
We always say that as regards belief (i.e., dogma) the Pyrrhonist's goal is ataraxia, and that as regards things that are unavoidable it is having moderate pathè. For when the Pyrrhonist set out to philosophize with the aim of assessing his phantasiai – that is, of determining which are true and which are false so as to achieve ataraxia – he landed in a controversy between positions of equal strength, and, being unable to resolve it, he suspended judgment. But while he was thus suspending judgment there followed by chance the sought-after ataraxia as regards belief. For the person who believes that something is by nature good or bad is constantly upset; when he does not possess the things that seem to be good, he thinks he is being tormented by things that are by nature bad, and he chases after the things he supposes to be good; then, when he gets these, he fails into still more torments because of irrational and immoderate exultation, and, fearing any change, he does absolutely everything in order not to lose the things that seem to him good. But the person who takes no position as to what is by nature good or bad neither avoids nor pursues intensely. As a result, he achieves ataraxia. Indeed, what happened to the Pyrrhonist is just like what is told of Apelles the painter. For it is said that once upon a time, when he was painting a horse and wished to depict the horse's froth, he failed so completely that he gave up and threw his sponge at the picture – the sponge on which he used to wipe the paints from his brush – and that in striking the picture the sponge produced the desired effect. So, too, the Pyrrhonists were hoping to achieve ataraxia by resolving the anomaly of phenomena and noumena, and, being unable to do this, they suspended judgment. But then, by chance as it were, when they were suspending judgment the ataraxia followed, as a shadow follows the body. We do not suppose, of course, that the Pyrrhonist is wholly untroubled, but we do say that he is troubled only by things unavoidable. For we agree that sometimes he is cold and thirsty and has various feelings like those. But even in such cases, whereas ordinary people are affected by two circumstances – namely by the pathé themselves and not less by its seeming that these conditions are by nature bad – the Pyrrhonist, by eliminating the additional belief that all these things are naturally bad, gets off more moderately here as well. Because of this we say that as regards belief the Pyrrhonist's goal is ataraxia, but in regard to things unavoidable it is having moderate pathé.
Ataraxia is a key component of the Epicurean conception of the highest good. Epicureans value ataraxia highly because of how they understand pleasure. Epicureans argue that pleasure is the highest good. They break pleasure down into two categories: the physical and the mental. They consider mental, not physical, pleasures to be greatest sort of pleasure because physical pleasures exist only in the present; whereas mental pleasures exist in the past, the present, and the future.
Epicureans further separate pleasure into what they call kinetic and katastematic pleasures. Kinetic pleasures are those pleasures which come about through action or change. Such an action could be satisfying a desire or removing a pain, as that very sort of act is pleasurable in itself. Actions that feel good, even if not done to satisfy a desire or remove a pain, such as eating good-tasting food, also fall under the category of kinetic pleasures. Mental pleasures could also be kinetic in nature. Epicurus is said to have described joy as an example of a kinetic mental pleasure.
Katastematic pleasure is pleasure which comes about from the absence of pain or distress. This sort of pleasure can be physical or mental. Physical katastematic pleasure comes in freedom from physical disturbances, such as simply being in the state of not being thirsty. Comparatively, mental katastematic pleasure comes in freedom from mental disturbance. Those who achieved freedom from physical disturbance were said to be in a state of aponia, while those who achieved freedom from mental disturbances were said to be in a state of ataraxia.
Katastematic pleasures were regarded to be better than kinetic pleasures by Epicurus, believing that one could feel no more pleasure than the removal of all pain. Indeed, he is reported to have said,
"The magnitude of pleasure reaches its limit in the removal of all pain. When pleasure is present, so long as it is uninterrupted, there is no pain either of body or of mind or of both together."
Being both a mental and katastematic pleasure, ataraxia has a supreme importance in Epicurean ethics and is key to a person's happiness. In the Epicurean view, a person experiences the highest form of happiness should they ever be both in a state of aponia and ataraxia at the time.
Unlike in Pyrrhonism and Epicureanism, in Stoicism ataraxia is not the ultimate goal of life. Instead, a life of virtue according to nature is the goal of life. However, according to the Stoics, living virtuously in accordance with nature would as a byproduct produce ataraxia.
An important distinction to be made is the difference in Stoicism between ataraxia and the Stoic idea of apatheia. While closely related to ataraxia, the state of apatheia was the absence of unhealthy passions; a state obtained by the ideal Stoic sage. This is not the same as ataraxia. Apatheia describes the freedom from the disturbance of emotions, not tranquility of the mind. However, apatheia is integral for a Stoic sage to reach the stage of ataraxia. Since the Stoic sage does not care about matters outside of himself and is not susceptible to emotion because of his state of apatheia, the Stoic sage would be unable to be disturbed by anything at all, meaning that he was in a stage of mental tranquility and thus was in the state of ataraxia.
Ataraxia/Taraxis is a 2012 extended play (EP) by American post-metal band Pelican, released through Southern Lord Records on April 10, 2012. Ataraxia/Taraxis was Pelican's final release to include founding guitarist Laurent Schroeder-Lebec.Ataraxia (band)
Ataraxia is an Italian neoclassical dark wave band who combine modern technology with archaic instrumentation over various media, founded by Francesca Nicoli and Michele Urbano in November, 1985. In the first five years there were many musicians in the band, until finally Francesca Nicoli, Vittorio Vandelli, and Giovanni Pagliari became the basic line-up until today.
They say they have dedicated their lives to art, to explore the nobleness of centuries in many possible ways (music, poetry, theatre, and photography).
They define themselves as "craftsmen of the sound" because they create an unusual mix of sacred and profane, atmospheric and experimental, contemporary and early music, using acoustic and electric instruments as well, always with such language which fits best to the actual work.Ataraxia (disambiguation)
Ataraxia is a Greek philosophical term for freedom from perturbation.
Ataraxia may also refer to:
Ataraxia/Taraxis, a 2012 EP by Chicago post-metal band Pelican
Ataraxia (band), an Italian neoclassical band
Ataraxia, an album by Passport
Ataraxia: The Unexplained, a 1975 album by Mort Garson
Ataraxia, a 2005 song by the post-rock band Team Sleep on their self-titled album, Team Sleep
"Ataraxia (Media Intro)", a track on the album So Much for the Afterglow by Everclear
Ataraxia, a fictional planet in the manga series Toward the Terra
Nate Mark, or Ataraxia (video gamer), professional Smite player
Ataraxia, a track on the 2005 album Perfect Pitch Black by Cave InAtaraxia (video game player)
Nathaniel "Nate" Mark, also known as Ataraxia, is a professional Smite player who is the Hunter for Dignitas. He is one of the founding members of the team and previous other teams such as Obey Alliance, Cognitive Aquila, Agilitas, and Titan.
He hails from the town of Llanberis, Gwynedd in North Wales. He attended the University of Liverpool before discovering his interest in professional gaming and Smite, which he now trains and practices for full-time.
Nate claims to have gained an interest in Smite when his brother bought into the beta program of Smite and gave him a spare key. He has been with his team members since early 2014.
After winning second place in the 2015 Smite World Championships, Nate Mark became the highest paid professional gamer in the United Kingdom. Ataraxia became a member of Titan after the organization acquired the roster of COGnitive Aquila.Epicureanism
Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of the ancient Greek philosopher Epicurus, founded around 307 BC. Epicurus was an atomic materialist, following in the steps of Democritus. His materialism led him to a general attack on superstition and divine intervention. Following Aristippus—about whom very little is known—Epicurus believed that what he called "pleasure" (ἡδονή) was the greatest good, but that the way to attain such pleasure was to live modestly, to gain knowledge of the workings of the world, and to limit one's desires. This would lead one to attain a state of tranquility (ataraxia) and freedom from fear as well as an absence of bodily pain (aponia). The combination of these two states constitutes happiness in its highest form. Although Epicureanism is a form of hedonism insofar as it declares pleasure to be its sole intrinsic goal, the concept that the absence of pain and fear constitutes the greatest pleasure, and its advocacy of a simple life, make it very different from "hedonism" as colloquially understood.
Epicureanism was originally a challenge to Platonism, though later it became the main opponent of Stoicism. Epicurus and his followers shunned politics. Epicureans shunned politics because it could lead to frustrations and ambitions which can directly conflict with the epicurean pursuit for peace of mind and virtues. After the death of Epicurus, his school was headed by Hermarchus; later many Epicurean societies flourished in the Late Hellenistic era and during the Roman era (such as those in Antiochia, Alexandria, Rhodes, and Ercolano). Its best-known Roman proponent was the poet Lucretius. By the end of the Roman Empire, being opposed by philosophies (mainly Neo-Platonism) that were now in the ascendant, Epicureanism had all but died out, but would be resurrected in the Age of Enlightenment.
Some writings by Epicurus have survived. Some scholars consider the epic poem On the Nature of Things by Lucretius to present in one unified work the core arguments and theories of Epicureanism. Many of the scrolls unearthed at the Villa of the Papyri at Herculaneum are Epicurean texts. At least some are thought to have belonged to the Epicurean Philodemus.Epicurus
Epicurus (341–270 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and sage who founded a highly influential school of philosophy now called Epicureanism. He was born on the Greek island of Samos to Athenian parents. Influenced by Democritus, Aristotle, Pyrrho, and possibly the Cynics, he turned against the Platonism of his day and established his own school, known as "the Garden", in Athens. Epicurus and his followers were known for eating simple meals and discussing a wide range of philosophical subjects, and he openly allowed women to join the school as a matter of policy. An extremely prolific writer, he is said to have originally written over 300 works on various subjects, but the vast majority of these writings have been lost. Only three letters written by him — the Letters to Menoeceus, Pythocles, and Herodotus — and two collections of quotes — the Principle Doctrines and the Vatican Sayings — have survived intact, along with a few fragments and quotations of his other writings. Most knowledge of his teachings comes from later authors, particularly the Roman poet Lucretius, the biographer Diogenes Laërtius, the statesman Cicero, and the philosophers Philodemus and Sextus Empiricus.
For Epicurus, the purpose of philosophy was to attain the happy, tranquil life, characterized by ataraxia—peace and freedom from fear— and aponia—the absence of pain— and by living a self-sufficient life surrounded by friends. He taught that the root of all human neurosis is death denial, and the tendency for human beings to assume that death will be horrific and painful, which he claimed causes unnecessary anxiety, selfish self-protective behaviors, and hypocrisy. According to Epicurus, death is the end of both the body and the soul and therefore should not be feared. Likewise, Epicurus taught that the gods, though they do exist, have no involvement in human affairs and do not punish or reward people for their actions. Nonetheless, he maintained that people should still behave ethically because amoral behavior will burden them with guilt and prevent them from attaining ataraxia.
Like Aristotle, Epicurus was an empiricist, meaning he believed that the senses are the only reliable source of knowledge about the world. He derived much of his physics and cosmology from the earlier philosopher Democritus (c. 460–c. 370 BC). Like Democritus, Epicurus taught that the universe is infinite and eternal and that all matter is made up of extremely tiny, invisible particles known as atoms. All occurrences in the natural world are ultimately the result of atoms moving and interacting in empty space. Epicurus deviated from Democritus in his teaching of atomic "swerve", which holds that atoms may deviate from their expected course, thus permitting humans to possess free will in an otherwise deterministic universe.
Though popular, Epicurean teachings were controversial from the beginning. Epicureanism reached the height of its popularity during the late years of the Roman Republic, before declining as the rival school of Stoicism grew in popularity at its expense. It finally died out in late antiquity in the wake of early Christianity. Epicurus himself was popularly, though inaccurately, remembered throughout the Middle Ages as a patron of drunkards, whoremongers, and gluttons. His teachings gradually became more widely known in the fifteenth century with the rediscovery of important texts, but his ideas did not become acceptable until the seventeenth century, when the French Catholic priest Pierre Gassendi revived a modified version of them, which was promoted by other writers, including Walter Charleton and Robert Boyle. His influence grew considerably during and after the Enlightenment, profoundly impacting the ideas of major thinkers, including John Locke, Thomas Jefferson, Jeremy Bentham, and Karl Marx.Epoché
Epoché (ἐποχή epokhē, "suspension") is an ancient Greek term typically translated as "suspension of judgment" but also as "withholding of assent". The term is used in slightly different ways among the various schools of Hellenistic philosophy.
The Pyrrhonists developed the concept of "epoché" to describe the state where all judgments about non-evident matters are suspended in order to induce a state of ataraxia (freedom from worry and anxiety). The Pyrrhonist philosopher Sextus Empiricus gives this definition: "Epoché is a state of the intellect on account of which we neither deny nor affirm anything." This concept is similarly employed in Academic Skepticism, but without the objective of ataraxia.
In Stoicism the concept is used to describe the withholding of assent to phantasiai (impressions). For example Epictetus uses the term in this manner: "If what philosophers say is true, that in all men action starts from one source, feeling, as in assent it is the feeling that a thing is so, and in denial the feeling that it is not so, yes, by Zeus, and in epoché, the feeling that it is uncertain: so also impulse towards a thing is originated by the feeling that it is fitting, and will to get a thing by the feeling that it is expedient for one, and it is impossible to judge."Epoché plays an implicit role in subsequent philosophical skeptic thought, as in René Descartes' epistemic principle of methodic doubt. The term was popularized in modern philosophy by Edmund Husserl. Husserl elaborates the notion of 'phenomenological epoché' or 'bracketing' in Ideas I. Through the systematic procedure of 'phenomenological reduction', one is thought to be able to suspend judgment regarding the general or naive philosophical belief in the existence of the external world, and thus examine phenomena as they are originally given to consciousness.Fate/hollow ataraxia
Fate/hollow ataraxia is a 2005 PC visual novel video game developed by Type-Moon, and the sequel to Fate/stay night. The word ataraxia in the title is a Greek term for tranquility, giving the title the combined meaning of "empty (or false) tranquility".
The game also was ported to PlayStation Vita, and it includes full-voice acting, among other enhancements. This version was released in Japan on November 27, 2014.Fate/tiger colosseum
Fate/tiger colosseum (Japanese: フェイト/タイガーころしあむ, Hepburn: Feito/taigā koroshiamu) is a 3D fighting video game based on the visual novel Fate/stay night, released for the PlayStation Portable by Capcom and Cavia in cooperation with Type-Moon. The characters are all rendered in a super deformed style. A sequel, Fate/tiger colosseum Upper, was released on August 28, 2008.Flou
Flou is an alternative rock/nu metal band from Asunción, Paraguay, created in 1997. They are one of the most popular and successful rock bands from Paraguay.Hedone
Hedone (Ancient Greek: ἡδονή) was the personification and goddess of pleasure, enjoyment, and delight. Hedone, also known as Voluptas in Roman mythology, is the daughter born from the union of the Greek gods Eros (Cupid) and Psyche in the realm of the immortals. She was associated more specifically with sensual pleasure. Her opposites were the Algos, personifications of pain.The term Hēdonē, which is a Greek word meaning pleasure, is used as a philosophical concept in ancient Greece. For instance, it played an important role in the Epicurean school. It is also the root of the English word "hedonism".Hina Kino
Hina Kino (木野 日菜, Kino Hina, born February 12, 1997) is a Japanese voice actress from Saitama Prefecture, who is affiliated with Amuleto. After starting her voice acting career in 2014, she played her first main role as Sylvia Silkcut in the 2016 anime series Hybrid × Heart Magias Academy Ataraxia. She is also known for her roles as Sayaka Itomi in Katana Maidens ~ Toji No Miko and Hanako Honda in Asobi Asobase.Hybrid × Heart Magias Academy Ataraxia
Hybrid × Heart Magias Academy Ataraxia (魔装学園H (ハイブリッド)×H (ハート), Masō Gakuen Haiburiddo Hāto) is a Japanese light novel series written by Masamune Kuji and illustrated by Hisasi. Riku Ayakawa is drawing a manga adaptation in Kadokawa's Comp Ace magazine. An anime television series aired from 5 July 2016 to 20 September 2016.Katastematic pleasure
In Epicurean philosophy, katastematic pleasure is pleasure felt when being in a particular state, as opposed to kinetic pleasure, which is felt while performing an activity. It is the pleasure that accompanies well-being as such. Absence of pain, aponia, and lack of disturbance of mind, ataraxia, are two of the katastematic pleasures and often seen as the focal ones to Epicurus.LaRoseNoire
LaRoseNoire is an Italian cultural association dealing with art, music and philosophy, founded in 2001 by Elisabeth Mantovani, astrologer, painter and expert of symbolic art mouvements, formed at the Academy of fine arts of Bologna.
LaRoseNoire is based and carries on his activities in the north of Italy. The association deals with the organization and promotion of events such as concerts, courses, conferences and art exhibitions.
Through the events organized since today LaRoseNoire has carried on an imaginary associated to a new kind of romantic sensitivity related both to the communion with natural environment and to the interaction with industrial culture and his suggestions.
The teaching and the publication of essays related to esoteric matters as well as the live concerts and art exhibitions aim to the rising of a conscious creativity, an active imagination and an independent thought both of the audience as well of the artist or teacher.
LaRoseNoire has collaborated with numerous musicians in Italy and Europe related to electro, industrial, medieval, folk, ambient and tribal sounds such has Ataraxia, Sieben, Francesco Banchini, Louisa John Krol, Ah Cama-Sotz, Mimetic, Jack or Jive, This Morn' Omina and many others and with some independent music labels in Italy as well in Europe such as the Portuguese Equilibrium and the Italian Capture music.Pyrrho
Pyrrho of Elis (; Ancient Greek: Πύρρων ὁ Ἠλεῖος, romanized: Pyrrhо̄n ho Ēleios; c. 360 – c. 270 BC) was a Greek philosopher of Classical antiquity and is credited as being the first Greek skeptic philosopher and founder of Pyrrhonism.Pyrrhonism
Pyrrhonism is a school of philosophical skepticism founded by Pyrrho in the fourth century BCE. It is best known through the surviving works of Sextus Empiricus, writing in the late second century or early third century CE.Rider (Fate/stay night)
Rider (Japanese: ライダー, Hepburn: Raidā) is a fictional character who appears in Type-Moon's Fate franchise. Created by Kinoko Nasu, the character first appeared in the visual novel Fate/stay night as one of the seven servants fighting in the Fifth Holy Grail War, serving Shinji Matou. Initially a supporting character in the visual novel's first two routes; Fate and Unlimited Blade Works, the character is given more prominence in the Heaven's Feel route where she becomes one of the main characters. The characters also appears in both of Fate/stay night's anime series adaptations, its film adaptation and its two manga adaptations. Rider also appears in the visual novel's sequel Fate/hollow ataraxia as a main character and has made numerous other appearances in its various spin-offs.
In Heaven's Feel it's revealed that Rider's real identity is that of Medusa from Greek mythology. It's also revealed that her true master is Sakura Matou, Shinji's sister. However, because Sakura never wanted to participate in the Holy Grail War, she told Rider that Shinji would be her master. Rider followed Sakura's orders and acted as Shinji's servant. While an extremely powerful servant, due to Shinji himself not being a magus and holding her back, she gets killed early in both the Fate and Unlimited Blade Works routes.
The character went through major overhaul when Nasu, who had originally written Fate/stay night as a novel in college, decided to turn it into a visual novel instead. Originally a man, Perseus, Rider was changed into Medusa following the transition of the story from novel to visual novel. The character has proven to be very popular with fans of Fate/stay night as shown in various popularity polls held by Type-Moon. Numerous merchandise relating to Rider has also been released.Saber (Fate/stay night)
Saber (Japanese: セイバー, Hepburn: Seibā), whose real name is Artoria Pendragon (アルトリア・ペンドラゴン, Arutoria Pendoragon), is a fictional character from the Japanese 2004 visual novel Fate/stay night by Type-Moon. Saber is a heroic warrior who is summoned by a teenager named Shirou Emiya to participate in a war between masters and servants who are fighting to accomplish their dreams using the mythical Holy Grail. Saber's relationship with the story's other characters depends on the player's decisions; she becomes a love interest to Shirou in the novel's first route, a supporting character in the second and an anti-hero called "Saber Alter" (セイバー・オルタナティブ, Seibā Orutanatibu) in the third route.
Saber is an agile and powerful warrior who is loyal, independent, and reserved; she appears emotionally cold but is actually suppressing her emotions to focus on her goals. She is also present in the prequel light novel Fate/Zero, in which she is the servant of Shirou's guardian Kiritsugu Emiya during the previous Holy Grail war, and in the sequel Fate/hollow ataraxia. Saber also appears in the novel's printed and animated adaptations, reprising her role in the game.
Saber was created by Kinoko Nasu after the series' main illustrator suggested having an armored woman as a protagonist for the visual novel; writer Gen Urobuchi commented on her character becoming darker depending on the scenarios. Urobuchi created his own scenario involving interactions between Saber and Kiritsugu because their relationship was little explored in the original visual novel. Saber has been voiced by Ayako Kawasumi in her Japanese appearances and multiple actors took the role in English-lanuage dubs of the series' animated adaptations.
Critical reception to Saber's characterization and role in the series, and especially her relationship with Shirou, has been generally positive. Some critics, however, have expressed their dislike of Saber's lack of character development and relevance in other routes adapted by anime series. Her characterization in Zero, and her lack of screen-time in other anime adaptations was also met with negative response. Nevertheless, Saber has been popular within the Fate series and anime in general.