Ata Tadakage

Ata Tadakage (阿多忠景), also known as Taira no Tadakage (平忠景), was a de facto ruler of Satsuma Province during the late Heian period of Japan.

Life

Ata Tadakage was a son of Izaku Yoshimichi. He was a distant relative of Taira no Suemoto, who founded the Shimazu Estate in the 1020s. His name was first attested in a contemporary source in 1138. At that time he was the governor of Ata District, Satsuma Province. He killed his eldest brother Kawanabe Michifusa and banished Michifusa's son Michihira from Satsuma. Fragmentary sources show that he gradually expanded the sphere of his influence in Satsuma. He gained the title of Provisional Governor of Shimotsuke Province in 1150. A document, dated 1162, suggests that he had power to influence the neighboring Ōsumi Province. It is presumed that he was affiliated with Minamoto no Tametomo, a legendary warrior from the Minamoto clan, who stayed in Kyūshū from 1151 to 1155. His daughter is said to have married with Tametomo.[1]

Ata Tadakage drew attention from historians and archaeologists in the 1990s when the Mottaimatsu Site was excavated. The archaeological site is located on the northern bank of the Manose River, which served as Ata District's southern border. It was at its peak from the middle 12th century to the first half of the 13th century. It is considered to have served as a trade center connected to HakataDazaifu of northern Kyūshū and to the Southern Islands since it had a huge variety of goods including Kamuiyaki, a large number of Chinese ceramics such as Longquan celadon and Tong'an celadon, and in smaller quantity, sue wares from eastern Harima Province and Tokoname-yaki from Owari Province. The profitable trade was probably the source of his power.[2][3]

Ata Tadakage's rise to power was seen as a rebellion by the central government, which was then controlled by Taira no Kiyomori. Around 1160, probably after the Heiji Rebellion, an imperial decree was issued to crack him down. The punitive expedition was led by Taira no Iesada, a retainer of Taira no Kiyomori. Tadakage fled to an island named Kikai-ga-shima. Due to high waves and strong winds, Iesada was unable to track Tadakage down, and he disappeared from history.[1]

Kikai-ga-shima has often been identified as Iōjima, an island located about 110 kilometers south of Kyūshū. However, historian Nagayama Shūichi identified it as Kikai Island of the Amami Islands. He argued that since Iōjima had been used as an island of exile by the central government, it could not be a safe haven for Tadakage.[4]

Aftermath

Ata Tadakage was succeeded by Ata Nobusumi, who married with Tadakage's daughter. Nobusumi survived Taira no Kiyomori's domination. Kiyomori controlled the Shimazu Estate, which covered a large portion of Satsuma Province, while he appointed his younger brother Tadanori as Governor of Satsuma Province. It is likely that the Taira clan's domination of southern Kyūshū was aimed at controlling Japan's trade with Song China. After the Genpei War, the newly established Kamakura shogunate seized Ata Nobusumi's territories in 1192 for his affiliation with the Taira clan and gave Ata District to Samejima Muneie. However, Tadakage's relatives continued to prosper as Samejima Muneie married with a daughter of Tadakage's younger brother and adopted son Tadayoshi.[3]

In 1187, the future first shōgun Minamoto no Yoritomo dispatched Amano Tōkage and Utsunomiya Nobufusa to drive enemies out from Kikai-ga-shima. After initial failures, they successfully pacified the island in 1188.[4] Archaeologist Takanashi Osamu noted that the Gusuku Site Complex on Kikai Island ceased to function in the first half of the 13th century although it re-emerged, albeit on a smaller scale, in the second half of the 13th century. Takanashi conjectured that Yoritomo's expedition to Kikai Island had effectively destroyed the Gusuku Site Complex's function as the trade center of the Southern Islands.[5]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Gomi Yoshio 五味克夫 (1973). "Heian matsu Kamakura shoki no Nansatsu Heishi oboegaki" 平安末・鎌倉初期の南薩平氏覚書". Kagoshima Daigaku Hōbungakubu Kiyō Bungakuka ronshū 鹿児島大学法文学部紀要 文学科論集 (in Japanese) (9): 49–75.
  2. ^ Miyashita Takahiro 宮下貴浩 (2008). "Manose-gawa karyūiki no kodai chūsei iseki 万之瀬川下流域の古代・中世遺跡". In Ikeda Yoshifumi 池田榮史 (ed.). Kodai chūsei no kyōkai ryōiki 古代中世の境界領域 (in Japanese). pp. 285–298.
  3. ^ a b Yanagihara Toshiaki 柳原敏昭 (2011). "Chūsei zenki minami Kyūshū no minato to Sōjin kyoryūchi ni kansuru ichi shiron 中世前期南九州の港と宋人居留地に関する一試論". Chūsei Nippon no shūen to higashi Ajia 中世日本の周縁と東アジア (in Japanese). pp. 70–124.
  4. ^ a b Nagayama Shūichi 永山修一 (2008). "Bunken kara mita Kikai-ga-shima 文献から見たキカイガシマ". In Ikeda Yoshifumi 池田榮史 (ed.). Kodai chūsei no kyōkai ryōiki 古代中世の境界領域 (in Japanese). pp. 123–150.
  5. ^ Takanashi Osamu 高梨修 (2012). "Kamakura bakufu seiritsu-ki zengo ni okeru nankai tōsho kaiiki no yōsu 鎌倉幕府成立期前後における南海島嶼海域の様子". In Anzai Masahito 安斎正人 and Irumada Nobuo 入間田宣夫 (ed.). Kita kara umareta chūsei Nippon 北から生まれた中世日本 (in Japanese). pp. 255–286.
Kikaijima

Kikaijima (喜界島, also Kikai-ga-jima; Kikai: キャー Kyaa, Northern Ryukyuan: ききや Kikiya) is one of the Satsunan Islands, classed with the Amami archipelago between Kyūshū and Okinawa.The island, 56.93 square kilometres (21.98 sq mi) in area, has a population of approximately 7,657 persons. Administratively the island forms the town of Kikai, Kagoshima Prefecture. Much of the island is within the borders of the Amami Guntō Quasi-National Park.

Ryukyu Islands

The Ryukyu Islands (琉球諸島, Ryūkyū-shotō), also known as the Nansei Islands (南西諸島, Nansei-shotō, lit. "Southwest Islands") or the Ryukyu Arc (琉球弧, Ryūkyū-ko), are a chain of Japanese islands that stretch southwest from Kyushu to Taiwan: the Ōsumi, Tokara, Amami, Okinawa, and Sakishima Islands (further divided into the Miyako and Yaeyama Islands), with Yonaguni the westernmost. The larger are mostly high islands and the smaller mostly coral. The largest is Okinawa Island.

The climate of the islands ranges from humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa) in the north to tropical rainforest climate (Köppen climate classification Af) in the south. Precipitation is very high and is affected by the rainy season and typhoons. Except the outlying Daitō Islands, the island chain has two major geologic boundaries, the Tokara Strait (between the Tokara and Amami Islands) and the Kerama Gap (between the Okinawa and Miyako Islands). The islands beyond the Tokara Strait are characterized by their coral reefs.

The Ōsumi and Tokara Islands, the northernmost of the islands, fall under the cultural sphere of the Kyushu region of Japan; the people are ethnically Japanese and speak a variation of the Kagoshima dialect of Japanese. The Amami, Okinawa, Miyako, and Yaeyama Islands have a native population collectively called the Ryukyuan people, named for the former Ryukyu Kingdom that ruled them. The varied Ryukyuan languages are traditionally spoken on these islands, and the major islands have their own distinct languages. In modern times, the Japanese language is the primary language of the islands, with the Okinawan Japanese dialect prevalently spoken. The outlying Daitō Islands were uninhabited until the Meiji period, when their development was started mainly by people from the Izu Islands south of Tokyo, with the people there speaking the Hachijō language.

Administratively, the islands are divided into Kagoshima Prefecture (specifically the islands administered by Kagoshima District, Kumage Subprefecture/District, and Ōshima Subprefecture/District) in the north and Okinawa Prefecture in the south, with the divide between the Amami and Okinawa Islands, with the Daitō Islands part of Okinawa Prefecture. The northern (Kagoshima) islands are collectively called the Satsunan Islands, while the southern part of the chain (Okinawa Prefecture) are called the Ryukyu Islands in Chinese.

Shimazu Estate

The Shimazu Estate (島津荘, Shimazu no shō) was a shōen (estate or manor) in southern Kyushu of Japan. It was the largest shōen of medieval Japan. The Shimazu clan was named after this estate as the clan succeeded the position of jitō (land steward).

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