At-Tawba

Sūrat Al-Tawbah (Arabic: سورة التوبة‎, "The Repentance"), also known as Barā'ah ("Repudiation"),[1] is the ninth chapter of the Quran. It contains 129 verses and is one of the last Medinan surah. It is the only sūrah of the Qur'an that does not begin with the bismillah. This sūrah was revealed at the time of the Battle of Tabuk.

Sura 9 of the Quran
التوبة
Al-Tawbah
The Repentance
ClassificationMedinan
Other namesBara'ah ("Repudiation")
PositionJuzʼ 10 to 11
Hizb no.19 to 21
No. of Rukus16
No. of verses129
No. of Sajdahsnone

Contents

Verse 37 documents the prohibition of nasīʾ, the calculation of intercalation for the lunar calendar by the priests of the Banu Kinanah tribe of the Quraysh. This prohibition was repeated by Muhammad during the Farewell Sermon on Mount Arafat, which was delivered during the Farewell Pilgrimage to Mecca on 9 Dhu al-Hijjah AH 10.

According to Zayd ibn Thabit, when the Qu'ran was first being compiled, he found the last verses of this sūrah in the possession of Abu'l-Khuzayma al-Ansari and no one else.[2][3] In another account, Ubay ibn Ka'b informed Zayd that the Prophet taught him the end of this sūrah and recited the same verses.[4] Some, like Ibn Hazm, suggested that Abu Khuzayma was the only one to have the last verses in written form, as Zayd and others had memorized them.[4]

At-Tawba has the Sword Verse (9:5). Arun Shourie has criticized this and many other verses from the Qur'an. He says the sunnah and the hadith are equally evocative in their support of Jihad, which he deems to be the leitmotiv of the Qur'an.[5]

At-Tawba also features Verse 29, a verse that appears to promote jihad against "people of the Scripture" and as such is a subject of much debate.

Exegesis

In Kitab al-Kafi, Ja'far al-Sadiq has narrated that Imams are not needy to what people own but rather collect religious tax on accord that Allah said 9:103 Take from their wealth (religious tax) and charity by which you purify them and cause them increase and invoke blessings upon them. Therefore, it is the people who need that the Imam accept from them. [6].

See also

References

  1. ^ Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (2015). The Study Qur'an. New York: HarperCollins. p. 503. ISBN 978-0-06-112586-7.
  2. ^ Muḥammad ibn Ismāʻīl Bukhārī, Sahih al-Bukhari, Peace Vision, 1971 p.1727.
  3. ^ F. E. Peters, A Reader on Classical Islam, Princeton University Press 1993 p.180.
  4. ^ a b Ahmad Ali Al-Imam, Variant Readings of the Qurʼan: A Critical Study of Their Historical and Linguistic Origins, International Institute of Islamic Thought, 2006 pp.28-29.
  5. ^ Shourie, Arun. Indian Controversies, Essays in Religion and Politics ASA Publications, New Delhi-110021
  6. ^ Al-Kulayni, Abu Ja’far Muhammad ibn Ya’qub (2015). Kitab al-Kafi. South Huntington, NY: The Islamic Seminary Inc. ISBN 9780991430864. |access-date= requires |url= (help)

External links

A Is for Allah

A is for Allah is the name of a double album created for Muslim children by Yusuf Islam (formerly known as Cat Stevens). The album was released on 11 July 2000 by Resurgence UK Records. The title song was written in 1980 upon the birth of Yusufs first child, a daughter named Hasanah. Yusuf wanted his daughter to learn the Arabic language as well as read and understand the Qu'ran (in Arabic). He himself was raised in London, the same city where they still lived, and had kept a home there throughout his life. Being a recent convert to the Islamic religion, he was concerned with the difficulties he would face securing a high-quality 'Islamic' education for his children.

The musician used the song as a vehicle to teach other children about the 28-letter Arabic alphabet. This kind of Islamic music is also known as nasheed in the Arabic language. The album also features other Muslim musicians, including Zain Bhikha from South Africa, who sang on all but one track. The album had been in the works since 1994, with the exception of the title track, which dated back to 1980. It was also released with a large colourful book, with each page displaying a letter of the Arabic alphabet, by Mountain of Light, Yusuf Islam's own record imprint.

Al-Anfal

Sūrat al-Anfāl (Arabic: سورة الأنفال‎, "The Spoils of War") is the eighth chapter (surah) of the Qur'an, with 75 verses. It is a Medinan sura, completed after the

Battle of Badr. It forms a pair with the next sura, At-Tawba.

At-Tawba 29

Verse 29 of Sura 9 of the Qur'an is notable as dealing with the imposition of tribute (ǧizya) on non-Muslims who have fallen under Muslim rule (the ahl al-ḏimma).

Bani Malik (tribe)

Bani Malik (Arabic: بني مالك‎) or Banu Malik (Arabic: بنو مالك‎) (English: The Sons of Malik) is one of the major Arab tribes of the Arabian Peninsula. They are descendants of Malik al-Ashtar al-Nakh'ei who fought with Ali ibn Abi Talib, the cousin of Prophet Muhammad.

A hyphenated Al (Al-) means "The" if it is prefixed to the tribe name but means "The son of..." if prefixed to a person's name, while the plain Al (آل) and Bani (بني) or Albu (ألبو) or Banu (بنو) mean the plural "The sons of..". Their great ancestor is Qahtan (قحطان) from the southern Arabian Peninsula. Qahtan is one of the two great fathers of all Arab tribes, the other one is Adnan (عد نان) and the father of the north Arabicized Arabs who are the naturalized stock of the northern peninsula. Bani Malik are named after Malik al-Ashtar from Nakh'a tribe, an offshoot of a bigger tribe called Madhhij. After they became Muslims, Al-Nakh'a continued their ancestry with their cousins, the tribe of Azd (Madhhij's brother), who lived in Makkah called Khuza'a (خزاعة) named after Khuza’a (also named Haritha) Ibn Amr Ibn Muzaqiba of Al-Azd the major Qahtani tribe. Khuza'a tribe fought with prophet Muhammad against the pagans and infidels Banu Bakr who tried to conquer Makka. This incident has been mentioned and blessed in a verse in the Quran (Verse At-Tawba-14). Sulaiman bin Kuthayer who is one of the Abbasid supporters descended from Bani Malik. He was later killed by Abu-Muslim al-Khurasani a dissident Persian outlaw. Bani Malik lived in Ahwaz, Qatif, Bahrain and in Iraq. In Iraq, they now live in Basrah, Nassyriah and on the eastern bank of Euphrates River at al-Diwanyiah district in the middle part of Iraq. The territory of their major offshoot, Al-Ali tribe, extends from al-Diwanylah in the north to al-Rumaitha to the south. The area was named after their name, Al-Ali. The rivers – al-Rafi, al-Yusufyia and al-Lawah – irrigated the area. In 1900 when these rivers dried up they moved to an area around al-Hindyiah branch of Euphrates River, which was dug by Asif al-Dawla al-Hindi at 1205 AH (1845 AD).

Basmala

The Basmala (Arabic: بسملة‎ basmalah), also known by its incipit Bismillāh (Arabic: بِاسم الله‎, "In the name of God"), is the Islamic phrase bi-smi llāhi r-raḥmāni r-raḥīm بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيْمِ "In the name of God, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful".

This is the phrase recited before each sura (chapter) of the Qur'an – except for the ninth.

It is used by Muslims in various contexts (for instance, during daily prayer) and is used in over half of the constitutions of countries where Islam is the official religion or more than half of the population follows Islam, usually the first phrase in the preamble, including those of Afghanistan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Brunei, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Maldives, Pakistan, Tunisia, and the United Arab Emirates.In Arabic calligraphy, the Basmala is the most prevalent motif, even more so than the Shahadah.In Unicode, the Basmala is encoded as one ligature at code point U+FDFD ﷽‬ in the Arabic Presentation Forms-A block.

Islamic calendar

The Islamic, Muslim, or Hijri calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري‎ at-taqwīm al-hijrī) is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 lunar months in a year of 354 or 355 days. It is used to determine the proper days of Islamic holidays and rituals, such as the annual period of fasting and the proper time for the pilgrimage to Mecca. The civil calendar of almost all countries where the religion is predominantly Muslim is the Gregorian calendar. Notable exceptions to this rule are Iran and Afghanistan, whch use the Solar Hijri calendar. Rents, wages and similar regular commitments are generally paid by the civil calendar.The Islamic calendar employs the Hijri era whose epoch was established as the Islamic New Year of 622 AD/CE. During that year, Muhammad and his followers migrated from Mecca to Yathrib (now Medina) and established the first Muslim community (ummah), an event commemorated as the Hijra. In the West, dates in this era are usually denoted AH (Latin: Anno Hegirae, "in the year of the Hijra") in parallel with the Christian (AD), Common (CE) and Jewish eras (AM). In Muslim countries, it is also sometimes denoted as H from its Arabic form (سَنة هِجْريّة, abbreviated هـ). In English, years prior to the Hijra are reckoned as BH ("Before the Hijra").The current Islamic year is 1440 AH. In the Gregorian calendar, 1440 AH runs from approximately 11 September 2018 to 30 August 2019.

Ja'far Sobhani

Grand Ayatollah Jafar Sobhani (Persian: جعفر سبحانی‎) (born 1929 in Tabriz) is an Iranian Twelver shia marja, influential theologian and writer.Sobhani was a former member of the Society of Seminary Teachers of Qom and founder of Imam Sadiq Institute in Qom.

List of chapters in the Quran

The Quran is divided into chapters (suwar, singular sūrah) and further divided into verses (āyāt).

Each chapter, except for At-Tawba is preceded by the phrase bismi-llāhi r-raḥmāni r-raḥīm ("In the name of God, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful"), also known as the Basmala. 29 chapters are preceded by Muqatta'at (lit. abbreviated or shortened), unique letter combinations whose meanings have historically been unclear.The names of the chapters do not always reflect the topics discussed in that sūrah. Many sūrah names simply come from a unique word found in the sūrah or from the first words of the sūrah. The names serve merely as a means to identify which sūrah is being talked about, but not as an indicator of what topics the sūrah discusses. For example, the main topic of Surat Ash-Shu'ara ("The Poets") is the stories of prophets that were sent to mankind before Muhammad (specifically in this Sūrah: Moses, Noah, Hud, Saleh, Lot, and Jethro) and how their message was ultimately the same: to worship One God and be just to people. However, the name "The Poets" comes from the very last few verses of the sūrah, which mention deviant poets and show how Muhammad is not a poet like some of the Quraysh tried to claim.

It might be important to mention that some modern scientific techniques have been used to reconstruct the chronology of the Quranic verses.

Manzil

For the convenience of those who read the Quran in a week the text may be divided into seven portions, each known as Manzil.The following division to 7 equal portions is by Hamza Al-Zayyat (d.156/772):

Al-Fatihah (chapter 1) through An-Nisa' (chapter 4) consisting of 4 surahs.

Al-Ma'ida (chapter 5) through At-Tawba (chapter 9) consisting of 5 surahs.

Yunus (chapter 10) through An-Nahl (chapter 16) consisting of 7 surahs.

Al Isra' (chapter 17) through Al-Furqan (chapter 25) consisting of 9 surahs.

Ash-Shuara' (chapter 26) through Ya-Seen (chapter 36) consisting of 11 surahs.

As-Saaffat (chapter 37) through Al-Hujurat (chapter 49) consisting of 13 surahs.

Qaf (chapter 50) through An-Nas (chapter 114) consisting of 65 surahs.

Mosque

A mosque (; from Arabic: مَـسْـجِـد‎, translit. masjid) is a place of worship for Muslims. There are strict and detailed requirements in Sunni jurisprudence (Arabic: فِـقْـه‎, fiqh) for a place of worship to be considered a mosque, with places that do not meet these requirements regarded as musallas. There are stringent restrictions on the uses of the area formally demarcated as the mosque (which is often a small portion of the larger complex), and in the Islamic Sharī‘ah (Arabic: شَـرِيْـعَـة‎, Law), after an area is formally designated as a mosque, it remains so until the Last Day.Many mosques have elaborate domes, minarets, and prayer halls, in varying styles of architecture. Mosques originated on the Arabian Peninsula, but are now found in all inhabited continents.

Nasi'

Nasiʾ, Nasii, or Nasie (Arabic: النسيء‎, al-Nasīʾ, "postponement") was an aspect of the calendar of pre-Islamic Arabia, mentioned in the Quran in the context of the "four forbidden months". In pre-Islamic Arabia, the decision of "postponement" had been administered by the Banu Kinanah, by a man known as the al-Qalammas (pl. qalāmisa). Different interpretations of its meaning have been proposed.

Sahabah

The term aṣ-ṣaḥābah (Arabic: الصحابة‎ meaning "the companions", from the verb صَحِبَ meaning "accompany", "keep company with", "associate with") refers to the companions, disciples, scribes and family of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. This form is definite plural; the indefinite singular is masculine sahabi (ṣaḥābī), feminine sahabia (ṣaḥābīyat).

Later scholars accepted their testimony of the words and deeds of Muhammad, the occasions on which the Quran was revealed and various important matters of Islamic history and practice. The testimony of the companions, as it was passed down through trusted chains of narrators (isnads), was the basis of the developing Islamic tradition. From the traditions (hadith) of the life of Muhammad and his companions are drawn the Muslim way of life (sunnah), the code of conduct (sharia) it requires, and the jurisprudence (fiqh) by which Muslim communities should be regulated. The two largest Islamic denominations, the Sunni and Shia, take different approaches in weighing the value of the companions' testimony, have different hadith collections and, as a result, have different views about the Sahabah. (The next generation of Muslims after the Sahabah — who were born after Muhammad died but knew personally at least one Sahabah — are called Tabi‘un, and the generation after them (who knew at least one Tabi‘un) are called Tabi‘ al-Tabi‘in. The three generations make up the salaf of Islam.)

Sword Verse

The Sword Verse (ayat as-sayf) is the fifth verse of the ninth sura (or Surat at-Tawbah ) of the Qur'an (also written as 9:5). It is a Qur'anic verse widely cited by critics of Islam to suggest the faith promotes violence against "pagans" ("idolators", mushrikun), by isolating the portion of the verse "fight and slay the Pagans wherever ye find them" (fa-uq'tulū l-mush'rikīna ḥaythu wajadttumūhum فَاقْتُلُوا الْمُشْرِكِينَ حَيْثُ وَجَدْتُمُوهُمْ‎; trans. Abdullah Yusuf Ali). The next immediate verse (often excluded from quotes) appears to present a conditional reprieve within the statement: "if any of the idolaters seeks of thee protection, grant him protection till he hears the words of God; then do thou convey him to his place of security – that, because they are a people who do not know."Qur’anic exegetes al-Baydawi and al-Alusi explain that it refers to those pagan Arabs who violated their peace treaties by waging war against the Muslims.

Sūrah

A Surah (; Arabic: سورة‎ sūrah, plural سور suwar) is the term for a chapter of the Quran. There are 114 surahs in the Quran, each divided into verses (āyāt). The chapters or surahs are of unequal length; the shortest chapter (Al-Kawthar) has only three verses while the longest (Al-Baqara) contains 286 verses. Of the 114 chapters in the Quran, 86 are classified as Meccan, while 28 are Medinan . This classification is only approximate in regard to location of revelation; any chapter revealed after migration of Muhammad to Medina (Hijrah) is termed Medinan and any revealed before that event is termed Meccan. The Meccan chapters generally deal with faith and scenes of the Hereafter while the Medinan chapters are more concerned with organizing the social life of the nascent Muslim community and leading Muslims to the goal of Dar al-Islam by showing strength. Except for sura At-Tawba, all chapters or suras commence with 'In the Name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate'. This formula is known as the Bismillah and denotes the boundaries between chapters. The chapters are arranged roughly in order of descending size; therefore the arrangement of the Quran is neither chronological nor thematic. Suras (chapters) are recited during the standing portions (Qiyam) of Muslim prayers. Sura Al-Fatiha, the first chapter of the Quran, is recited in every unit of prayer and some units of prayer also involve recitation of all or part of any other sura.

Tabarra

Tabarra (Arabic: تبرأ‎) is a doctrine that refers to the obligation of disassociation with those who oppose God and those who caused harm to and were the enemies of the Islamic prophet Muhammad or his family. As Shi'as believe, Imamate is the inheritor of Risala (apostleship), thus it is the protector of Islam. Muhammad introduced them (Imams). Later every Imam introduced and stipulated the next Imam. So, people who were obstacles to the Imamate and implementation of the true form of Islam and equally the people who were the enemies of Ahl al-Bayt are the enemies of God and it is necessary for all believers to dissociate from them.

Tadabbur-i-Quran

Tadabbur-i-Qur'an (Urdu: تدبر قرآن‎) is a tafsir (exegeses) of the Qur'an by Amin Ahsan Islahi based on the concept of thematic and structural coherence, which was originally inspired by Allama Hamiduddin Farahi. The tafsir is extended over nine volumes of six thousand pages. It was originally written in Urdu, but now it is being translated in English.

Uzair

Uzair (Arabic: عزير‎, ʿUzayr) is a figure mentioned in the Quran, in the verse 9:30, which states that he was revered by the Jews as "the prophet of God". Uzair is most often identified with the biblical Ezra. Modern historians have described the reference as "enigmatic", since such views have not been found in Jewish sources. Islamic scholars have interpreted the Qur'anic reference in different ways, with some explaining that it alluded to a specific group of Jews.According to Ibn Kathir, Uzair lived between the times of King Solomon and the time of Zachariah, father of John the Baptist. Some Quranic commentators viewed Uzayr as a learned scholar who sought to teach the people the forgotten laws of God. He is sometimes identified as the protagonist in the Quranic story of the man who slept for a hundred years (2:259). Some Islamic scholars held Uzayr to be one of the prophets. However, Islamic tradition also reports that God expunged Uzayr from the list of prophets because he refused to believe in qadar (predestination). Ibn Hazm, al-Samaw'al and other scholars put forth the view that Uzair (or one of his disciples) falsified the Torah, and this claim became a common theme in Islamic polemics against the Bible. Many aspects of later Islamic narratives show similarity to Vision of Ezra, an apocryphal text which seems to have been partially known to Muslim readers.Classical Muslim scholars who were aware of Jewish and Christian denials of belief in the sonship of Ezra, explained that it was only one Jew or a small group of Jews who worshipped Uzayr, or that the verse refers to the extreme admiration of Jews for their doctors of law.Authors of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia viewed the Quranic reference as a "malevolent metaphor" for the reverence accorded to Ezra in Judaism. Some modern historians have favored the theory that a Jewish sect in Arabia venerated Ezra to the extent of deifying him. Gordon Darnell Newby has suggested that the Quranic expression may have reflected Ezra's possible designation as one of the Bene Elohim (lit. sons of God) by Jews of the Hejaz. Other scholars proposed emendations of the received spelling of the name, leading to readings ‘Uzayl (‘Azazel), ‘Azīz, or Azariah (Abednego).

Violence in the Quran

The Quran, the holy book of Islam, contains verses believed by Muslims to be revealed to the Islamic prophet Muhammad at different times and under different circumstances – some exhorting violence against enemies and others urging restraint and conciliation. Because some verses abrogate others, and because some are thought to be general commands while other refer to specific enemies, how the verses are understood and how they relate to each other "has been a central issue in Islamic thinking on war" according to scholars such as Charles Matthews.While numerous scholars explain Quranic phrases on violence to be only in the context of a defensive response to oppression; violent groups have interpreted verses to endorse their violent actions and made the Quran's teachings on violence and war a topic of vigorous debate.

Yunus (surah)

Sūrat Yūnus (Arabic: سورة يونس‎, Jonah) is the 10th chapter of the Quran with 109 verses. Yūnus is named after the prophet Jonah. Traditionally believed to have been formulated or revealed before the migration of the Islamic prophet Muhammed and his followers from Mecca to Medina (Hegira), as such, it is known as a Meccan surah.

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