Asturias

Asturias (/æˈstʊəriəs, ə-/,[2][3] Spanish: [asˈtuɾjas]; Asturian: Asturies [asˈtuɾjes; -ɾjɪs]; Galician: Asturias), officially the Principality of Asturias (Spanish: Principado de Asturias; Asturian: Principáu d'Asturies), is an autonomous community in north-west Spain. It is coextensive with the province of Asturias, and contains some of the territory that was part of the larger Kingdom of Asturias in the Middle Ages. Divided into eight comarcas (counties), the autonomous community of Asturias is bordered by Cantabria to the east, by Castile and León to the south, by Galicia to the west, and by the Bay of Biscay to the north.

The most important cities are the communal capital, Oviedo (Uviéu or Uvieo), the seaport and largest city Gijón (Xixón), and the industrial town of Avilés. Other municipalities in Asturias include Cangas de Onís (Cangues d'Onís), Cangas del Narcea, Gozón, Grado (Grau or Grao), Langreo (Llangréu), Llanera, Laviana (Llaviana), Lena (Ḷḷena), Llanes, Mieres, Siero, Valdés, Vegadeo (A Veiga) and Villaviciosa (see also List of municipalities and comarcas in Asturias).

Asturias is also home of the Princess of Asturias Awards.

Asturias

Asturies  (Asturian)
Principado de Asturias  (Spanish)
Principáu d'Asturies  (Asturian)
Anthem: Asturias, patria querida
Map of Asturias
Location of Asturias within Spain
Coordinates: 43°20′N 6°00′W / 43.333°N 6.000°WCoordinates: 43°20′N 6°00′W / 43.333°N 6.000°W
CountrySpain
Capital
Largest city
Oviedo
Gijón
 • President(PSOE)
Area
(2.1% of Spain; Ranked 10th)
 • Total10,604 km2 (4,094 sq mi)
Population
(2018)
 • Total1,028,244
 • Density97/km2 (250/sq mi)
 • Pop. rank
13th
 • Percent
2.4% of Spain
DemonymsAsturian
asturiano, -na (es)
asturianu, -na (ast)
ISO 3166-2
ES-O
Official languagesSpanish (Asturian has special status)
Statute of Autonomy11 January 1982
ParliamentGeneral Junta
Congress seats7 (of 350)
Senate seats6 (of 265)
HDI (2017)0.892[1]
very high · 8th
WebsiteGobierno del Principado de Asturias

History

Termes romanes de Gijón 03
Roman thermae in Gijón

Asturias was inhabited, first by Homo erectus, then by Neanderthals. Since the Lower Paleolithic era, and during the Upper Paleolithic, Asturias was characterized by cave paintings in the eastern part of the area. In the Mesolithic period, a native culture developed, that of the Asturiense, and later, with the introduction of the Bronze Age, megaliths and tumuli were constructed. In the Iron Age, the territory came under the cultural influence of the Celts; the local Celtic peoples, known as the Astures, were composed of tribes such as the Luggones, the Pesicos, and others, who populated the entire area with castros (fortified hill-towns). Today the Astur Celtic influence persists in place names, such as those of rivers and mountains.

Iglesia de Santa María del Naranco
Santa María del Naranco, ancient palace of Asturian Kings, 842 AD. Many churches of Asturias are among the oldest churches of Europe since Early Middle Ages.

With the conquest of Asturias by the Romans under Augustus (29–19 BC), the region entered into recorded history. The Astures were subdued by the Romans but were never fully conquered. After several centuries without foreign presence, they enjoyed a brief revival during the Germanic invasions of the late 4th century AD, resisting Suevi and Visigoth raids throughout the 5th Century AD, ending with the Moorish invasion of Spain. However, as it had been for the Romans and Visigoths, the Moors did not find mountainous territory easy to conquer, and the lands along Spain's northern coast never fully became part of Islamic Spain. Rather, with the beginning of the Moorish conquest in the 8th century, this region became a refuge for Christian nobles, and in 722, a de facto independent kingdom was established, the Regnum Asturorum, which was to become the cradle of the incipient Reconquista (Reconquest).

In the 10th century, the Kingdom of Asturias gave way to the Kingdom of León, and during the Middle Ages the geographic isolation of the territory made historical references scarce. Through the rebellion of Henry II of Castile in the 14th century, the Principality of Asturias was established. The most famous proponents of independence were Gonzalo Peláez and Queen Urraca, who, while achieving significant victories, were ultimately defeated by Castilian troops. After its integration into the Kingdom of Spain, Asturias provided the Spanish court with high-ranking aristocrats and played an important role in the colonisation of America. Since 1388, the heir to the Castilian (later Spanish) throne has been styled Prince of Asturias. In the 16th century, the population reached 100,000 for the first time, and within another century that number would double due to the arrival of American corn.

Francisco de Goya y Lucientes - Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos
Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos

In the 18th century, Asturias was one of the centres of the Spanish Enlightenment. The renowned Galician thinker Benito de Feijóo settled in the Benedictine Monastery of San Vicente de Oviedo. Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos, a polymath and prominent reformer and politician of the late 18th century, was born in the seaside town of Gijón.

During the Napoleonic Wars, Asturias was the first Spanish province to rise up against the French following the abdication of King Ferdinand VII on 10 May 1808. Riots began in Oviedo and on 25 May the local government formally declared war on Napoleon with 18,000 men called to arms to resist invasion.[4]

The Industrial Revolution came to Asturias after 1830 with the discovery and systematic exploitation of coal mines and iron factories at the mining basins of Nalón and Caudal. At the same time, there was significant migration to the Americas (especially Argentina, Uruguay, Puerto Rico, Cuba and Mexico); those who succeeded overseas often returned to their native land much wealthier. These entrepreneurs were known collectively as 'Indianos', for having visited and made their fortunes in the West Indies and beyond. The heritage of these wealthy families can still be seen in Asturias today: many large 'modernista' villas are dotted across the region, as well as cultural institutions such as free schools and public libraries.

NE 800ad
Location of Asturias and its neighbors in 800 AD

Asturias played an important part in the events that led up to the Spanish Civil War. In October 1934 Asturian miners and other workers staged an armed uprising (see Revolution of Asturias) to oppose the coming to power of the right-wing CEDA party, which had obtained three ministerial posts in the centralist government of the Second Spanish Republic. For a month, a Popular Front Committee exercised control in southern Asturias, while local workers committees sprang up elsewhere in the region. A war committee dominated by anarcho-syndicalist supporters took power in Oviedo . Troops under the command of a then unknown general named Francisco Franco Bahamonde were brought from Spanish Morocco to suppress the revolt. Franco applied tactics normally reserved for overseas colonies, using troops of the Spanish Legion and Moroccan troops: ferocious oppression followed.

As a result, Asturias remained loyal to the republican government during the Spanish Civil War, and was the scene of an extraordinary defence in extreme terrain, the Battle of El Mazuco. With Franco eventually gaining control of all Spain, Asturias — traditionally linked to the Spanish Crown — was known merely as the "Province of Oviedo" from 1939 until Franco's death in 1975. The province's name was restored fully after the return of democracy to Spain, in 1977. In the 50s and 60s the industrial progress of Asturias continued with the constitution of national enterprises like Ensidesa and Hunosa, but the 80s was the decade of a dramatic industrial restructuring.

On 30 December 1981,[5] Asturias became an autonomous community within the decentralised territorial structure established by the Constitution of 1978. Rafael Luis Fernández Álvarez, who had previously served as the President of the Regional Council since 1978, became the first President of the Principality of Asturias, upon the adoption of autonomy.[5] The Asturian regional government holds comprehensive competencies in important areas such as health, education and protection of the environment. As of May 2011, the President of the Government of Asturias was Francisco Álvarez-Cascos, of the Foro Asturias (FAC), succeeded by Javier Fernández in 2012.

Administrative and territorial division

Asturias is organised territorially into 78 municipalities, further subdivided into parishes.

Parishes

The parroquia or parish is the subdivision of the Asturian municipalities. Currently, there are 857 parishes integrating the 78 municipalities in the region, and they usually coincide with the ecclesiastic divisions.

Geography and climate

Picos Europa
Picos de Europa

The Cantabrian Mountains (Cordillera Cantábrica) form Asturias's natural border with the province of León to the south. In the eastern range, the Picos de Europa National Park contains the highest and arguably most spectacular mountains, rising to 2,648 metres (8,688 ft) at the Torrecerredo peak. Other notable features of this predominantly limestone range are the Parque Natural de Redes in the central east, the central Ubiñas south of Oviedo, and the Parque Natural de Somiedo in the west. The Cantabrian mountains or offer opportunities for activities such as climbing, walking, skiing and caving, and extend some 200 kilometres (120 mi) in total, as far as Galicia province to the west of Asturias and Cantabria province to the east. Similar opportunities are available for the traveler of Asturias interested in Caldoveiro Peak.

The Asturian coastline is extensive, with hundreds of beaches, coves and natural sea caves. Notable examples include the Playa del Silencio (Beach of Silence) near the fishing village of Cudillero (west of Gijón), as well as the many beaches surrounding the summer resort of Llanes, such as the Barro, Ballota and Torimbia (the latter a predominantly nudist beach). Most of Asturias's beaches are sandy, clean, and bordered by steep cliffs, on top of which it is not unusual to see grazing livestock.

Playa de Torimbia
Torimbia beach, Llanes

The key features of Asturian geography are its rugged coastal cliffs and the mountainous interior. The climate of Asturias is heavily marked by the gulf stream. Falling within the Cantabrian belt known as Green Spain it has high precipitations all year round. Summers are mild and, on the coast, winters also have relatively benign temperatures, rarely including frost. The cold is especially felt in the mountains, where snow is present from October till May. Both rain and snow are regular weather features of Asturian winters. In coastal or near-coastal areas, daytime high temperatures generally average around 12 °C (54 °F) – 13 °C (55 °F) during winter and 22 °C (72 °F) – 23 °C (73 °F) in summer.[7]

Pollution

This part of Spain is one of the most well conserved in the entire country, and full of vegetation and wild spaces. It holds two of the most important natural parks in Spain, and is very renowned for the Picos de Europa and Somiedo areas.

The Gijón area was marked and singled out as one of the pollution hotspots in Western Europe in a 2015 report from the International Institute for Applied Science Systems, where predictions for 2030 conditions were made.[11][12] Gijón was marked much higher than any other Spanish metro area, in spite of the much larger populations in cities such as Madrid and Barcelona. This was attributed to heavy industrial activities. Since outdoor air pollution is a major cause of premature death in Europe,[13] the excessive pollution is a major concern for Asturias. The majority of Asturias population live within a 25 kilometres (16 mi) range from the port of Gijón, so pollution would be likely to heavily affect the population.

A Spanish government study conducted in 2010 regarding life expectancy in relative communities, Asturias was ranked lowest (tied with Andalucia) for male life expectancy with 76.7 years from 2007 readings.[14] However, female life expectancy was 84 years and normal among autonomous communities. However, even the male life expectancy is only just below Western European standards, and exaggerated by the high Spanish life expectancy. Considering that many Asturians live in relatively close proximity to Gijón’s heavily industrial areas, these figures for especially female relative health still contribute to a position that Gijón is a safe location to live. The numbers for "disability-free" life expectancy has risen significantly both for males and females in the area since 1986, according to the report.[13]

Update: the coal fired electric generating plant, Aboño, completed a Spanish government/EU demand to install equipment to drastically reduce its emssions. Also, the other two major polluters - Arcelor Gijón and Arcelor Avilés - have announced an investment of 100 million euros to do the same. These factories have been a major cause of the area’s high airborne pollution.

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1900 627,000—    
1910 685,000+9.3%
1920 744,000+8.6%
1930 792,000+6.5%
1940 837,000+5.7%
1950 888,000+6.1%
1960 989,000+11.4%
1970 1,046,000+5.8%
1981 1,129,572+8.0%
1991 1,093,937−3.2%
2001 1,062,998−2.8%
2011 1,075,813+1.2%
2017 1,034,960−3.8%
Source: INE

In 2008, Asturias had a total fertility rate of 1.07, the lowest in the European Union.[15]

Languages

Asturian linguistic areas
Language map of Asturias

The only official language in Asturias is Spanish. The Asturian language, also known as Bable, is also spoken, and is protected by law (Ley 1/1998, de 23 de marzo, de uso y promoción del bable/asturiano — "Law 1/1998, of 23 March, of Use and Promotion of Bable/Asturian"). It is sometimes used by the Asturian civil service. In the western part of Asturias, Eonavian is also spoken, and its promotion also falls under the responsibility of Law 1/1998. Whether Eonavian is a dialect continuum or a variety of Galician language, however, is a subject of debate, and its use in the Asturian Administration is minor compared to the use of the Asturian language. Within Asturias, there is an ongoing process to establish place names in Asturian and Eonavian dialects.

Politics

The organisation and political structure of Asturias is governed by the Statute of Autonomy of the Principality of Asturias, in force since 30 January 1982. According to the Statute, the institutional bodies of the Principality of Asturias are three: the Council of Government, the General Junta and President. The form of government of the Principality is Parliament: The General Junta is the legislature to choose, on behalf of the Asturian town, the President of the Principality of Asturias. The President is also the one of the Council of Government, the head of executive power, and politically answerable to the General Junta.

The functions of the General Junta are the approval of budgets, and the direction and control of the action of the Council of Government. It is composed of 45 deputies, elected for four years through theuniversal suffrage within a system proportional representation that the allocation of deputies is based on D'Hondt method.

Results of the elections to the General Junta

Deputies in General Junta since 1983
Election Distribution President
1983
5 26 14
Pedro de Silva (PSOE)
1987
4 20 8 13
1991
6 1 21 2 15
Juan Luis Rodríguez-Vigil (PSOE)
Antonio Trevín (PSOE)
1995
6 1 17 21
Sergio Marqués (PP / URAS)
1999
3 24 3 15
Vicente Álvarez Areces (PSOE)
2003
4 22 19
2007
4 21 20
2011
4 15 16 10
Francisco Álvarez-Cascos (FAC)
2011
5 17 1 12 10
Javier Fernández Fernández (PSOE)
2015
5 9 14 3 3 11

Economy

Asturian sheep
Asturian sheep on Picos de Europa
Torre CCS Gijón
El Musel, the Port of Gijón

For centuries, the backbone of the Asturian economy was agriculture and fishing. Milk production and its derivatives was also traditional, but its big development was a byproduct of the economic expansion of the late 1960s. Nowadays, products from the dairy cooperative Central Lechera Asturiana are being commercialised all over Spain.

The main regional industry in modern times, however, was coal mining and steel production: in the times of Francisco Franco's dictatorship, it was the centre of Spain's steel industry. The then state-owned ENSIDESA steel company is now part of the privatised Aceralia, now part of the ArcelorMittal Group. The industry created many jobs, which resulted in significant migration from other regions in Spain, mainly Extremadura, Andalusia and Castile and León.

The steel industry is now in decline when measured in terms of number of jobs provided, as is the mining. The reasons for the latter are mainly the high costs of production to extract the coal compared to other regions. Regional economic growth is below the broader Spanish rate, though in recent years growth in service industries has helped reduce Asturias's high rate of unemployment. Large out-of-town retail parks have opened near the region's largest cities (Gijón and Oviedo), whilst the ever-present Spanish construction industry appears to continue to thrive.

Asturias has benefited extensively since 1986 from European Union investment in roads and other essential infrastructure, though there has also been some controversy regarding how these funds are spent, for example, on miners' pensions.

As of 2008, the GDP (PPP) per capita of Asturias stood at €22,640, or 90.2% of the European average of €25,100. This makes the region the 12th richest in Spain, a big decrease from the 1970s/1980s - the heyday of the Spanish mining industry, when Asturias was commonly regarded as one of the most prosperous regions in Southern Europe. Asturias has been growing below the Spanish national average since the decline of the mining industry, and grew just 0.82% in 2008, the lowest of all regions in Spain. On the plus side, unemployment in Asturias is below the average of Spain; it stood at 13.7% in 2017.[16]

Year 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Unemployment rate 9.2% 8.4% 8.5% 13.4% 15.9% 17.8% 21.8% 24.1% 21.1% 19.1% 17.6% 13.7% 12.9%

Transportation

Régional Embraer 190 F-HBLA OVD-LEAS
Asturias International Airport

Air

Asturias is served by Asturias International Airport (OVD), 40 kilometres (25 miles) from Oviedo, near the northwest coast and the industrial town of Avilés.

  • International carriers
    • Air France
    • A British international carrier, EasyJet, began daily flights to Asturias airport in March 2005, it operates to Stansted Airport, which the airline uses as a major hub. During the winter period, EasyJet usually reduces flying frequency to four flights per week.
  • Several national carriers also link Asturias to Madrid and Barcelona, Brussels, Paris, Seville and others.

Eastern Asturias is also easily accessible from Santander Airport. Recent improvements introduced in the road network permit flying into Santander and later driving into Asturias, which can be entered in less than an hour's drive. The Irish airline Ryanair operates flights to Santander Airport from Frankfurt Hahn, Liverpool, Dublin, Edinburgh, London Stansted and Rome Ciampino.

Sea

El Musel (the Port of Gijón) is able to receive cruise ships of any size. Companies as P&O, Swan Hellenic or Hapag Lloyd choose the Port of Gijón every year for their calls in the Atlantic European Coast. The following areas are available for cruise vessels:

  • Moliner quay: 313 m berthing with 14 m draught.
  • 7ª Alignment: 326 m with 12 m draught.
  • Espigón II. South alignment. 360 m berth with 9 m draught.

These locations allow a high degree of access control, with security guaranteed for both vessels and passengers alike. The city centre is only 4 km away and the Port Authority provides dedicated coach connection allowing passengers to take advantage of the cultural, gastronomic and commercial opportunities that Gijón has to offer.

Since 2010, the city of Gijón is connected by ferry with the French city of Nantes.[17] This connection is also known as the "sea highway" and it has a frequency of two ferries per day in both directions.

Train

Estacion Norte Oviedo - Nacho Gonmi
Oviedo Train Station

Spain's national RENFE rail network also serves Asturias well; trains regularly depart to and from the Spanish interior. Major stops are the regional capital, Oviedo, and the main coastal city, Gijón. Meanwhile, the FEVE rail company links the centre of the region with Eastern and Western Asturias. Under the Cantabrian Mountains, the Pajares Base Tunnel, is currently under construction, and will reduce the journey times from Madrid to Asturias from 5 hours to just 3 hours, paving the way for the arrival of AVE trains in the near future.

Bus

There is also a comprehensive bus service run by the ALSA company. It links Avilés, Gijón, Oviedo and Mieres with Madrid and other major towns, several times a day. These include services to Barcelona, Salamanca, León, Valladolid, A Coruña, Bilbao, Seville, San Sebastián, Paris, Brussels and Nice, to name just a few.

Main sights

Oviedo-Catedral
The Oviedo Cathedral. Built from 781 to 16th century.
Cudillero Asturias
The village of Cudillero
2482-Puente romano en Cangas de Onis (Asturias)
The Roman Bridge of Cangas de Onís

Key attractions

Oviedo is the capital city of Asturias and contains Santa María del Naranco and San Miguel de Lillo, a pre-Romanesque church and a palace respectively, which were built by the first Asturian kings on Mount Naranco, to the north of the city (World Heritage Site). In modern architecture, the Palacio de Congresos de Oviedo (or Modoo) was designed by Santiago Calatrava.

Gijon, the biggest city of Asturias, is a coastal city known for cultural and sports events, and a beach tourism centre in northern Spain. It also is known for the traditional Asturian gastronomy and for being an Asturian cider production spot. Museums in the city include the Universidad Laboral de Gijón, including a modern art museum and theatre.

Avilés is the third largest city in Asturias, where "La villa del adelantado" (as locals call it, in reference of Pedro Menéndez de Avilés) is a meeting point. "Saint Nicholas of Bari" or "Capilla de los Alas" in Romanesque and Romanesque-Gothic style, respectively; Palacio de Balsera, in Modernist style or St. Thomas of Canterbury church (dating from the 13th century) are examples which show the historical patrimony to be found in the city. The Centro Niemeyer, designed by the Brazilian architect Oscar Niemeyer, is an example of contemporary architecture in Asturias.

The Picos de Europa National Park, and other parts of the Asturian mountain range: The Picu Urriellu mountain (2519 m or 8262 ft), also known as El Naranjo de Bulnes, is a molar-shaped peak which, reputedly, glows orange in the evening sun, hence its name. Weather permitting, it can be viewed from Camarmeña village, near Poncebos, south of Arenas de Cabrales.

The shrine to the Virgin of Covadonga and the mountain lakes (Los Lagos), near Cangas de Onís: Legend has it that in the 8th century, the Virgin blessed Asturian Christian forces with a well-timed signal to attack Spain's Moorish conquerors, thereby taking the invaders by surprise in the Battle of Covadonga. The Reconquista and eventual unification of all Spain is therefore said to have started in this very location.

The paleolithic art in the caves of Asturias is declared World Heritage Site with the Paleolithic Art of Northern Spain.

Asturias also has examples of industrial heritage as a consequence of its industrial activities in the 19th and 20th centuries. It had metallurgical and chemical factories, mines, bridges and railways, including in the towns of Langreo, Mieres and Avilés.

The Asturian coast: especially the beaches in and around the summer resort of Llanes, the Playa del Silencio near Cudillero fishing village, or the "white" village of Luarca (Severo Ochoa hometown).

Other places of interest

Somiedo
Somiedo Lake
  • Ceceda village: east of Oviedo along the N634 road. Of particular interest in this exemplary settlement are the traditional horreos (grain silos), raised on stilts so as to keep field mice from getting at the grain.
  • The Dobra River: south of Cangas de Onís, known for its unusual colour.
  • The senda costera (coastal way) between Pendueles and Llanes: This partly paved nature route takes in some of Asturias' most spectacular coastal scenery, such as the noisy bufones (blowholes) and the Playa de Ballota.
  • Caldoveiro Peak, a scenic mountain hiking area
  • The unusual rock formation on the beach at Buelna village: east of Llanes. Best viewed at low tide.

Culture

Architecture

Asturias has a rich artistic legacy that emphasizes Romanesque (Asturias Arts) indigenous architecture with monuments like Santa María del Naranco, Santa Cristina de Lena and San Miguel de Lillo. These monuments have a Ramirense Romanesque style (due to Ramiro I) or San Julián de los Prados, known as Santullano (Oviedo) of the Alfonsino pre-Romanesque style (due to Alfonso II), which are all in Oviedo. Other examples of architecture are Villaviciosa's church, San Salvador de Valdediós (commonly known by the Asturians as "Conventín"), and the church of San Salvador de Priesca. Another example is Cabranes' San Julian de Viñón.

The Romanesque style is very present, since all Asturias is crossed by one of the Camino de Santiago routes, which highlights the Monastery of San Pedro de Villanueva (near Cangas de Onis), the churches of San Esteban de Aramil (Siero), San Juan de Amandi (Villaviciosa) and Santa María de Junco (Ribadesella).

The Gothic style is not as abundant, but there are good examples of this style, such as the Cathedral of San Salvador in Oviedo.

The Baroque style is more present by means of palace architecture, with such notable examples as the Palace of Camposagrado and Velarde - the latter seat of Museum of Fine Arts of Asturias. The Baroque style stands out in public civil engineering and bridge tolls (Olloniego); the milestones, the chairs or seats present along the road to Madrid and the resort of Caldas de Priorio (Oviedo) building.

In 1985, the UNESCO declared the pre-Romanesque monuments and the Cathedral of Oviedo as World Heritage Sites.

In popular architecture, the traditional granaries in Asturias, called hórreos, are known for their demographic extension and their functional evolution, its basic characteristic being its mobility: it can be easily dismounted and transported to another location. The Panera is the evolution of the hórreo, with examples exceeding 100 square metres (1,076 square feet) of area covered. The purpose of the horreo is to store objects and crops. With the arrival of maize and the beans, they were endowed with exterior corridors and railings for drying the harvests.

Asturias is home to the only architectural work in Spain (as well as the largest in Europe) of the Brazilian architect and disciple of Le Corbusier; Oscar Niemeyer: the Oscar Niemeyer International Cultural Centre. The architectural project was donated to the Principality by the architect, who was awarded the Prince of Asturias Award for the Arts, in the XXV edition of these awards. Niemeyer's project combined several different elements, and projected an open space, a place for education, culture and peace.

In the capital of the Principality stands one of the most representative buildings of modern architecture, the Palace of Congresses of Oviedo, by the Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava, who also awarded the Prince of Asturias of Award for the Arts in 1999.

Special importance has been placed in recent years on the recovery of industrial heritage through various routes and industrial museums, especially in the central area of the region.

Festivals and holidays

Some of the most famous festivals in Asturias are from the small town of Llanes. These festivals celebrate the important saints and the Virgin Mary adored by the town. The associations that prepare the festivals have a rivalry between them and each year they try to outdo each other with more impressive shows. The three most important are the festival of San Roque (St. Roque) held on the 16th of August, the festival of Nuestra Señora Virgen de La Guia (Our Lady, Virgin Mary, the Guide) held on the 8th of September, and the festival of Santa Maria Magdalena (St. Mary Magdalene) held on the 22nd of July. The Magdalena is well known for its impressive march of logs where boys as young as 3 and men carry logs through the town until they reach the end point and start a large bonfire.

Traditional Asturian Dress
Traditional Asturian dress being worn during a major festival in Llanes

Food and drink

Fabada y sidra
Fabada asturiana and sidra (cider), a typical dish of Asturias

While Asturias is especially known for its seafood, the most famous regional dish is fabada asturiana, a rich stew typically made with large white beans (fabes), shoulder of pork (lacón), black pudding (morcilla), and spicy sausage (chorizo).

Apple groves foster the production of the region's traditional alcoholic drink, a natural cider (sidra). Since it is natural and bottled without gas, it produces a weak carbonation, and when Asturian cider is served, it is poured in a particular way, el escanciado: the bottle is held above the head allowing for a long vertical pour, causing the cider to be aerated as it splashes into the glass below. After drinking most of the content, it is customary to splash a little out onto the ground, as a way to clean the glass of any lees for the next serving. Traditionally, the same glass is refilled and passed around, with everyone drinking from it in turn.

Asturian cheeses, especially Cabrales, are also eaten throughout Spain and beyond; Asturias is often called "the land of cheeses" (el país de los quesos).

Sport

Asturias has two main football teams: Sporting de Gijón and Real Oviedo, which have played over 35 seasons in La Liga. Other current notable sports teams are Oviedo CB (basketball) and AB Gijón Jovellanos (handball).

Racecar driver Fernando Alonso is a two-time Formula One world champion, and races with Asturias' flag colours on his helmet. Also, cyclist Samuel Sánchez won a gold at the Olympic games. Football players from Asturias include World Cup winner David Villa as well as Quini, Luis Enrique, Juan Manuel Mata, and Santiago Cazorla, among others.

Literature

These are some notable people of Asturian Literature:

Music

Estación de Valgrande-Pajares
Valgrande-Pajares ski resort

The music of Asturias is varied. The most characteristic instrument in traditional music is the Asturian bagpipe, or gaita, which has a single drone, in common with the traditional bagpipes of other Celtic nations such as Wales and Ireland.[18][19] The bagpipe is often accompanied by the hand drum, whistles and accordion.

In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in traditional folk music, and several music ensembles have gained regional and international recognition for their ethnomusicological study and presentation of indigenous Asturian music. Notable examples include traditional pipers such as Xuacu Amieva and Tejedor and fusionist José Ángel Hevia (whose music video[20] provides views of both the gaita and the Asturian landscape), and the groups Llan de Cubel, Xera, Nuberu and Felpeyu.[21][22][23] Additionally, numerous rock, ska and heavy metal groups have also found relative success within Asturias, many of which incorporate elements of traditional Asturian music into their sound.[24]

Anthem

The Asturian anthem Asturias, patria querida (Asturias, beloved fatherland), which was a popular song adopted as the region's anthem and formalised by Ley 1/1984, de 27 de Abríl.

Orquesta Sinfónica del Principado de Asturias

The Orquesta Sinfónica del Principado de Asturias is the premier orchestra in the Principality of Asturias.[25] It is based in the Auditorio Príncipe Felipe in Oviedo, but also performs in the main concert venues in Gijón and Avilés. Rossen Milanov is the Music Director.[26]

Other

Asturias is also the name of the fifth movement of the Suite Española, Op. 47 by Spanish composer Isaac Albéniz. Nevertheless, the music has little in common with the region's own folklore. More authentic is Rimsky Korsakov's Spanish Capriccio, which quotes liberally from Asturian musical heritage.

Notable people

Letizia Ortiz Rocasolano

Queen Letizia, current Queen consort of Spain

Fernando Alonso Bahrain

Fernando Alonso

Events

See also

References

  1. ^ "Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org. Retrieved 2018-09-13.
  2. ^ "Asturias - Definition of Asturias in English by Oxford Dictionaries". Oxford Dictionaries - English.
  3. ^ "Definition of ASTURIAS". www.merriam-webster.com.
  4. ^ Oman, Charles (1902). A History of the Peninsular War. 1. Oxford: Clarendon Press. p. 65.
  5. ^ a b "Fallece Rafael Fernández". La Voz de Asturias. 2010-12-18. Archived from the original on 2011-07-15. Retrieved 2011-01-08.
  6. ^ "Asturias: población por municipios y sexo". Retrieved 2 January 2018.
  7. ^ "Standard climate values for Oviedo". Agencia Estatal de Meteorología. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
  8. ^ "Guía resumida del clima en España (1981-2010)". AEMET (in Spanish). 2010. Archived from the original on 17 November 2012. Retrieved 17 April 2019.
  9. ^ "Valores Climatológicos Normales. Asturias / Gijon". AEMET (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 20 July 2011. Retrieved 17 April 2019.
  10. ^ "Valores Climatológicos Normales. Asturias Aeropuerto". AEMET. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
  11. ^ Noack, Rick (23 February 2015). "Map: These will be the Europe's most polluted cities in 2030". Washington Post. Retrieved 2 March 2015.
  12. ^ Kiesewetter, G.; Borken-Kleefeld, J.; Schöpp, W.; Heyes, C.; Thunis, P.; Bessagnet, B.; Terrenoire, E.; Fagerli, H.; Nyiri, A.; Amann, M. (13 February 2015). "Modelling Street Level PM10 Concentrations Across Europe: source apportionment and possible futures" (PDF). Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. International Institute for Applied Science Systems: 1539–1553. doi:10.5194/acp-15-1539-2015. Retrieved 2 March 2015.
  13. ^ a b "Clean Air - Environment". European Commission. 12 February 2019. Retrieved 2 March 2015.
  14. ^ Alfaro, Mercedes (2010). Regidor, Enrique; Gutiérrez-Fisac, Juan L.; Guevara, David; Jiménez, Antonio José; Tejeda, María Pilar (eds.). "Healthy life expectancies in Spain 1986-2007. Disability-free life expectancy and Life expectancy in good perceived health in Spain and its Autonomous Communities" (PDF). Ministry of Health, Social Policy and Equality. Government of Spain. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 23 May 2015.
  15. ^ "Eurostat - Tables, Graphs and Maps Interface (TGM) table". Epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu. 2015-03-02. Retrieved 2015-08-01.
  16. ^ "Regional Unemployment by NUTS2 Region". Eurostat.
  17. ^ "Inaugurada en Gijón la primera autopista del mar española". La Nueva España (in Spanish). Prensa Ibérica. 16 September 2010. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
  18. ^ "Practical guide to making pibgyrn by Gerard KilBride". Pibgyrn.com. Archived from the original on 2012-04-02. Retrieved 2010-04-26.
  19. ^ Sergio y Pablo Arce. "La Gaita Asturiana". Asturies.com. Archived from the original on 2010-04-20. Retrieved 2010-04-26.
  20. ^ "Hevia - Busindre Reel (High Quality)". YouTube. 2009-06-03. Retrieved 2015-08-01.
  21. ^ "FolkWorld Article: Llan de Cubel". Folkworld.de. Retrieved 2010-04-26.
  22. ^ cranky crow (2003-09-14). "Celtic music of Spain". World Music Central. Archived from the original on 2009-06-30. Retrieved 2010-04-26.
  23. ^ "CITYFOLK MONTHLY - June 2006". Cityfolk.org. Archived from the original on 2010-12-06. Retrieved 2010-04-26.
  24. ^ "Asturshop". Asturshop. Archived from the original on 14 April 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-26.
  25. ^ "Inicio - Orquesta Sinfónica del Principado de Asturias". Ospa.es. Retrieved 2015-08-01.
  26. ^ Elaine Schmidt. "Rossen Milanov". Rossenmilanov.net. Archived from the original on June 29, 2015. Retrieved 2015-08-01.

Bibliography

  • Bowen-Jones, H. and W.B. Fisher. Spain: An Introductory Geography. New York: Praeger, 1966.
  • Dresner, Denise, ed. Guide to the World. Phoenix: Oryx Press, 1998. S.v. "Asturias"
  • Encyclopedia Americana. Danbury: Grolier, 2002. S.v. "Asturias"
  • Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary. Springfield: Merriam-Webster, 1997. S.v. "Asturias"

External links

Asturian language

Asturian (; asturianu [astuˈɾjanʊ], formerly also known as bable [ˈbaβlɪ]) is a West Iberian Romance language spoken in Principality of Asturias, Spain. Asturian is part of a wider linguistic group, the Astur-Leonese languages. The number of speakers is estimated at 100,000 (native) and 450,000 (second language). There are three main variants in the Astur-Leonese language family: Western, Central, and Eastern. For historical and demographic reasons, the standard is based on Central Asturian. Asturian has a distinct grammar, dictionary, and orthography. It is regulated by the Academy of the Asturian Language. Although it is not an official language of Spain it is protected under the Statute of Autonomy and is an elective language in schools.

Balthasar Charles, Prince of Asturias

Balthasar Charles (17 October 1629 – 9 October 1646), Prince of Asturias, Prince of Girona, Duke of Montblanc, Count of Cervera, and Lord of Balaguer, Prince of Viana was heir apparent to all the kingdoms, states and dominions of the Spanish monarchy until his death.

Carlos, Prince of Asturias

Several of the Carlist pretenders to the Spanish throne were also known as Don Carlos.Carlos, Prince of Asturias, also known as Don Carlos (8 July 1545 – 24 July 1568), was the eldest son and heir-apparent of King Philip II of Spain. His mother was Maria Manuela of Portugal, daughter of John III of Portugal. Carlos was mentally unstable and was imprisoned by his father in early 1568, dying after half a year of solitary confinement. His fate was a theme in Spain's Black Legend, and inspired a play by Friedrich Schiller and an opera by Giuseppe Verdi.

Cave of Altamira and Paleolithic Cave Art of Northern Spain

Under the name Cave of Altamira and Paleolithic Cave Art of Northern Spain (Cueva de Altamira y arte rupestre paleolítico del Norte de España) are grouped 18 caves of northern Spain, which together represent the apogee of Upper Paleolithic cave art in Europe between 35,000 and 11,000 years ago (Aurignacian, Gravettian, Solutrean, Magdalenian, Azilian).

They have been collectively designated a World Heritage Site by the UNESCO in 2008.

Chief among these caves is Altamira, located within the town of Santillana del Mar in Cantabria. It remains one of the most important painting cycles of prehistory, originating in the Magdalenian and Solutrean periods of the Upper Paleolithic. This cave's artistic style represents the Franco-cantabrian school, characterized by the realism of its figural representation. Altamira Cave was declared a World Heritage Site in 1985.

In 2008 the World Heritage Site was expanded to include 17 additional caves located in three autonomous regions of northern Spain: Asturias, Cantabria and the Basque Country.

Divisiones Regionales de Fútbol in Asturias

The Divisiones Regionales de Fútbol in the Community of Asturias, organized by Real Federación de Fútbol del Principado de Asturias:

Regional Preferente de Asturias (Level 5)

Primera Regional de Asturias (Level 6)

Segunda Regional de Asturias (Level 7)

Felipe VI of Spain

Felipe VI (Spanish: [feˈlipe]; Felipe Juan Pablo Alfonso de Todos los Santos; born 30 January 1968) is the King of Spain. He ascended the throne on 19 June 2014 upon the abdication of his father, King Juan Carlos I. His mother is Queen Sofía, and he has two older sisters, Infanta Elena, Duchess of Lugo, and Infanta Cristina. When Spanish dictator Francisco Franco chose Juan Carlos as his successor in 1969, Felipe became second in line to the Spanish throne.

In 2004, Felipe married TV news journalist Letizia Ortiz with whom he has two daughters, Leonor (his heir presumptive) and Sofía. In accordance with the Spanish Constitution, as monarch, he is head of state and commander-in-chief of the Spanish Armed Forces, and also plays a role in promoting relations with Spanish America and the former Spanish East Indies, which are collectively called the "nations of its historical community".

Gijón

Gijón (, or , Spanish: [xiˈxon]) or Xixón (Asturian: [ʃiˈʃoŋ]) is the largest city and municipality in the autonomous community of Asturias in Spain. It is located on the Bay of Biscay, approximately 24 km (15 mi) north-east of Oviedo, the capital of Asturias.

Isabella of Aragon, Queen of Portugal

Isabella, Princess of Asturias (2 October 1470 – 23 August 1498) was a Queen consort of Portugal and heir presumptive of King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella I of Castile, as their eldest daughter. Her younger siblings were John, Prince of Asturias, Queen Joanna I of Castile, Maria, Queen of Portugal and Catherine, Queen of England.

Kingdom of Asturias

The Kingdom of Asturias (Latin: Regnum Asturorum) was a kingdom in the Iberian Peninsula founded in 718 by the Asturian chief Pelagius of Asturias (Asturian: Pelayu, Spanish: Pelayo). It was the first Christian political entity established after the Umayyad conquest of Visigothic Hispania in 718 or 722. That year, Pelagius defeated an Umayyad army at the Battle of Covadonga, in what is usually regarded as the beginning of the Reconquista. Pelagius died in Cangas de Onís, where he had his court in 737. His son Favila was killed while hunting, torn to pieces by a bear, and was succeeded by Alfonso I, son-in-law of Pelagius, who set about pushing the Reconquest as far as Galicia and Tierra de Campos (the "Gothic Fields" or Campos Góticos). Fruela I (757–768) founded Oviedo. He was assassinated, and was succeeded by several petty kings (Aurelius, Silo, Mauregatus, and Bermudo I, the Deacon) and at last Alfonso II, the Chaste, who set up his court at Oviedo, and recommenced the expeditions against the Muslims. The Vikings invaded Galicia in 844 but were expelled by Ramiro I from A Coruña. Many of the Vikings' casualties were caused by the Galicians' missile-throwing war machines; 70 Viking ships were captured and burned. Vikings returned to Galicia in 859, during the reign of Ordoño I; they were faced with an army led by Don Pedro who dispersed them and destroyed 38 of their ships. Alfonso III, the Great, continued the forays as far as the Sierra Morena, and founded Burgos, the future capital of Castile. The Kingdom of Asturias transitioned into the Kingdom of León in 924, when Fruela II of Asturias became king with his royal court in León.

Leonor, Princess of Asturias

Leonor, Princess of Asturias (born 31 October 2005) is the heir presumptive to the throne of Spain as the eldest daughter of King Felipe VI and Queen Letizia. In addition to the official title of Princess of Asturias, she bears the historical titles of Princess of Girona, Princess of Viana, Duchess of Montblanc, Countess of Cervera and Lady of Balaguer. If Leonor ascends the throne, she will be Spain's first queen regnant since Isabella II, who reigned from 1833 to 1868.

Mieres

Mieres is a municipality of Asturias, northern Spain with approximately 45,000 inhabitants. The municipality of Mieres is made up of the capital, Mieres del Camino and the villages of Baiña, Figaredo, Cenera, Loredo, La Peña, La Rebollada, Santullano, Santa Rosa, Seana, Ujo, Urbies, Valdecuna, Santa Cruz, Ablaña, Turón, Gallegos, Bustiello.

Miguel Ángel Asturias

Miguel Ángel Asturias Rosales (Spanish pronunciation: [miˈɣel ˈaŋ.xel asˈtu.ɾjas]; October 19, 1899 – June 9, 1974) was a Nobel Prize-winning Guatemalan poet-diplomat, novelist, playwright and journalist. Asturias helped establish Latin American literature's contribution to mainstream Western culture, and at the same time drew attention to the importance of indigenous cultures, especially those of his native Guatemala.

Asturias was born and raised in Guatemala though he lived a significant part of his adult life abroad. He first lived in Paris in the 1920s where he studied ethnology. Some scholars view him as the first Latin American novelist to show how the study of anthropology and linguistics could affect the writing of literature. While in Paris, Asturias also associated with the Surrealist movement, and he is credited with introducing many features of modernist style into Latin American letters. In this way, he is an important precursor of the Latin American Boom of the 1960s and 1970s.

One of Asturias' most famous novels, El Señor Presidente, describes life under a ruthless dictator. Asturias' very public opposition to dictatorial rule led to him spending much of his later life in exile, both in South America and in Europe. The book that is sometimes described as his masterpiece, Hombres de maíz (Men of Maize), is a defense of Mayan culture and customs. Asturias combined his extensive knowledge of Mayan beliefs with his political convictions, channeling them into a life of commitment and solidarity. His work is often identified with the social and moral aspirations of the Guatemalan people.

After decades of exile and marginalization, Asturias finally received broad recognition in the 1960s. In 1966, he won the Soviet Union's Lenin Peace Prize. The following year he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature, becoming the second Latin American author to receive this honor (Gabriela Mistral had won it in 1945). Asturias spent his final years in Madrid, where he died at the age of 74. He is buried in the Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris.

Oviedo

Oviedo (UK: , US: , Spanish: [oˈβjeðo]; Asturian: Uviéu [uˈβjeʊ]) is the capital city of the Principality of Asturias in northern Spain and the administrative and commercial centre of the region. It is also the name of the municipality that contains the city. Oviedo is located approximately 24 km (15 mi) southwest of Gijón and 23 km (14 mi) south of Avilés, both of which lie on the shoreline of the Bay of Biscay. Its proximity to the ocean causes Oviedo to have a maritime climate, in spite of it not being located on the shoreline itself.

Parroquia (Spain)

A parroquia (Spanish: [paˈrokja], Galician: [paˈrɔkjɐ], Asturian: [paˈrokja]) is a population entity or parish found in Galicia and Asturias in north-west Spain. The term may have its origins in Roman Catholic Church usage, similar to the British term parish. The concept forms a very settled part of the popular consciousness, but it has never become an official political division.

In Galicia there are 3781 parroquias, each comprising between three and fifteen or more villages. They developed over time as de facto entities, although the Galician Statute of Autonomy of 1981 recognises them as territorial entities below the concello (municipality) and above villages.In Asturias there are 857 parishes (parroquias) integrating the 78 concejos or conceyos (municipalities) in the region, and they usually coincide with the ecclesiastic divisions.

Prince of Asturias

Princess or Prince of Asturias (Spanish: Princesa/Príncipe de Asturias) is the main substantive title used by the heir apparent or heir presumptive to the throne of Spain. According to the Spanish Constitution of 1978:

Article 57 [...]

2. The heir apparent or presumptive, from birth or event that makes him such, will have the dignity of Prince of Asturias and other titles traditionally linked to the successor of the Crown of Spain.

The title originated in 1388, when King John I of Castile granted the dignity – which included jurisdiction over the territory – to his first-born son Henry. In an attempt to end the dynastic struggle between the heirs of Kings Peter I and Henry II of Castile, the principality was chosen as the highest jurisdictional lordship the King could grant that had not yet been granted to anyone. The custom of granting unique titles to royal heirs had already been in use in the Kingdoms of Aragon (Prince of Girona), England (Prince of Wales), and France (Dauphin of Viennois). The title, therefore, had two purposes: to serve as a generic title to name the heir apparent or heir presumptive, and as a specific title to apply to the prince who was first in the line of succession when the King transmitted to him the territory of the principality, with its government and its income.After the formation of the dynastic union between the Kingdoms of Castile and Aragon under the Catholic Monarchs, the title was favoured by the Hispanic (Spanish) King, who by custom applied it in the same way, i.e. to his heir apparent. For generations the kingdom's crown prince accumulated the titles "Prince of Asturias, Girona, Spain and the New World", modifying those of the earlier regnant Hapsburgs: "Prince of these Kingdoms, Prince of the Spains and the New World" (Príncipe de estos Reynos, príncipe de las Españas y del Nuevo Mundo). When the Bourbons acceded to the Spanish throne in 1705, the title was retained following the decisive help of Castile to the house in the War of the Spanish Succession. At the beginning of the 19th century, the Spanish Constitution of 1812 (European year of revolutions) with consent of its counterparties ascribed the title to the heir of the Crown. The Constitutions within the following decades temporarily removed the synonymy between the title and position as heir to the Crown; before being reinstated and recited in the second half of the 19th century, first half of the 20th century, and on the restoration of the monarchy (under parliamentary predominance) in 1978.

Princess of Asturias Awards

The Princess of Asturias Awards (Spanish: Premios Princesa de Asturias, Asturian: Premios Princesa d'Asturies), formerly the Prince of Asturias Awards from 1981 to 2014 (Spanish: Premios Príncipe de Asturias), are a series of annual prizes awarded in Spain by the Princess of Asturias Foundation (previously the Prince of Asturias Foundation) to individuals, entities or organizations from around the world who make notable achievements in the sciences, humanities, and public affairs.

The prize was established on 24 September 1980 by Felipe, Prince of Asturias, then heir to the throne of Spain, "to consolidate links between the Principality and the Prince of Asturias, and to contribute to, encourage and promote scientific, cultural and humanistic values that form part of mankind's universal heritage." The awards are presented at the Campoamor Theatre in Oviedo, the capital of the Principality of Asturias. A sculpture, expressly created for the prize by Spanish sculptor Joan Miró, is presented yearly to the recipients of the prize.

Following the accession of the prince as King of Spain on 19 June 2014, it was announced that from 2015, the foundation and the awards are to be renamed the Princess of Asturias Awards to reflect the new heiress presumptive to the Spanish throne, Leonor, Princess of Asturias. King Felipe will continue to preside over the awards ceremony until the Princess of Asturias reaches majority age on 31 October 2023.

Queen Letizia of Spain

Letizia Ortiz Rocasolano (Spanish pronunciation: [leˈtiθja]; born 15 September 1972) is the current Queen of Spain as the wife of King Felipe VI.

Letizia Ortiz came from a middle-class family and worked as a journalist for ABC and EFE before becoming a news anchor at CNN+ and Televisión Española. In 2003, it was announced that she was engaged to marry Felipe, then Prince of Asturias and heir apparent to the Spanish throne. They married in 2004. Their daughters, Leonor and Sofía, were born in 2005 and 2007 respectively. As Princess of Asturias, Letizia represented her father-in-law, King Juan Carlos, in Spain and abroad. On her father-in-law's abdication in 2014, Felipe and Letizia became King and Queen of Spain.

Vuelta a Asturias

Vuelta a Asturias is a professional cycle road race held in Spain in early May each year. The event was first run in 1925 but has not been held consistently until 1968 to present. Since 2005, the race has been organised as a 2.1 event on the UCI Europe Tour.

On 25 April 2014, the Vuelta a Asturias was suspended one week before its start due to the lack of funds and sponsors. The race returned in 2015, when a two-stage edition was won by Igor Antón (Movistar Team).

Climate data for Oviedo 336m (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 22.0
(71.6)
24.6
(76.3)
26.8
(80.2)
31.5
(88.7)
32.0
(89.6)
35.5
(95.9)
35.0
(95.0)
35.6
(96.1)
36.4
(97.5)
31.7
(89.1)
26.6
(79.9)
23.0
(73.4)
36.4
(97.5)
Average high °C (°F) 12.0
(53.6)
12.7
(54.9)
14.9
(58.8)
15.7
(60.3)
18.2
(64.8)
20.9
(69.6)
22.8
(73.0)
23.3
(73.9)
22.1
(71.8)
18.7
(65.7)
14.6
(58.3)
12.4
(54.3)
17.4
(63.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) 8.3
(46.9)
8.7
(47.7)
10.5
(50.9)
11.3
(52.3)
13.9
(57.0)
16.7
(62.1)
18.7
(65.7)
19.1
(66.4)
17.6
(63.7)
14.6
(58.3)
10.9
(51.6)
8.9
(48.0)
13.3
(55.9)
Average low °C (°F) 4.6
(40.3)
4.7
(40.5)
6.1
(43.0)
6.8
(44.2)
9.5
(49.1)
12.4
(54.3)
14.5
(58.1)
14.8
(58.6)
13.1
(55.6)
10.4
(50.7)
7.2
(45.0)
5.3
(41.5)
9.1
(48.4)
Record low °C (°F) −6.0
(21.2)
−3.8
(25.2)
−3.6
(25.5)
−0.5
(31.1)
1.6
(34.9)
5.6
(42.1)
7.4
(45.3)
8.6
(47.5)
5.2
(41.4)
2.4
(36.3)
−4.2
(24.4)
−3.6
(25.5)
−6.0
(21.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 84
(3.3)
81
(3.2)
78
(3.1)
100
(3.9)
82
(3.2)
57
(2.2)
45
(1.8)
56
(2.2)
66
(2.6)
99
(3.9)
115
(4.5)
99
(3.9)
960
(37.8)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 11 10 10 12 12 8 7 8 8 11 12 12 122
Average relative humidity (%) 76 75 74 76 78 79 79 80 78 79 79 77 78
Mean monthly sunshine hours 115 122 153 161 167 167 177 176 167 138 109 105 1,756
Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología[8]
Climate data for Gijón (1971–2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 23.6
(74.5)
23.0
(73.4)
27.0
(80.6)
28.0
(82.4)
31.8
(89.2)
36.4
(97.5)
31.4
(88.5)
30.0
(86.0)
34.6
(94.3)
30.4
(86.7)
26.1
(79.0)
25.0
(77.0)
36.4
(97.5)
Average high °C (°F) 13.1
(55.6)
13.8
(56.8)
14.9
(58.8)
15.6
(60.1)
17.8
(64.0)
20.2
(68.4)
22.4
(72.3)
23.2
(73.8)
21.8
(71.2)
19.0
(66.2)
15.6
(60.1)
14.0
(57.2)
17.6
(63.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) 8.9
(48.0)
9.6
(49.3)
10.7
(51.3)
11.8
(53.2)
14.3
(57.7)
16.9
(62.4)
19.2
(66.6)
19.7
(67.5)
17.9
(64.2)
15.0
(59.0)
11.6
(52.9)
9.9
(49.8)
13.8
(56.8)
Average low °C (°F) 4.7
(40.5)
5.4
(41.7)
6.6
(43.9)
8.1
(46.6)
10.9
(51.6)
13.6
(56.5)
16.0
(60.8)
16.2
(61.2)
14.1
(57.4)
11.0
(51.8)
7.6
(45.7)
5.8
(42.4)
10.0
(50.0)
Record low °C (°F) −4.6
(23.7)
−4.0
(24.8)
−2.0
(28.4)
0.4
(32.7)
3.2
(37.8)
5.8
(42.4)
8.6
(47.5)
8.2
(46.8)
5.0
(41.0)
2.6
(36.7)
−1.4
(29.5)
−4.8
(23.4)
−4.8
(23.4)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 94
(3.7)
85
(3.3)
74
(2.9)
93
(3.7)
79
(3.1)
47
(1.9)
45
(1.8)
54
(2.1)
70
(2.8)
104
(4.1)
120
(4.7)
104
(4.1)
971
(38.2)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 12 11 10 12 11 7 6 7 8 11 12 12 121
Mean monthly sunshine hours 103 109 137 151 167 180 194 190 158 132 106 92 1,721
Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología[9]
Climate data for Avilés—Asturias Airport (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 23.5
(74.3)
24.3
(75.7)
26.7
(80.1)
28.6
(83.5)
33.6
(92.5)
36.0
(96.8)
33.0
(91.4)
31.6
(88.9)
36.0
(96.8)
31.0
(87.8)
25.6
(78.1)
25.6
(78.1)
36.0
(96.8)
Average high °C (°F) 12.9
(55.2)
13.1
(55.6)
14.6
(58.3)
15.1
(59.2)
17.3
(63.1)
19.6
(67.3)
21.5
(70.7)
22.2
(72.0)
21.2
(70.2)
18.7
(65.7)
15.3
(59.5)
13.3
(55.9)
17.1
(62.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) 9.4
(48.9)
9.4
(48.9)
10.7
(51.3)
11.3
(52.3)
13.6
(56.5)
16.2
(61.2)
18.2
(64.8)
18.8
(65.8)
17.4
(63.3)
15.1
(59.2)
11.8
(53.2)
9.9
(49.8)
13.5
(56.3)
Average low °C (°F) 5.9
(42.6)
5.7
(42.3)
6.8
(44.2)
7.5
(45.5)
10.0
(50.0)
12.8
(55.0)
14.8
(58.6)
15.3
(59.5)
13.7
(56.7)
11.3
(52.3)
8.4
(47.1)
6.5
(43.7)
9.9
(49.8)
Record low °C (°F) −3.0
(26.6)
−2.6
(27.3)
−2.4
(27.7)
−0.6
(30.9)
2.0
(35.6)
5.6
(42.1)
8.0
(46.4)
8.4
(47.1)
6.5
(43.7)
3.0
(37.4)
−0.8
(30.6)
−3.0
(26.6)
−3.0
(26.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 103
(4.1)
88
(3.5)
82
(3.2)
99
(3.9)
79
(3.1)
61
(2.4)
47
(1.9)
60
(2.4)
73
(2.9)
116
(4.6)
134
(5.3)
117
(4.6)
1,062
(41.8)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 98 109 142 151 166 163 173 182 170 130 96 76 1,670
Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología[10]
Key to parties
  Podemos
  PAS
  PSOE
  UPyD
  UCD
  Cs
  URAS
  CDS
  CD
  FAC
  PP
  CP
  AP

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