Aswan

Aswan (/æsˈwɑːn, ɑːs-/, also US: /ˈæswɑːn, ˈɑːs-, ˈæz-/;[1][2][3][4] Arabic: أسوان‎, romanizedʾAswān [ʔɑsˈwɑːn]; Coptic: Ⲥⲟⲩⲁⲛ, romanized: Souan) is a city in the south of Egypt, and is the capital of the Aswan Governorate.

Aswan is a busy market and tourist centre located just north of the Aswan Dams on the east bank of the Nile at the first cataract. The modern city has expanded and includes the formerly separate community on the island of Elephantine.

The city is part of the UNESCO Creative Cities Network in the category of craft and folk art.[5]

Aswan

أسوان  (Arabic)
Ⲥⲟⲩⲁⲛ  (Coptic)
Nile River in Beauty Aswan
Al Khattarah Aswan Bridge
Aswan souq
Aswan,fatimid cem
معبد فيلة ..اسوان
Aswan Nubian Museum entrance
Counter Clockwise from top:
Aga Khan Mausoleum, Khattarah Bridge, Aswan Fatimid Cemetery, Elephantine Island, Nubian Museum,Aswan old town Souk
Aswan is located in Egypt
Aswan
Aswan
Location within Egypt
Coordinates: 24°05′20″N 32°53′59″E / 24.08889°N 32.89972°ECoordinates: 24°05′20″N 32°53′59″E / 24.08889°N 32.89972°E
Country Egypt
GovernorateAswan
Elevation
194 m (636 ft)
Population
 (2012)
 • Total290,327
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
Area code(s)(+20) 97

Other spellings and variations

Aswan was formerly spelled Assuan or Assouan. Spellings in other languages include Egyptian Arabic: أسوان‎, romanized: Aswān; Ancient Egyptian: Swenett; Coptic: Ⲥⲟⲩⲁⲛ, romanized: Souan; Ancient Greek: Συήνη, romanizedSuēnē.

History

sE34
n
t
niwt
swnt.t
in hieroglyphs

Aswan is the ancient city of Swenett, later known as Syene, which in antiquity was the frontier town of Ancient Egypt facing the south. Swenett is supposed to have derived its name from an Egyptian goddess with the same name.[6] This goddess later was identified as Eileithyia by the Greeks and Lucina by the Romans during their occupation of Ancient Egypt because of the similar association of their goddesses with childbirth, and of which the import is "the opener". The ancient name of the city also is said to be derived from the Egyptian symbol for "trade",[7] or "market".[8]

Because the Ancient Egyptians oriented themselves toward the origin of the life-giving waters of the Nile in the south, and as Swenett was the southernmost town in the country, Egypt always was conceived to "open" or begin at Swenett.[6] The city stood upon a peninsula on the right (east) bank of the Nile, immediately below (and north of) the first cataract of the flowing waters, which extend to it from Philae. Navigation to the delta was possible from this location without encountering a barrier.

The stone quarries of ancient Egypt located here were celebrated for their stone, and especially for the granitic rock called Syenite. They furnished the colossal statues, obelisks, and monolithal shrines that are found throughout Egypt, including the pyramids; and the traces of the quarrymen who worked in these 3,000 years ago are still visible in the native rock. They lie on either bank of the Nile, and a road, 6.5 km (4.0 mi) in length, was cut beside them from Syene to Philae.

Swenett was equally important as a military station as a place of traffic. Under every dynasty it was a garrison town; and here tolls and customs were levied on all boats passing southwards and northwards. Around 330, the legion stationed here received a bishop from Alexandria; this later became the Coptic Diocese of Syene.[9] The city is mentioned by numerous ancient writers, including Herodotus,[10] Strabo,[11] Stephanus of Byzantium,[12] Ptolemy,[13] Pliny the Elder,[14] Vitruvius,[15] and it appears on the Antonine Itinerary.[16] It is also mentioned in the Book of Ezekiel and the Book of Isaiah.[17]

View from the west bank to the Nile, islands, and Aswan
View from the west bank of the Nile, islands, and Aswan

The latitude of the city that would become Aswan – located at 24° 5′ 23″ – was an object of great interest to the ancient geographers. They believed that it was seated immediately under the tropic, and that on the day of the summer solstice, a vertical staff cast no shadow. They noted that the sun's disc was reflected in a well at noon. This statement is only approximately correct; at the summer solstice, the shadow was only ​1400 of the staff, and so could scarcely be discerned, and the northern limb of the Sun's disc would be nearly vertical. However, Eratosthenes used this information together with measurements of the shadow length on the solstice at Alexandria to perform the first known calculation of the circumference of the Earth.

The Nile is nearly 650 m (0.40 mi) wide above Aswan. From this frontier town to the northern extremity of Egypt, the river flows for more than 1,200 km (750 mi) without bar or cataract. The voyage from Aswan to Alexandria usually took 21 to 28 days in favourable weather.

Climate

Aswan has a hot desert climate (Köppen climate classification BWh) like the rest of Egypt. Aswan and Luxor have the hottest summer days of any city in Egypt. Aswan is one of the hottest, sunniest and driest cities in the world. Average high temperatures are consistently above 40 °C (104.0 °F) during summer (June, July, August and also September) while average low temperatures remain above 25 °C (77.0 °F). Summers are long, prolonged and extremely hot. Average high temperatures remain above 23 °C (73.4 °F) during the coldest month of the year while average low temperatures remain above 8 °C (46.4 °F). Winters are short, brief and extremely warm. Wintertime is very pleasant and enjoyable while summertime is unbearably hot with blazing sunshine although desert heat is dry.

The climate of Aswan is extremely dry year-round, with less than 1 mm (0 in) of average annual precipitation. The desert city is one of the driest ones in the world, and rainfall doesn't occur every year, as of early 2001, the last rain there was seven years earlier. Aswan is one of the least humid cities on the planet, with an average relative humidity of only 26%, with a maximum mean of 42% during winter and a minimum mean of 16% during summer.

The weather of Aswan is extremely clear, bright and sunny year-round, in all seasons, with a low seasonal variation, with almost 4,000 hours of annual sunshine, very close to the maximum theoretical sunshine duration. Aswan is one of the sunniest places on Earth.

The highest record temperature was 51 °C (124 °F) on July 4, 1918, and the lowest record temperature was −2.4 °C (27.7 °F) on January 6, 1989.[18]

Education

In 1999, South Valley University was inaugurated and it has three branches; Aswan, Qena and Hurghada. The university grew steadily and now it is firmly established as a major institution of higher education in Upper Egypt. Aswan branch of Assiut University began in 1973 with the Faculty of Education and in 1975 the Faculty of Science was opened. Aswan branch has five faculties namely; Science, Education, Engineering, Arts, Social Works and Institute of Energy. The Faculty of Science in Aswan has six departments. Each department has one educational programme: Chemistry, Geology, Physics and Zoology. Except Botany Department, which has three educational programmes: Botany, Environmental Sciences and Microbiology; and Mathematics Department, which has two educational programmes: Mathematics and Computer Science. The Faculty of Science awards the following degrees: Bachelor of Science in nine educational programmes, Higher Diploma, Master of Science and Philosophy Doctor of Science. Aswan also has Aswan Higher Institute of Social Work that was established in 1975 making it the oldest private higher institute of Social Work in Upper Egypt

Transport

Aswan is served by the Aswan International Airport. Train and bus service is also available. Taxi and rickshaw are used for transport here.

International relations

Twin towns/Sister cities

Aswan is twinned with:

Gallery

Archangel Michael's Coptic Orthodox Cathedral, built in the Coptic style 2006-10-EGYPT-ASWAN

Archangel Michael's Coptic Orthodox Cathedral, built in the Coptic style

El-Tabia Mosque in Aswan

El-Tabia Mosque in Aswan

Lotus-tower near Aswan

The Lotus-Tower near Aswan

Aswan Nubian Museum entrance

Nubia Museum entrance

Fatimid Cemetery at Aswan

Fatimid Cemetery

Assuan Unvollendeter Obelisk 11

Unfinished Obelisk in Aswan

Old Monastery of St. Simeon west Aswan

Monastery of St. Simeon

Aswan street parallel to Corniche, Egypt, October 2004

A street parallel to Corniche in Aswan

Al Khattarah Aswan Bridge

Aswan Bridge

Kitchener-Insel Aswan Botanical Garden

Aswan Botanical Garden

Aswan Courthouse R01

Aswan Courthouse

Aswan souq

Aswan souq

Aswan station

Aswan station

Gharb Seheil by Hatem Moushir 1

Gharb Seheil

Nubian village in Elephantine Island Aswan

Nubian village in Elephantine Island

Nile Feluccas in Aswan

Feluccas in Aswan

Railway Station Street, Aswan, Egypt, Oct 2004 A

A view along the street connecting the railway station and the Nile

See also

References

  •  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainSmith, William, ed. (1854–1857). "Aswan" . Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray.
  1. ^ "Aswan". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. 2014. Retrieved April 3, 2019.
  2. ^ "Aswan". Collins English Dictionary. HarperCollins. Retrieved April 3, 2019.
  3. ^ "Aswan" (US) and "Aswan". Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. Retrieved April 3, 2019.
  4. ^ "Aswân". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved April 3, 2019.
  5. ^ Smith, Melanie K. (2016). Issues in cultural tourism studies. Routledge. ISBN 9781138785694. OCLC 932058870.
  6. ^ a b Baines, John; Malek, Jaromir (March 1983). Atlas of Ancient Egypt (Cultural Atlas). New York, NY: Facts On File Inc. p. 240. ISBN 9780871963345.
  7. ^ Suʻād Māhir (1966). Muhafazat Al Gumhuriya Al Arabiya Al Mutaheda wa Asaraha al baqiah fi al asr al islamim. Majlis al-Aʻlá lil-Shuʼūn al-Islāmīyah.
  8. ^ James Henry Breasted (1912). A History of Egypt, from the Earliest Times to the Persian Conquest. Charles Scribner's Sons. p. 7.
  9. ^ Dijkstra, J. Harm F. Religious Encounters on the Southern Egyptian Frontier in Late Antiquity (AD 298-642).
  10. ^ (ii. 30)
  11. ^ (ii. p. 133, xvii. p. 797, seq.)
  12. ^ (s. v.)
  13. ^ (vii. 5. § 15, viii. 15. § 15)
  14. ^ (ii. 73. s. 75, v. 10. s. 11, vi. 29. s. 34)
  15. ^ (De architectura, book viii. ch ii. § 6)
  16. ^ (p. 164)
  17. ^ Ezekiel 29:10, 30:6; Isaiah 49:12
  18. ^ a b "Station Aswan" (in French). Meteo Climat. Retrieved April 26, 2017.
  19. ^ "Weather Information for Asswan". Retrieved August 31, 2012.
  20. ^ "Asswan Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved January 30, 2015.

External links

Abu Simbel

Abu Simbel (also Abu Simbal, Ebsambul or Isambul; Arabic: أبو سنبل‎, romanized: Abū Sinbal or Arabic: أبو سمبل‎, romanized: Abū Simbal) is a village in the Egyptian part of Nubia, about 240 kilometers southwest of Aswan and near the border with Sudan. As of 2012, it has about 2600 inhabitants. It is best known as the site of the Abu Simbel temples, which were built by King Ramses II.

Abu Simbel temples

The Abu Simbel temples are two massive rock temples at Abu Simbel (Arabic: أبو سمبل‎), a village in Nubia, Upper Egypt, near the border with Sudan. They are situated on the western bank of Lake Nasser, about 230 km (140 mi) southwest of Aswan (about 300 km (190 mi) by road). The complex is part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site known as the "Nubian Monuments", which run from Abu Simbel downriver to Philae (near Aswan). The twin temples were originally carved out of the mountainside in the 13th century BC, during the 19th dynasty reign of the Pharaoh Ramesses II. They serve as a lasting monument to the king and his queen Nefertari, and commemorate his victory at the Battle of Kadesh. Their huge external rock relief figures have become iconic.

The complex was relocated in its entirety in 1968 under the supervision of a Polish archaeologist, Kazimierz Michałowski, on an artificial hill made from a domed structure, high above the Aswan High Dam reservoir. The relocation of the temples was necessary or they would have been submerged during the creation of Lake Nasser, the massive artificial water reservoir formed after the building of the Aswan High Dam on the Nile River.

Aswan Dam

The Aswan Dam, or more specifically since the 1960s, the Aswan High Dam, is an embankment dam built across the Nile in Aswan, Egypt, between 1960 and 1970. Its significance largely eclipsed the previous Aswan Low Dam initially completed in 1902 downstream. Based on the success of the Low Dam, then at its maximum utilization, construction of the High Dam became a key objective of the government following the Egyptian Revolution of 1952; with its ability to better control flooding, provide increased water storage for irrigation and generate hydroelectricity the dam was seen as pivotal to Egypt's planned industrialization. Like the earlier implementation, the High Dam has had a significant effect on the economy and culture of Egypt.

Before the High Dam was built, even with the old dam in place, the annual flooding of the Nile during late summer had continued to pass largely unimpeded down the valley from its East African drainage basin. These floods brought high water with natural nutrients and minerals that annually enriched the fertile soil along its floodplain and delta; this predictability had made the Nile valley ideal for farming since ancient times. However, this natural flooding varied, since high-water years could destroy the whole crop, while low-water years could create widespread drought and associated famine. Both these events had continued to occur periodically. As Egypt's population grew and technology increased, both a desire and the ability developed to completely control the flooding, and thus both protect and support farmland and its economically important cotton crop. With the greatly increased reservoir storage provided by the High Aswan Dam, the floods could be controlled and the water could be stored for later release over multiple years.

The Aswan Dam was designed by the Moscow-based Hydroproject Institute.

Aswan Governorate

Aswan Governorate (Egyptian Arabic: محافظة أسوان‎ Muḥāfẓet Aswān) is one of the governorates of Egypt. The southernmost governorate in Upper Egypt, its capital is Aswan.

The Aswan Governorate borders Qena to the north, Red Sea Governorate to the east, New Valley Governorate to the west, and Sudan's Northern state to the south. It has a population of 1,394,687 inhabitants (2014), and occupies an area of 62,726 km².

Aswan International Airport

Aswan International Airport (IATA: ASW, ICAO: HESN), also known as Daraw Airport, is an airport located 16 km southwest of Aswan, Egypt. It was built in 1956 and upgraded in 1992 and 1999 by the Egyptian government.

Aswan Low Dam

The Aswan Low Dam or Old Aswan Dam is a gravity masonry buttress dam on the Nile River in Aswan, Egypt. The dam was built at the former first cataract of the Nile, and is located about 1000 km up-river and 690 km (direct distance) south-southeast of Cairo. When initially constructed between 1899 and 1902, nothing of its scale had ever been attempted; on completion, it was the largest masonry dam in the world. The dam was designed to provide storage of annual floodwater and augment dry season flows to support greater irrigation development and population growth in the lower Nile. The dam, originally limited in height by conservation concerns, worked as designed, but provided inadequate storage capacity for planned development and was raised twice, between 1907 and 1912 and again in 1929–1933. These heightenings still did not meet irrigation demands and in 1946 it was nearly over-topped in an effort to maximize pool elevation. This led to the investigation and construction of the Aswan High Dam 6 kilometres (3.7 mi) upstream.

Aswan Museum

Aswan Museum is a museum in Elephantine, located on the south-eastern side of Aswan, Egypt. It opened to the public in 1912. The museum features artefacts from Nubia, which were housed there during the construction of the Aswan Dam. In 1990, a new department was inaugurated displaying findings that were discovered on Elephantine island itself, such as utensils, weapons, pottery and mummies.The museum is situated close to the Ruins of Abu, where excavations are still taking place.

Aswan SC

Aswan is a football club based in Aswan, Egypt.

Cataracts of the Nile

The Cataracts of the Nile are shallow lengths (or white water rapids) of the Nile River, between Aswan and Khartoum, where the surface of the water is broken by many small boulders and stones jutting out of the river bed, as well as many rocky islets. In some places, these stretches are punctuated by whitewater, while at others the water flow is smoother, but still shallow.

Death on the Nile (1978 film)

Death on the Nile is a 1978 British mystery film based on Agatha Christie's 1937 novel of the same name, directed by John Guillermin and adapted by Anthony Shaffer. The film features the Belgian detective Hercule Poirot, played by Peter Ustinov, plus an all-star supporting cast including Maggie Smith, Angela Lansbury, Bette Davis, Mia Farrow, David Niven, George Kennedy and Jack Warden.

It takes place in Egypt in 1937, mostly on a period paddle steamer on the River Nile. Many of the cultural highlights of Egypt are also featured in the film, such as the Great Pyramids, the Sphinx, and temples at Abu Simbel and Karnak, even though the locations are not in sequence. The boat trip starts in Aswan, follows to Karnak and then to Abu Simbel which is upstream from Aswan. Furthermore, it was never possible to go by boat from Aswan to Abu Simbel, even before the Aswan Dam was built because of the cataracts near Aswan.

Death on the Nile won the Academy Award for Best Costume Design at the 51st Academy Awards.

El-Tabia Mosque

El-Tabia Mosque is a mosque in Aswan, Egypt. The mosque is surrounded by scenic gardens. The El-Tabia Mosque is located amidst a park on a hill in the center of Aswan.

It reveals a typical architecture of central-dome mosques having an arched entrance, flanked in this case by two minarets, and the prayer hall beneath a central dome.

Elephantine

Elephantine ( EL-i-fan-TY-nee, -⁠TEE-; Ancient Egyptian: ꜣbw; Egyptian Arabic: جزيرة الفنتين‎, romanized: Gazīrat il-Fantīn; Greek: Ἐλεφαντίνη; Coptic: (Yebo/Ebou/Ibow) is an island on the Nile, forming part of the city of Aswan in Upper Egypt. There are archaeological sites on the island.

Geography of Egypt

The geography of Egypt relates to two regions: North Africa and Southwest Asia.

Egypt has coastlines on the Mediterranean Sea, the River Nile, and the Red Sea. Egypt borders Libya to the west, the Gaza Strip to the northeast, and Sudan to the south. Egypt has an area of 1,001,449 km2 (386,662 mi2).

The longest straight-line distance in Egypt from north to south is 1,024 km (636 mi), while that from east to west measures 1,240 km (771 mi). Egypt has more than 2,900 km (1800 mi) of coastline on the Mediterranean Sea, the Gulf of Suez, and the Gulf of Aqaba.

Lake Nasser

Lake Nasser (Arabic: بحيرة ناصر‎ Boħēret Nāṣer, Egyptian Arabic: [boˈħeːɾet ˈnɑːsˤeɾ]) is a vast reservoir in southern Egypt and northern Sudan. It is one of the largest man-made lakes in the world. Before construction, Sudan was against the building of Lake Nasser because it would encroach on land in the North, where the Nubian people lived. They would have to be resettled. In the end Sudan's land near the area of Lake Nasser was mostly flooded by the lake.Strictly, "Lake Nasser" refers only to the much larger portion of the lake that is in Egyptian territory (83% of the total), with the Sudanese preferring to call their smaller body of water Lake Nubia (Egyptian Arabic: بحيرة النوبة‎ Boħēret Nubeyya, [boˈħeːɾet nʊˈbejjæ]).

List of power stations in Egypt

This page lists power stations in Egypt.

New Aswan

New Aswan (Arabic: أسوان الجديدة‎) is a city in the Aswan Governorate, Egypt.

Philae

Philae (; Greek: Φιλαί, Arabic: فيله‎ Egyptian Arabic: [fiːlæ], Egyptian: p3-jw-rķ' or 'pA-jw-rq; Coptic: ⲡⲓⲗⲁⲕ, ⲡⲓⲗⲁⲕⲭ) is an island in the reservoir of the Aswan Low Dam, downstream of the Aswan Dam and Lake Nasser, Egypt. Philae was originally located near the expansive First Cataract of the Nile in Upper Egypt and was the site of an Egyptian temple complex. These rapids and the surrounding area have been variously flooded since the initial construction of the Aswan Low Dam in 1902. The temple complex was dismantled and moved to nearby Agilkia Island as part of the UNESCO Nubia Campaign project, protecting this and other complexes before the 1970 completion of the Aswan High Dam. The hieroglyphic reliefs of the temple complex are being studied and published by the Philae Temple Text Project of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna (Institute OREA).

Sebaiya

Sebaiya (Arabic: السباعية‎) is a city in Aswan Governorate, Egypt.

Climate data for Aswan, Egypt
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 35.3
(95.5)
38.5
(101.3)
44.0
(111.2)
46.1
(115.0)
47.8
(118.0)
50.6
(123.1)
51.0
(123.8)
48.0
(118.4)
47.8
(118.0)
45.4
(113.7)
42.2
(108.0)
38.6
(101.5)
51.0
(123.8)
Average high °C (°F) 22.9
(73.2)
25.2
(77.4)
29.5
(85.1)
34.9
(94.8)
38.9
(102.0)
41.4
(106.5)
41.1
(106.0)
40.9
(105.6)
39.3
(102.7)
35.9
(96.6)
29.1
(84.4)
24.3
(75.7)
33.6
(92.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 15.3
(59.5)
17.5
(63.5)
21.8
(71.2)
27.0
(80.6)
31.4
(88.5)
33.5
(92.3)
33.6
(92.5)
33.2
(91.8)
32.8
(91.0)
27.7
(81.9)
21.5
(70.7)
16.9
(62.4)
25.9
(78.6)
Average low °C (°F) 8.7
(47.7)
10.2
(50.4)
13.8
(56.8)
18.9
(66.0)
23.0
(73.4)
25.2
(77.4)
26.0
(78.8)
25.8
(78.4)
24.0
(75.2)
20.6
(69.1)
15.0
(59.0)
10.5
(50.9)
18.5
(65.3)
Record low °C (°F) −2.4
(27.7)
3.8
(38.8)
5.0
(41.0)
7.8
(46.0)
13.4
(56.1)
18.9
(66.0)
20.0
(68.0)
20.0
(68.0)
16.1
(61.0)
12.2
(54.0)
6.1
(43.0)
0.6
(33.1)
−2.4
(27.7)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0.1
(0.00)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0.7
(0.03)
0
(0)
0.6
(0.02)
0
(0)
0
(0)
1.4
(0.06)
Average rainy days (≥ 0.01 mm) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.0 0.25 0.0 0.0 0.85
Average relative humidity (%) 40 32 24 19 17 16 18 21 22 27 36 42 26.2
Mean monthly sunshine hours 298.2 281.1 321.6 316.1 346.8 363.2 374.6 359.6 298.3 314.6 299.6 289.1 3,862.8
Source #1: World Meteorological Organization,[19]
Source #2: NOAA for mean temperatures, humidity, and sun,[20] Meteo Climat (extremes 1918–present)[18]
1,000,000 and more
300,000–999,999
100,000–299,999
<99,999
Governorate (capital)

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