The NRG Astrodome, also known as the Houston Astrodome or simply the Astrodome, is the world's first multi-purpose, domed sports stadium, located in Houston, Texas. Construction on the stadium began in 1962, and it officially opened in 1965. It served as home to the Houston Astros of Major League Baseball (MLB) from its opening in 1965 until 1999, and the home to the Houston Oilers of the National Football League (NFL) from 1968 until 1996, and also the part-time home of the Houston Rockets of the National Basketball Association (NBA) from 1971 until 1975. Additionally, the Astrodome was the primary venue of the Houston Livestock Show and Rodeo from 1966 until 2002. When opened, it was named the Harris County Domed Stadium and was nicknamed the "Eighth Wonder of the World".
After the original natural grass playing surface died, the Astrodome became the first major sports venue to install artificial turf, which became known as AstroTurf. In another technological first, the Astrodome featured the "Astrolite", which was the first animated scoreboard. The Astrodome was renovated in 1988, expanding seating and altering many original features.
By the 1990s, the Astrodome was becoming obsolete. Unable to secure a new stadium, Oilers owner Bud Adams moved the team to Tennessee after the 1996 season, where they eventually became the Tennessee Titans. The Astros played at the dome through the 1999 season, before relocating to Enron Field (later changed to Minute Maid Park) in 2000, while the Houston Livestock Show and Rodeo continued to be held at the Astrodome until the opening of the adjacent NRG Stadium in 2002. Although it no longer had any primary tenants, the venue regularly hosted events during the early 2000s, and in 2005, was used as a shelter for residents of New Orleans affected by Hurricane Katrina. The Astrodome was declared non-compliant with fire code by the Houston Fire Department in 2008 and parts of it were demolished in 2013 after several years of disuse. In 2014 it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
View of the Astrodome in 2014
|Former names||Harris County Domed Stadium (1965)|
Houston Astrodome (1965–2000)
Reliant Astrodome (2000–2014)
|Address||8400 Kirby Drive|
|Public transit||NRG Park|
|Record attendance||WrestleMania X-Seven 67,925|
Left field – 340 feet (104 m)
Left center field – 375 feet (114 m)
Center field – 406 feet (124 m)
Right center field – 375 feet (114 m)
Right field – 340 feet (104 m)
Backstop – 60.5 feet (18 m)
Left field – 325 feet (99 m)
Left center field – 375 feet (114 m)
Center field – 400 feet (122 m)
Right center field – 375 feet (114 m)
Right field – 325 feet (99 m)
Backstop – 52 feet (16 m)
Painted dirt (1965)
|Broke ground||January 3, 1962|
|Opened||April 9, 1965|
|Construction cost||US$35 million|
($278 million in 2018 dollars)
|Architect||Hermon Lloyd & W. B. Morgan|
Wilson, Morris, Crain & Anderson
|Structural engineer||Walter P Moore|
|Services engineer||I.A. Naman Associates, Inc.|
John G. Turney & Associates
|General contractor||H. A. Lott, Inc.|
|Houston Astros (MLB) (1965–99)|
Houston Cougars (NCAA) (1965–97)
Houston Livestock Show and Rodeo (1966–2002)
Houston Stars (USA/NASL) (1967–68)
Houston Oilers (AFL/NFL) (1968–96)
Bluebonnet Bowl (NCAA) (1968–84, 1987)
Houston Rockets (NBA) (1971–75)
Houston Texans (WFL) (1974)
Houston Hurricane (NASL) (1978–80)
Houston Gamblers (USFL) (1984–85)
Houston Bowl (NCAA) (2000–01)
Houston Energy (WPFL) (2002–06)
|NRHP reference #||13001099|
|Added to NRHP||January 15, 2014|
|Designated TSAL||January 27, 2017|
Major League Baseball expanded to Houston in 1960 when the National League agreed to add two teams. The Houston Colt .45s (renamed the Astros in 1965) were to begin play in 1962, along with their expansion brethren New York Mets. Roy Hofheinz, a former mayor of Houston, and his group were granted the franchise after they promised to build a covered stadium. It was thought a covered stadium was a must for a major league team to be viable in Houston due to the area's subtropical climate and hot summers. Game-time temperatures are usually above 97 °F (36 °C) in July and August, with high humidity and a likelihood of rain. Hofheinz claimed inspiration for what became the Astrodome from a tour of Rome, where he learned that the builders of the ancient Colosseum installed giant velaria to shield spectators from the sun.
The Astrodome was conceived by Hofheinz as early as 1952, when he and his daughter Dede were rained out once too often at Buffalo Stadium, home of Houston's minor league baseball team, the Houston Buffs. Hofheinz abandoned his interest in the world's first air-conditioned shopping mall, The Galleria, and set his sights on bringing major league baseball to Houston.
The Astrodome was designed by architects Hermon Lloyd & W. B. Morgan, and Wilson, Morris, Crain and Anderson (Morris Architects). Structural engineering and structural design was performed by Walter P Moore Engineers and Consultants of Houston. It was constructed by H. A. Lott, Inc. for Harris County. It stands 18 stories tall, covering 9.5 acres (3.8 ha). The dome is 710 feet (220 m) in diameter and the ceiling is 208 feet (63 m) above the playing surface, which itself sits 25 feet (7.6 m) below street level.
The scoreboard, eventually known as the "Astrolite", was designed by Fair Play Scoreboards of Des Moines, Iowa. Having designed the scoreboard for Dodger Stadium several years prior, team owner Roy Hofheinz was not impressed with the initial proposal for a much more generic type of scoreboard. Project designer Jack Foster teamed up with a creative professional based in Kansas City to create the first animated scoreboard. Its reported cost was $2.1 million.
The Dome was completed in November 1964, six months ahead of schedule. Many engineering changes were required during construction, including the modest flattening of the supposed "hemispherical roof" to cope with environmentally induced structural deformation and the use of a new paving process called "lime stabilization" to cope with changes in the chemistry of the soil. The air conditioning system was designed by Houston mechanical engineers Israel A. Naman and Jack Boyd Buckley of I. A. Naman + Associates.
The multi-purpose stadium, designed to facilitate both football and baseball, is nearly circular and uses movable lower seating areas. It also ushered in the era of other fully domed stadiums, such as the Mercedes-Benz Superdome in New Orleans, as well as the now-demolished Pontiac Silverdome near Detroit, Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome in Minneapolis, Kingdome in Seattle, and RCA Dome in Indianapolis.
To test what effect the enclosed air-conditioned environment might have on the delivery of breaking balls, Satchel Paige, in full Astros uniform, threw the first pitches at the Astrodome on February 7, 1965. He later concluded that it was a "pitcher's paradise", as the lack of wind allowed for sensitive pitches to maneuver more easily.
Hofheinz had an opulent apartment in the Dome, which was removed when the facility was remodeled in 1988.
On Opening Day, April 9, 1965, a sold-out crowd of 47,879 watched an exhibition game between the Houston Astros and the New York Yankees. President Lyndon B. Johnson and his wife Lady Bird were in attendance, as well as Texas Governor John Connally and Houston Mayor Louie Welch. Governor Connally tossed out the first ball for the first game ever played indoors. Dick "Turk" Farrell of the Astros threw the first pitch. Mickey Mantle had both the first hit (a single) and the first home run in the Astrodome. The Astros beat the Yankees that night, 2-1.
President Johnson stopped at the Astrodome that evening en route to his home in Johnson City and paid his respects to baseball and Astros president Roy Hofheinz, a campaign manager for Johnson in the 1940s, just as the second inning got underway. He and Lady Bird watched the opening night game from behind the glass in Judge Hofheinz' private box high in right field just to the right of the giant scoreboard. LBJ ate hors d'œuvres and chicken and ice cream while watching the game. "Roy, I want to congratulate you; it shows so much imagination", he was heard to say. Later, he called the stadium "massive" and "beautiful." Although the president's visit overshadowed all others, dignitaries swarmed through the "Eighth Wonder of the World" during the three days of the exhibition series and for opening night against the Phillies on April 12. Chris Short of the Phillies shut out the Astros on four hits, with 12 strikeouts.
The first artist to play the Astrodome was Judy Garland on December 17, 1965, where she was paid $43,000 for the one show. The Supremes were her opening act and tickets were priced $1.00 to $7.50. The dome seated 48,000, with another 12,000 seats added for this show. Garland appeared on stage at 10 p.m. and sang for 40 minutes, with her set of songs including: "He's Got The Whole World In His Hands"; "Just In Time"; "My Kind Of Town, Houston Is"/"Houston"; "As Long As He Needs Me"; "Joey, Joey, Joey"; "Do It Again"; "What Now My Love?"; "By Myself"; "Rock-A-Bye Your Baby"; "San Francisco"; "Chicago"; and "Over The Rainbow." Mort Lindsey conducted.
Ironically, the Astrodome suffered a rainout on June 15, 1976. The Astros' scheduled game against the Pittsburgh Pirates was called when massive flooding in the Houston area prevented all but a few fans from reaching the stadium. Both teams had arrived early for practice, but the umpires were several hours late. At 5pm that day, with only a handful of fans on hand and already several hours behind, the umpires and teams agreed to call the game off. Tables were brought onto the field and the teams ate dinner together. Although the Astros still had a home series with Pittsburgh in August, this game was made up in Pittsburgh in July.
On August 19, 1995, a scheduled preseason game between the Oilers and the San Diego Chargers had to be canceled due to the dilapidated condition of the playing field. Oilers owner Bud Adams demanded a new stadium, but the city of Houston refused to fund it. After years of threats, Adams moved the team to Tennessee after the 1996 season. Around that time the Astros also threatened to leave the city unless a new ballpark was built. The retractable-roofed Enron Field (now known as Minute Maid Park) opened for the 2000 season in downtown Houston.
One of the largest crowds in the Astrodome's history, more than 66,746 fans, came on Sunday, February 26, 1995, to see Tejano superstar Selena and her band Los Dinos perform for a sell-out crowd during the Houston Livestock Show and Rodeo. Selena y Los Dinos performed two consecutive times before at the Astrodome, breaking previous attendance records each time. This was Selena's last televised concert before she was fatally shot on March 31, 1995 by her fan club president.
The Astrodome was joined by a new neighbor in 2002, the retractable-roofed Reliant Stadium (now known as NRG Stadium), which was built to house Houston's new NFL franchise, the Houston Texans. The Houston Livestock Show and Rodeo moved to the new venue in 2003, leaving the Astrodome without any major tenants. The last concert at the Astrodome was George Strait & the Ace in the Hole Band during the 2002 Houston Livestock Show and Rodeo, before a record crowd of 68,266; the performance was recorded in For the Last Time: Live from the Astrodome.
On August 31, 2005, in the wake of Hurricane Katrina, the Harris County Department of Homeland Security and Emergency Management and the State of Louisiana came to an agreement to allow at least 25,000 evacuees from New Orleans, especially those that were sheltered in the Louisiana Superdome, to move to the Astrodome until they could return home. The evacuation began on September 1, 2005. All scheduled events for the final four months of 2005 at the Astrodome were cancelled. Overflow refugees were held in the surrounding Reliant Park complex. There was a full field hospital inside the Reliant Arena, which cared for the entire Katrina evacuee community.
The entire Reliant Park complex was scheduled to be emptied of hurricane evacuees by September 17, 2005. Originally, the Astrodome was planned to be used to house evacuees until December. However, the surrounding parking lots were needed for the first Houston Texans home game. Arrangements were made to help Katrina evacuees find apartments both in Houston and elsewhere in the United States. By September 16, 2005, the last of the hurricane evacuees living in the Astrodome had been moved out either to the neighboring Reliant Arena or to permanent housing north of Houston. As of September 20, 2005, the remaining Katrina evacuees were relocated to Arkansas due to Hurricane Rita.
In 2008, the facility was cited for numerous code violations. Since then, only maintenance workers and security guards have been allowed to enter the stadium while it is brought up to code. The city council rejected demolition plans on environmental grounds, over concerns that demolition of the Dome might damage the dense development that today closely surrounds it.
Houston's plan to host the 2012 Summer Olympics included renovating the Astrodome for use as a main stadium. Houston became one of the USOC's bid finalists, but the organization chose New York City as its candidate city and the Games were ultimately awarded to London by the IOC.
Plans to convert the Astrodome into a luxury hotel were rejected. A proposal to convert the Astrodome into a movie production studio was also considered but rejected. Regardless of the type of renovation, all renovation plans must deal with the problem of occupancy code violations that have basically shuttered the Astrodome for the near future.
In June 2013, a comprehensive plan was unveiled that would have seen the aging structure undergo an almost $200 million renovation into a multi-purpose event/convention facility. The measure would have to have been approved first through a bond election in Harris County for the publicly funded project to go forward or else, officials warned, the iconic structure would be demolished. Voters ended up rejecting the measure on November 5, 2013.
On November 5, 2013, voters in Houston turned down a $213 million referendum to renovate and convert the Astrodome into a state-of-the-art convention center and exhibition space known as "New Dome Experience". Until a final disposition is made, Harris County commissioners will not approve demolition of the stadium. "The building's still there. There's no formal plan or authorization to demolish the building, and until somebody brings such a plan to fruition, there's a chance," according to Willie Loston, executive director of the Harris County Sports and Convention Corporation. "The proposal was rejected by the voters. We're back to where we were. Square one," according to Steve Radack, Harris County commissioner.
Three exterior pedestrian ramp towers were demolished on December 8, 2013. Around that time, the ramp bridges were disconnected from the main structure and the surrounding grass berms were lowered. The ticket booths were also removed along with the interior seats. The demolition was planned prior to the referendum.
After the failed bond election of 2013, the county went back to the drawing board and in August 2014 the County Commissioners Court announced a new plan to save and rejuvenate the Astrodome. The new concept centered around leaving the Dome's roof intact and converting the Astrodome's vast central space into a covered semi-climate-controlled city park that could have flexible uses for both public recreation and gatherings such as festivals and concerts. The remainder of the complex would have been redeveloped over time using a combination of public and private funds and include elements such as an educational exploration area to encourage students to learn about the sciences and engineering and possibly meeting, exhibition, and restaurant areas that would not only serve the general public, but could also add value to the Houston Texans' Game Day Experiences and be used by the Rodeo. A key element of this proposal centered around the ability for the county to proceed with the initial phases of the project using existing funds without having to seek voter approval for an expensive bond referendum. However, this plan failed as well.
After the failed plans of past years, the Astrodome Revitalization Project was proposed in September 2016. This plan would turn the dome into a massive underground parking garage. Specifically, the first step would raise the dome floor and use the space underneath that as parking, leaving the floor above for other uses. On September 27, 2016, the Harris County Commissioners approved the first part of the plan. This marked a major turning point for the dome, as some feared if the plan wasn't approved the building would be demolished. On January 27, 2017, the Texas Historical Commission voted unanimously to designate the dome a State Antiquities Landmark. Under the designation, the Astrodome may no longer be removed, altered, damaged, salvaged, or excavated without a permit from the commission. The Harris County Commissioners voted to approve a $105 million renovation plan on February 13, 2018. This plan keeps the parking garage from the Revitalization Project. Construction is set to start in October 2018 and will be completed sometime in 2020. The construction start date was later moved to early 2019 and is expected to finish in 2020.
The Battle of the Sexes tennis match occurred on September 20, 1973, aired on ABC with Billie Jean King defeating the late Bobby Riggs in three straight sets. While more of a publicity stunt than a serious match, it made national headlines and stands as a milestone in the progress of women's sports. Scenes were filmed here in the 2017 film Battle Of The Sexes which starred Emma Stone & Steve Carell, who respectively played these players.
The Astrodome held several motorsports events throughout its lifetime. The AMA Grand National Championship held events starting in 1968 and running for 18 years, utilizing the Short Track and TT Steeplechase track configurations in their visits. The AMA Supercross Championship held its first ever indoor Supercross at the Astrodome in 1974, won by Jim Pomeroy. In the mid-1980s the Mickey Thompson Entertainment Group held several Stadium Off-Road Racing Series events, showcasing such drivers as Ivan Stewart, Robby Gordon, and Walker Evans. Beginning in the early 1980s, both TNT Motorsports and the United States Hot Rod Association held events showcasing mud bogging, truck and tractor pulling, and monster trucks in the Astrodome. After a buy-out of TNT Motorsports, the USHRA continued holding events that would later transform into the current Monster Jam events.
With the opening of NRG Stadium in late 2002, the events held in early 2002 by AMA Supercross and Monster Jam would be their last in the Astrodome before moving next door for 2003, where they continue to hold events every year.
On April 9, 2018, the Astrodome was used as a museum for the event known as "Domecoming"
The Astrodome was well-renowned for a four-story scoreboard called the "Astrolite", composed of thousands of light bulbs that featured numerous animations. After every Astros home run, the scoreboard featured a minute-long animated celebration of pistols, bulls, and fireworks. The scoreboard remained intact until 1988 when Houston Oilers (now Tennessee Titans) owner Bud Adams suggested the removal of the scoreboard to accommodate increased capacity demands for football, baseball and the Houston Livestock Show and Rodeo. Harris County spent $67 million of public funds on renovations. Approximately 15,000 new seats resembling the 1970s rainbow uniform pattern were installed to bring seating capacity to almost 60,000 for football. On September 5, 1988, a final celebration commemorating the scoreboard occurred prior to expansion renovations.
Originally, the stadium's surface was a Tifway 419 Bermuda grass, specifically bred for indoor use. The dome's ceiling contained thousands of semitransparent panes made of Lucite. Players quickly complained that glare coming off of the panes made it hard for them to track fly balls; to solve the problem, two sections of panes were painted white in April. However, within a few months, the grass died from lack of sunlight. For most of the 1965 season, the Astros played on green-painted dirt and dead grass. The clear panels also added a problem when combined with the natural grass. The grass tended to hold, then release moisture, often resulting in rain within the structure, causing games to be delayed while the grounds crews cleaned up the playing surface.
The solution was to install a new type of artificial grass on the field, ChemGrass, which became known as AstroTurf. Because the supply of AstroTurf was still low, only a limited amount was available at the start of the 1966 season. There was not enough for the entire outfield, so the first phase covered only the traditional grass portion of the infield and foul territory, at a cost of $2 per square foot. It was installed in time to test out during exhibition games against the Dodgers in March. The outfield remained painted dirt until after the All-Star Game. The team was sent on an extended road trip before the break, and on July 19, the installation of the outfield portion of AstroTurf was completed for a game with the Phillies, thus covering the entire field with AstroTurf. Groundskeepers dressed as astronauts kept the turf clean with vacuum cleaners between innings. The infield dirt remained in the traditional design, with a large dirt arc, similar to natural grass fields.
In 1973, the Astros installed an all-AstroTurf infield, except for dirt cutouts around the bases. This "sliding pit" configuration was introduced by Cincinnati with the opening of Riverfront Stadium on June 30, 1970. It was then installed in the new stadiums in Philadelphia in 1971, and Kansas City in 1973. The artificial turf fields of Pittsburgh, St. Louis, and San Francisco, all installed in 1970, were traditionally configured like the Astrodome and later changed to sliding pits. San Francisco converted in 1971, Pittsburgh in 1973, and St. Louis in 1978. Rogers Centre in Toronto was the last park in the majors that had sliding pits; it opened in 1989 and switched to a traditional dirt skin infield in 2016.
Throughout its history, the Astrodome was known as a pitcher's park. The power alleys were never shorter than 370 feet (113 m) from the plate; on at least two occasions they were as far as 390 feet (119 m). Over time, it gave up fewer home runs than any other park in the National League. The Astrodome's reputation as a pitcher's park continued even in the mid-1980s, when the fences were moved in closer than the Metrodome, which was long reckoned as a hitter's park.
The 1965 Houston Astros season was the franchise's first season in the Houston Astrodome, as well as its first season as the Astros after three seasons known as the Colt .45s. It involved the Houston Astros finishing in ninth place in the National League with a record of 65–97, 32 games behind the eventual World Series champion Los Angeles Dodgers. The Astros were managed by Lum Harris.1979 Houston Cougars football team
The 1979 Houston Cougars football team, also known as the Houston Cougars, Houston, or UH, represented the University of Houston in the 1979 NCAA Division I-A football season. The Cougars were led by 18th-year head coach Bill Yeoman and played their home games at the Astrodome in Houston, Texas. They competed as members of the Southwest Conference, finishing as co-champions with Arkansas. This was Houston's second consecutive conference championship, and their third overall in their first four years as members of the conference.
The Cougars finished the season with a record of 11-1, their only loss was at home to the eighth-ranked Texas Longhorns 21-13. Houston was invited to the 1980 Cotton Bowl Classic, played on New Years' Day, where they defeated seventh-ranked Nebraska. Houston finished ranked fifth in both major final polls.1981 Houston Cougars football team
The 1981 Houston Cougars football team represented the University of Houston during the 1981 NCAA Division I-A football season. The Cougars were led by 20th-year head coach Bill Yeoman and played their home games at the Astrodome in Houston, Texas. The team competed as members of the Southwest Conference, finishing in third. Houston was invited to the 1981 Sun Bowl in El Paso, Texas, where they lost to Oklahoma, 14–40.1984 Houston Cougars football team
The 1984 Houston Cougars football team, also known as the Houston Cougars, Houston, or UH, represented the University of Houston during the 1984 NCAA Division I-A football season. The Cougars were led by 23rd-year head coach Bill Yeoman and played their home games at the Astrodome in Houston, Texas. The team competed as members of the Southwest Conference, finishing as co-champions with SMU with a conference record of 6–2. Houston was invited to the 1985 Cotton Bowl Classic, where they lost to Boston College.1987 Astro-Bluebonnet Bowl
The 1987 Astro-Bluebonnet Bowl was a college football postseason bowl game between the Texas Longhorns and the Pittsburgh Panthers. The game was played in the Astrodome in Houston, Texas on December 31, 1987, and was the twenty-ninth edition of the bowl which had been played in Houston since 1959. Texas won the game 32-27.
This edition of the Bluebonnet Bowl, which added "Astro" to its title every year it was played in the Astrodome, proved to be its last.1988 Houston Cougars football team
The 1988 Houston Cougars football team represented the University of Houston during the 1988 NCAA Division I-A football season. The Cougars were led by second-year head coach Jack Pardee and played their home games at the Astrodome in Houston, Texas. The team competed as members of the Southwest Conference, finishing in third. Just two seasons after finishing 1–10 (0–7 SWC), the Cougars finished the season with a 9–3 record and ranked 18th in the final AP Poll. They were invited to the 1988 Aloha Bowl in Honolulu, Hawaii, where they lost to Washington State.1992 Republican National Convention
The 1992 Republican National Convention was held in the Astrodome in Houston, Texas, from August 17 to August 20, 1992. The convention nominated President George H. W. Bush and Vice President Dan Quayle for reelection. It was Bush's fourth consecutive appearance as a candidate on a major party ticket; only Bush and Franklin D. Roosevelt have been nominated on four consecutive presidential tickets. Richard M. Nixon and Roosevelt were nominated five times, but not consecutively.1993 PBA All-Filipino Cup
The 1993 Philippine Basketball Association (PBA) All-Filipino Cup was the first conference of the 1993 PBA season. It started on February 28 and ended on May 18, 1993. The tournament is an All-Filipino format, which doesn't require an import or a pure-foreign player for each team.1994 PBA All-Filipino Cup
The 1994 Philippine Basketball Association (PBA) All-Filipino Cup was the first conference of the 1994 PBA season. It started on March 6 and ended on May 27, 1994. The tournament is an All-Filipino format, which doesn't require an import or a pure-foreign player for each team.2003 PBA Invitational Championship
The 2003 Philippine Basketball Association (PBA) Samsung-Invitational Championship, was the second conference of the 2003 PBA season. It started on July 27 and ended on August 23, 2003. The tournament features three guest foreign teams from Korea, China and Yugoslavia along with the Philippine national team.
The Alaska Aces captured their 11th PBA title by beating the Coca Cola Tigers, 2-1, in their best-of-three finals series.Cuneta Astrodome
The Cuneta Astrodome is an indoor arena that is located in Pasay City, Manila, Philippines. Since the 1993 PBA season, it was better known as the home of the Philippine Basketball Association. when it left the PhilSports Arena (that was then known as ULTRA), up until the 1998 and since 2001. It hosts the local basketball league sports competition. It has also hosted a slew of other political, evangelical gatherings and church anniversaries. It is also the permanent home of the Philippine Super Liga since 2014.
The arena is named after Enrique Cuneta, a prominent Pasay city official during the Spanish colonial period.Despite its name, the Cuneta Astrodome is not a dome-shaped indoor arena, since its exterior is rectangular in shape.Governor's Cup (Texas)
The Texas Governor's Cup (also known as the Cowboys-Texans rivalry, Battle of Texas, formerly the Cowboys-Oilers rivalry) is the trophy awarded to the winner of the football game between the two National Football League (NFL) teams in Texas, currently the Dallas Cowboys and the Houston Texans. Prior to the Texans' inaugural season in 2002 the Cowboys' opponent was the Houston Oilers (now Tennessee Titans). In 1991, after 13 straight games at the Cowboys' Texas Stadium, the Cowboys and Oilers went to a home-and-away format for the preseason and this format more or less continues to this day for the games between the Cowboys and Texans.Since the very first meeting between the Cowboys and Texans in 2002 the two teams have met in the regular season every fourth year and meet relatively often (by NFL standards) in the preseason; from 2002 until 2008 and again since 2013, the Cowboys and Texans have been scheduled to play each other in the preseason whenever they are not scheduled to meet in the regular season. In 2010, the teams played both a pre-season and regular season game while in 2009, 2011 and 2012 they did not meet at all. The 2017 preseason game, scheduled to be played in Houston, was cancelled due to Hurricane Harvey. In 2018, the teams will play both a pre-season and regular season game once again, marking the first time that this instance of two games in one year has happened since 2010.History of the Houston Oilers
The professional American football team now known as the Tennessee Titans previously played in Houston, Texas as the Houston Oilers from 1960 to 1996. The Oilers began play in 1960 as a charter member of the American Football League (AFL). The team won two AFL championships before joining the NFL as part of the AFL–NFL merger in the late 1960s.
The Oilers competed in the East Division (along with Buffalo, New York and Boston) of the AFL before the merger, after which they joined the newly formed AFC Central. The Oilers throughout their existence were owned by Bud Adams and played their home games at the Astrodome for the majority of their time in Houston (Jeppesen Stadium and Rice Stadium hosted the Oilers for their first eight years).
The Oilers were the first champions of the American Football League, winning the 1960 and 1961 contests, but never again won another championship. The Oilers appeared in the 1962 AFL Championship, losing in double overtime to their in-state rivals, the Dallas Texans; they also won the AFL East Division title in 1967 and qualified for the AFL Playoffs in 1969, both times losing to the Oakland Raiders. From 1978 to 1980, the Oilers, led by Bum Phillips and in the midst of the Luv Ya Blue campaign, appeared in the 1978 and 1979 AFC Championship Games (but lost both). The Oilers were a consistent playoff team from 1987 to 1993, an era that included both of the Oilers' only division titles (1991 and 1993), as well as the dubious distinction of being on the losing end of the largest comeback in NFL history. For the rest of the Oilers' time in Houston, however, they compiled losing seasons in almost every year outside the aforementioned high points.
The Oilers' main colors were Columbia blue and white, with scarlet trim, while their logo was a simple derrick. Oilers jerseys were always Columbia blue for home and white for away. The helmet color was Columbia blue with a white derrick from 1960 through 1965, silver with a Columbia blue derrick from 1966 through 1971, and Columbia blue with a white and scarlet derrick from 1972 through 1974, before changing to a white helmet with a Columbia blue derrick beginning in 1975 and lasting the remainder of the team's time in Houston.
Owner Bud Adams, who had openly threatened to move the team since the late 1980s, relocated the Oilers to Tennessee after the 1996 season, where they were known as the Tennessee Oilers for the 1997 and 1998 seasons. The Oilers played the 1997 season in Memphis before moving to Nashville in 1998. In 1999, to coincide with the opening of their new stadium, Adams changed the team name to the Tennessee Titans and the color scheme from Columbia Blue, Scarlet, and White to Titans Blue, Navy, White, and Silver with scarlet accents. The new Titans franchise retained the Oilers' team history and records, while the team name was officially retired by then-NFL Commissioner Paul Tagliabue, thus preventing a future Houston NFL team from using the name.The NFL would return to Houston in 2002 with a new franchise, the Houston Texans.List of Houston Astros Opening Day starting pitchers
The Houston Astros are a Major League Baseball (MLB) franchise based in Houston, Texas. They currently play in the American League West division. The first game of the new baseball season for a team is played on Opening Day, and being named the Opening Day starter is an honor, which is often given to the player who is expected to lead the pitching staff that season, though there are various strategic reasons why a team's best pitcher might not start on Opening Day. The Houston Astros have used 21 different Opening Day starting pitchers in their 49 seasons. The 20 starters have a combined Opening Day record of 20 wins, 21 losses and 9 no decisions. No decisions are only awarded to the starting pitcher if the game is won or lost after the starting pitcher has left the game.The Astros began to play in 1962 as the Houston Colt .45s (their name was changed to the Astros in 1965 when the Houston Astrodome opened as their home ball park). Bobby Shantz started their first Opening Day game on April 10, 1962 against the Chicago Cubs at Houston's Colt Stadium and was credited with the win. In their first eight seasons, the Colt .45s / Astros used eight different Opening Day starters. In 1970, that streak ended when Larry Dierker made his second Opening Day start.Roy Oswalt has made the most Opening Day starts for the Astros, with eight such starts from 2003 through 2010. Three different pitchers have each made five Opening Day starts for the Astros: J. R. Richard (1976–1980), Mike Scott (1987–1991) and Shane Reynolds (1996–2000). Dierker made four Opening Day starts for the Astros, and Joe Niekro and Hall of Famer Nolan Ryan made three apiece. Dierker has the best record in Opening Day starts with four wins and no losses. Niekro and Don Wilson share the worst record in Opening Day starts with no wins and two losses each. Niekro also had one no decision.The Astros have played in three home ball parks. Their first home ball park was Colt Stadium. Their starting pitchers had one win and one loss in their two Opening Day games at Colt Stadium. They played 25 Opening Day games in the Astrodome after moving there in 1965, and their starting pitchers had a record of 12 wins, 8 losses and 5 no decisions in those games. In 2000, they moved to Enron Field (subsequently renamed Astros Field and Minute Maid Park) in Downtown Houston. Through 2010, they have played nine Opening Day games there, and their starting pitchers have a record of three wins, four losses and two no decisions in those games. This makes the record of the Astros' Opening Day starting pitchers in home games 16 wins, 13 losses and 7 no decisions. Their record in Opening Day away games is four wins, eight losses and two no decisions. The Astros have advanced to the World Series once, in 2005. Oswalt lost to the St. Louis Cardinals as the Opening Day starter that season.NRG Park
NRG Park (formerly Reliant Park and Astrodomain) is a complex in Houston, Texas, USA, named after the energy company NRG Energy. It is located on Kirby Drive at the South Loop West Freeway (I-610). This complex of buildings encompasses 350 acres (1.4 km2) of land and consists of four venues: NRG Stadium, NRG Center, NRG Arena and the NRG Astrodome.
The complex hosts many sporting events and conventions each year, the largest of which are Houston Texans home games, and the Houston Livestock Show and Rodeo.
The complex is served by the Stadium Park / Astrodome station, a light rail station on the Red Line of the METRORail light rail system. It also includes one of the world's largest parking lots (holding 26,000 total) and sees nearly 750 events yearly. Until 2005, the lot also served as a parking lot for Six Flags Astroworld, which has since closed.Philippine Basketball Association opening ceremonies
The Philippine Basketball Association opening ceremonies marks the start of the league's season. Since 1995, a single game is held, preceded by an entertainment program and parade of participating teams. The ceremonies is usually held at the third Sunday of October.Steelers–Titans rivalry
The Steelers–Titans rivalry is a National Football League rivalry between the Pittsburgh Steelers and the Tennessee Titans that dates back to the 1970s when the Steelers and then-Houston Oilers played in the AFC Central. The two teams were realigned into separate divisions for the 2002 NFL season, however matchups are still considered heated between the two teams.The PBA Leo Awards
The PBA Leo Awards, formerly known as the PBA MVP Awards Night (1975–1992) and PBA Annual Awards (1993–2002) is an annual awards ceremony of the Philippine Basketball Association to honor the achievements of its players for the season. The winners are awarded with The Leo, named in honor of the league's first commissioner, Leo Prieto.The ceremony is usually held before the start of Game 4 of the best-of-seven finals series of the third conference of the season. If the finals series is a best-of-five affair, it is held before Game 3 of the series.
|Events and tenants|
| Home of the
Liberty Bowl Memorial Stadium
| Home of the
Minute Maid Park
| Home of the
Cole Field House
Men's Division I
Los Angeles Memorial Sports Arena
Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome
| Host of the
MLB All-Star Game
Robert F. Kennedy Memorial Stadium
Oakland–Alameda County Coliseum
| Host of the
NBA All-Star Game
|Lists by state|
|Lists by insular areas|
|Lists by associated state|
|League pennants (2)|
|Division titles (9)|
|Wild card titles (3)|
|Division championships (9)|
|Conference championships (1)|
|League championships (2)|
|Current league affiliations|
|Former league affiliation|
Championship seasons in bold
|Bowls and rivalries|
|Culture & lore|