Astronomical catalog

An astronomical catalog or catalogue is a list or tabulation of astronomical objects, typically grouped together because they share a common type, morphology, origin, means of detection, or method of discovery. Astronomical catalogs are usually the result of an astronomical survey of some kind.

Screenshot of the ESO Archive Science Portal
ESO Science Archive has been providing access to data from astronomical catalogs since 1988.[1]

Catalogs of historical importance

  • Azophi's Book of Fixed Stars, published in 964, describes more than a thousand stars in detail and provides the first descriptions of the Andromeda Galaxy[2] and the Large Magellanic Cloud.[3][4]
  • Johann Bayer's Uranometria star atlas was published in 1603 with over 1200 stars. Names are made of Greek letters combined with constellation name, for example Alpha Centauri.
  • John Flamsteed's Historia coelestis Britannica star atlas, published in 1725, lists stars using numbers combined with constellation and ordered by right ascension, for example 61 Cygni.
  • Messier Catalog – The Messier objects are a set of astronomical objects first listed by French astronomer Charles Messier in 1771. Nebulae and Star Clusters was published in 1781, with objects M1 – M110.
  • New General Catalogue compiled in the 1880s by J. L. E. Dreyer, lists objects NGC 0001 – NGC 7840. The NGC is one of the largest comprehensive catalogues, as it includes all types of deep space objects and is not confined to, for example, galaxies.
  • Henry Draper's Henry Draper Catalogue, published between 1918 and 1924, lists more than 225,000 of the brightest stars, named using HD followed by a 6-digit number.
  • Sir Patrick Moore compiled the Caldwell catalogue in 1995 to complement the Messier catalog, listing 109 bright star clusters, nebulae, and galaxies named C1 to C109. (This is a list of favorite deep-sky objects and not a catalog in the astronomical sense. Other deep-sky observing lists for amateur astronomers predated it.)
  • 2MASS is the most ambitious project to map the night sky to date. Goals included first detection of brown dwarfs, an extensive survey of low mass stars, and cataloguing of all detected stars and galaxies. More than 300 million point sources and 1 million extended sources were catalogued.
  • Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies is a catalog wrote by Halton Arp. The list compiles 338 galaxies.

Widely used astronomical catalogs

See also

References

  1. ^ "Release of the ESO Archive Science Portal". www.eso.org. Retrieved 13 August 2018.
  2. ^ Kepple, George Robert; Glen W. Sanner (1998). The Night Sky Observer's Guide, Volume 1. Willmann-Bell, Inc. p. 18. ISBN 0-943396-58-1.
  3. ^ "Observatoire de Paris (Abd-al-Rahman Al Sufi)". Archived from the original on 16 April 2007. Retrieved 2007-04-19.
  4. ^ "Observatoire de Paris (LMC)". Archived from the original on 17 April 2007. Retrieved 2007-04-19.
  5. ^ USNO Master Clock Time Javascript must be Enabled. "USNO-B1.0 — Naval Oceanography Portal". Usno.navy.mil. Archived from the original on September 22, 2009. Retrieved 2011-09-17.
  6. ^ USNO Master Clock Time Javascript must be Enabled. "The NOMAD Catalog — Naval Oceanography Portal". Usno.navy.mil. Archived from the original on September 5, 2015. Retrieved 2011-09-17.
  7. ^ USNO Master Clock Time Javascript must be Enabled. "USNO Image and Catalog Archive Server — Naval Oceanography Portal". Usno.navy.mil. Archived from the original on September 7, 2015. Retrieved 2011-09-17.

External links

1192 Prisma

1192 Prisma, provisional designation 1931 FE, is a stony Phocaea asteroid from the inner regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 7 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered by German astronomer Friedrich Schwassmann at the Bergedorf Observatory in Hamburg on 17 March 1931. The asteroid was named after the Bergedorf Spectral Catalogue, an astronomical catalog.

1H

1H or 1-H may refer to:

1H, a number of chemical compounds with one hydrogen atom

1H, a grouping within an Astronomical catalog

1H 1617-155, a designation for the Scorpius X-1 X-ray source

1H 1908+047, a designation for the SS 433 star system

1H, an SES satellite launched June 16, 1999

1H, a model of Nissan H engine

1H NMR, a type of Proton NMR

1 H. Cas, a variant notation for AR Cassiopeiae

UH-1H, a type of Bell UH-1 Iroquois

Campath-1H, a brand of Alemtuzumab

Ardiden 1H, a model of HAL/Turbomeca Shakti

SSH 1H, alternate name for Washington State Route 534

1H, one hour

1H Year, 1st Half of year etc.

2MASS

The Two Micron All-Sky Survey, or 2MASS, was an astronomical survey of the whole sky in the infrared and one of the most ambitious such projects.It took place between 1997 and 2001, in two different locations: at the U.S. Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory on Mount Hopkins, Arizona (G91), and at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile (I02), each using a 1.3-meter telescope for the Northern and Southern Hemisphere, respectively. It was conducted in the short-wavelength infrared at distinct frequency bands near 2 micrometres (or microns), from which the photometric survey with its HgCdTe detectors derives its name.2MASS produced an astronomical catalog with over 300 million observed objects, including minor planets of the Solar System, brown dwarfs, low-mass stars, nebulae, star clusters and galaxies. In addition, 1 million objects were cataloged in the 2MASS Extended Source Catalog (2MASX). The cataloged objects are designated with a "2MASS" and "2MASX"-prefix respectively.

Astronomical survey

An astronomical survey is a general map or image of a region of the sky which lacks a specific observational target. Alternatively, an astronomical survey may comprise a set of many images or spectra of objects which share a common type or feature. Surveys are often restricted to one band of the electromagnetic spectrum due to instrumental limitations, although multiwavelength surveys can be made by using multiple detectors, each sensitive to a different bandwidth.Surveys have generally been performed as part of the production of an astronomical catalog. They may also search for transient astronomical events. They often use wide field astrographs.

Catalog of Components of Double and Multiple Stars

The Catalog of Components of Double and Multiple Stars, or CCDM, is an astrometric star catalogue of double and multiple stars. It was made by Jean Dommanget and Omer Nys at the Royal Observatory of Belgium in order to provide an input catalogue of stars for the Hipparcos mission. The published first edition of the catalog, released in 1994, has entries for 74,861 components of 34,031 double and multiple stars; the second edition, in 2002, has been expanded to provide entries for 105,838 components of 49,325 double and multiple stars. The catalog lists positions, magnitudes, spectral types, and proper motions for each component.

Catalog of Nearby Habitable Systems

The Catalog of Nearby Habitable Systems (HabCat) is a catalogue of star systems which conceivably have habitable planets. The list was developed by scientists Jill Tarter and Margaret Turnbull under the auspices of Project Phoenix, a part of SETI.

The list was based upon the Hipparcos Catalogue (which has 118,218 stars) by filtering on a wide range of star system features. The current list contains 17,129 "HabStars".

European Southern Observatory Catalog

The European Southern Observatory Catalog is an astronomical catalog that contains a log of observations performed with the ESO telescopes at La Silla and Paranal observatories, including the APEX submillimeter telescope on Llano de Chajnantor, as well as the UKIDSS/WFCAM data obtained at the UK Infrared Telescope facility in Hawaii. The observations themselves normally have a proprietary period of one year. After this period the archival data sets can be requested by users worldwide.

Fourth Cambridge Survey

The Fourth Cambridge Survey (4C) is an astronomical catalogue of celestial radio sources as measured at 178 MHz using the 4C Array. It was published in two parts, in 1965 (for declinations +20 to +40) and 1967 (declinations -7 to + 20 and +40 to +80), by the Radio Astronomy Group of the University of Cambridge. References to entries in this catalogue use the prefix 4C followed by the declination in degrees, followed by a period, and then followed by the source number on that declination strip, e.g. 4C-06.23.

The 4C Array, which used the technique of aperture synthesis, could reliably position sources with flux densities of around 2 Jy, to within about 0.35 arcmin in Right ascension and 2.5 arcmin in declination.

Gum catalog

The Gum catalog is an astronomical catalog of 84 emission nebulae in the southern sky. It was made by the Australian astronomer Colin Stanley Gum (1924-1960) at Mount Stromlo Observatory using wide field photography. Gum published his findings in 1955 in a study entitled A study of diffuse southern H-alpha nebulae which presented a catalog of 84 nebulae or nebular complexes. Similar catalogs include the Sharpless catalog and the RCW catalog, and many of the Gum objects are repeated in these other catalogs.

The Gum Nebula is named for Gum, who discovered it as Gum 12; it is an emission nebula that can be found in the southern constellations Vela and Puppis.

KUG

KUG may refer to:

Kiso Survey for Ultraviolet-excess Galaxies, an astronomical catalog

Kubin Airport, Queensland, Australia

Kug, a village in Sistan and Baluchestan Province, Iran

University of Music and Performing Arts, Graz (Kunstuniversität Graz), Austria

List of NGC objects

The following is a list of NGC objects, that is objects listed in the New General Catalogue (NGC). It is one of the largest comprehensive astronomical catalogues for deep space objects such as star clusters, nebulae, and galaxies.

List of NGC objects (1–1000)

List of NGC objects (1001–2000)

List of NGC objects (2001–3000)

List of NGC objects (3001–4000)

List of NGC objects (4001–5000)

List of NGC objects (5001–6000)

List of NGC objects (6001–7000)

List of NGC objects (7001–7840)

Lyons Groups of Galaxies

Lyons Groups of Galaxies (or LGG) is an astronomical catalog of nearby groups of galaxies complete to a limiting apparent magnitude B0=14.0 with a recession velocity smaller than 5,500 km/s. Two methods were used in group construction: a percolation method derived from Huchra and Geller and a hierarchical method initiated by R. Brent Tully. The catalog is a synthesized version of the two results.

The LGG includes 485 groups and 3,933 member galaxies.

Molonglo Reference Catalogue of Radio Sources

Molonglo Reference Catalogue of Radio Sources (MRC) is an astronomical catalog containing 12,141 discrete sources from a 408-MHz survey with the Molonglo Radio Telescope.

Morphological Catalogue of Galaxies

The Morphological Catalogue of Galaxies (MCG) or Morfologiceskij Katalog Galaktik, is a Russian catalogue of 30,642 galaxies compiled by Boris Vorontsov-Velyaminov and V. P. Arkhipova. It is based on scrutiny of prints of the Palomar Sky Survey plates, and putatively complete to a photographic magnitude of 15. Including galaxies to magnitude 16 would have resulted in an unmanageably large dataset. The catalog was published in five parts (chapters) between 1962 and 1974, the final chapter including a certain number of galaxies with a photographic magnitude above 15.

New General Catalogue

The New General Catalogue of Nebulae and Clusters of Stars (abbreviated as NGC) is a catalogue of deep-sky objects compiled by John Louis Emil Dreyer in 1888. It expands upon the cataloguing work of William and Caroline Herschel, and John Herschel's General Catalogue of Nebulae and Clusters of Stars. The NGC contains 7,840 objects, known as the NGC objects. It is one of the largest comprehensive catalogues, as it includes all types of deep space objects, including galaxies, star clusters, emission nebulae and absorption nebulae. Dreyer also published two supplements to the NGC in 1895 and 1908, known as the Index Catalogues, describing a further 5,386 astronomical objects.

Objects in the sky of the southern hemisphere are catalogued somewhat less thoroughly, but many were observed by John Herschel or James Dunlop. The NGC had many errors, but an attempt to eliminate them was initiated by the NGC/IC Project in 1993, after partial attempts with the Revised New General Catalogue (RNGC) by Jack W. Sulentic and William G. Tifft in 1973, and NGC2000.0 by Roger W. Sinnott in 1988.

The Revised New General Catalogue and Index Catalogue (abbreviated as RNGC/IC) was compiled in 2009 by Wolfgang Steinicke.

Principal Galaxies Catalogue

The Catalogue of Principal Galaxies (PGC) is an astronomical catalog published in 1989 that lists B1950 and J2000 equatorial coordinates and cross-identifications for 73,197 galaxies. It is based on the Lyon-Meudon Extragalactic Database (LEDA), which was originally started in 1983. 40,932 coordinates (56%) have standard deviations smaller than 10″. A total of 131,601 names from the 38 most common sources are listed. Available mean data for each object are given:

49,102 morphological descriptions,

52,954 apparent major and minor axis,

67,116 apparent magnitudes,

20,046 radial velocities and

24,361 position angles.The Lyon-Meudon Extragalactic Database was eventually expanded into HyperLEDA, a database of a few million galaxies. Galaxies in the original PGC catalogue are numbered with their original PGC number in HyperLEDA. Numbers have also been assigned for the other galaxies, although for those galaxies not in the original PGC catalogue, it is not recommended to use that number as a name.

Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Star Catalog

The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Star Catalog is an astrometric star catalogue. It was published by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in 1966 and contains 258,997 stars. The catalogue was

compiled from various previous astrometric catalogues, and contains only stars to about ninth magnitude for

which accurate proper motions were known. Names in the SAO catalogue start with the letters SAO, followed by a number. The numbers are assigned following 18 ten-degree bands of declination, with stars sorted by right ascension within each band.

Star chart

A star chart or star map, also called a sky chart or sky map, is a map of the night sky. Astronomers divide these into grids to use them more easily. They are used to identify and locate constellations and astronomical objects such as stars, nebulae, and galaxies. They have been used for human navigation since time immemorial. Note that a star chart differs from an astronomical catalog, which is a listing or tabulation of astronomical objects for a particular purpose. Tools utilizing a star chart include the astrolabe and planisphere.

VizieR

The VizieR Catalogue Service is an astronomical catalog service provided by Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg.

The origin of the VizieR Catalogue Service dates back to 1993 as the ESA European Space Information System Catalogue Browser. Initially intended to serve the Space Science community, the ESIS project pre-dates the World Wide Web as a network database allowing uniform access to a heterogeneous set of catalogues and data.

The Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg had for years collected and disseminated astronomical data, so the original ESIS Catalogue Browser was transferred to and stored at CDS. Since its inception in 1996, VizieR has become a reference point for astronomers worldwide engaged in research, who come to access catalogued data regularly published in astronomical journals. The new VizieR service was refurbished in 1997 by the CDS to better serve the community in terms of searching capabilities and data volume. As of March 2012 it contains more than 9800 catalogues.The VizieR catalog is now a major data source as part of the Astrophysical Virtual Observatory.

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