Astra 19.2°E is the name for the group of Astra communications satellites co-located at the 19.2°East orbital position in the Clarke Belt that are owned and operated by SES based in Betzdorf, Luxembourg.
Astra 19.2°E used to be commonly known as Astra 1, as it was the first orbital position used by Astra and the craft positioned there all have the Astra 1x name, but this was changed by SES to Astra 19.2°E in 2008, to avoid confusion with other Astra orbital positions that now include Astra 1x craft originally positioned at 19.2°East.
Astra 19.2°E is one of the major TV satellite positions serving Europe, transmitting over 1,150 TV, radio and interactive channels to more than 93 million direct-to-home (DTH) and cable homes in 35 countries (the other major satellite positions being at 13° East, 28.2° East, 23.5° East, and 5° East).
There are more than 40 high definition television (HDTV) channels broadcast by the satellites at 19.2°E, using five HDTV platforms. SES was instrumental in introducing satellite HDTV broadcasting in Europe, using the Astra 19.2°E satellites, and helped establish the HD ready specifications for TVs to view HDTV broadcasts. A subsidiary of SES, HD+ operates the HD+ free-to-view platform of German channels from Astra 19.2°E.
Astra 19.2°E was one of the last satellite position to carry numerous analogue channels, until April 30, 2012 when the switch-off of German analogue broadcasts was completed. It is also the only position to have carried radio stations in the proprietary Astra Digital Radio format, although that technology was superseded by DVB-S radio as the analogue transponders that carried the service switched to digital.
The satellites at the Astra 19.2°E position primarily provide digital TV, digital radio and multimedia services to Europe and North Africa, principally to Algeria, Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Morocco, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Switzerland, and Tunisia.
Astra 19.2°E provides both free-to-air and a number of pay-TV services in networks such as ARD Digital, ArenaSat, CanalDigitaal, CanalSat, Canal+, ORF Digital, Sky Germany, ProSieben, Sat.1, UPC Direct, and ZDF, and is the market leader for DTH and communal dish reception in Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain and Switzerland.
The relatively close proximity of Astra 19.2°E to one of SES' other orbital positions, Astra 23.5°E, allows the use in target countries of a single small dish fitted with a monoblock Duo LNB to receive channels from both positions.
Launched in 1988, Astra 1A was the first satellite in the Astra 19.2°E group. With 16 transponders, Astra 1A was the first satellite intended for DTH reception of satellite TV across Europe. From the start of transmissions in 1989, Astra 1A carried four channels for Sky Television plc, the world's first commercial multi-channel DTH service, on transponders leased before the satellite was completed.
Early channels broadcasting from 19.2°East included those primarily intended for the UK, Germany, the Benelux countries, and Scandinavia, and so-called pan-European channels such as MTV Europe, CNN International, and National Geographic Channel.
Astra 1A was joined at 19.2°East by Astra 1B in 1991 and subsequently by Astra 1C in 1993, establishing SES' principles of co-locating satellites for the provision of transparent backup by each satellite for the others in the group.
The first three satellites at Astra 19.2°E carried only analogue channels in PAL and D2-MAC. The fourth satellite, Astra 1D launched in 1994, was originally intended to carry the first European digital TV channels but the rapid expansion of satellite television across Europe and demand for analogue TV capacity meant that it was primarily used for analogue signals.
Astra 1E (1995) was dedicated to digital satellite TV services for Europe and subsequent satellites launched to Astra 19.2°E were also all-digital in the traffic they carried.
Hand-in-hand with the switchover to digital transmission of TV by satellite came a shift to encryption and the targeting of channels to individual countries or regions. The demand for digital TV capacity was so great that SES opened up additional orbital positions to provide for new digital networks aimed at specific countries, starting with Astra 28.2°E for the UK and Ireland, in 1998. That became the home of Sky Digital, and the last Sky analogue channels left Astra 19.2°E in 2001.
Most Scandinavian broadcasters have migrated from Astra 19.2°E to 1°West and Astra 5°E, and SES has also opened orbital positions of Astra 23.5°E and Astra 31.5°E to cope with the ever-increasing demands for digital capacity and the expanding markets of Eastern Europe, Africa and Asia that are now served by Astra satellites.
|49||10,714 H||Nickelodeon Germany (95-96)||Der Kinderkanal (1997-2012)|
|Arte (1995–2003)||Primetime, Fresh 4U, Astro TV||sixx (11-12)|
|50||10,729 V||NBC Super Channel (1995-1996), CNBC Europe (1996-2004)||Das Vierte (2005-2009)||Canal+|
|51||10,744 H||Veronica (1995–1996), CMT Europe (1996-1998), Bloomberg Television||Animal Planet||TV Puls||CNBC/ XXP||CNBC Germany||ARD Digital|
|52||10,759 V||RTL 4 (95-96)||QVC Germany (1996-2012)|
|53||10,773 H||SBS6 (95-96)||JSTV (1996–2001), CNE (1995-1998)||Canal+||Anixe|
|54||10,788 V||Zee TV (1995–2000), The Chinese Channel (1995–1997)||CanalSat||Canal+|
|55||10,803 H||Teleclub (1995–2000)||N24 (2000-2012)|
|56||10,818 V||DF 1||UK Horizons (-98), UK Style (-98)||Bloomberg Germany (98-01), TV Travel Shop (-)||Canal+|
|57||10,832 H||SBS6 (1996)||ASTRA Promotional Tape (1996-1997)||UK Horizons (98-01), UK Play (-2001)||Canal+||HD+ (2009-)|
|58||10,847 V||Granada Good Life (1996-), Computer Channel (1996-), Granada Breeze (-2000), .TV (-2000), Zomer TV (-1996), Sky Box Office 4||B.TV (00-01)||Tango TV (02-), PIN24/TV Shop||Canal+|
|59||10,862 H||Granada Talk TV (96-97), Sky Scottish (96-98), Rapture TV (-2000), FilmFour (-2000)||K1010 TV (04-05)||TVP Digital (2005-)|
|60||10,877 V||Sky Movies Gold (1995–1997), The Weather Channel (1996-), The Racing Channel (1996–2000), Sky Box Office 2||Get||Canal+|
|61||10,891 H||ProSieben (Switzerland) (1997), Phoenix (1997)||Südwest Fernsehen RP (1997-2012)|
|62||10,906 V||Home Order Television (1995–2001)||HSE24 (2001-2012)|
|63||10,921 H||Filmnet (1993-1997), The Adult Channel (1995-), Channel 5 (-2001)||UPC Direct||Premiere|
|64||10,936 V||RTL 5 (1993-1996)||tm3 (1996–2001)||9 Live (2001-2010)||Canal+|
|33||10,964 H||ZDF (1993-2012)|
|34||10,979 V||UK Living (1993–2001), Television X (1995–?), Chinese Channel (1994–1995)||Canal+|
|35||10,994 H||The Children's Channel (1993–1998), The Family Channel (1993–1997), China News and Entertainment (1993–1994), Challenge (1997–2001)||Arte (-2012)|
|36||11,009 V||Minimax (1993–1997), Documanía (1996-1997)||Phoenix (1997-2012)|
|37||11,023 H||Cartoon Network UK (93-), TNT UK (93-00), TCM UK (00-01)||B.TV (01-05)||Astro TV (2005–08)||Premiere HD||Telespazio||SES/Canal Digitaal|
|38||11,038 V||QVC UK (1993–2001)||Canal+|
|39||11,053 H||WDR Fernsehen (1993-2012)|
|40||11,068 V||Cineclassics (1993–1997)||Hessen Fernsehen (-2012)|
|41||11,082 H||Discovery Channel UK (1993–2001), CMT Europe (1993–1994), TLC UK (1994-1997), Discovery Home & Leisure UK (1997–2001)||BR-alpha (-2012)|
|42||11,097 V||Bravo (1993–2001), The Adult Channel (1993-1995), EBN (1995–98), Trouble (1997–2001), CNBC Europe (-98)||DVB||Canal+|
|43||11,112 H||MDR Fernsehen (1993-2012)|
|44||11,127 V||Galavision (1993–1997), Sky Travel (1997–2000), Sky Movies Gold (1997–2000)||VIVA||Canal+|
|45||11,141 H||Bayerisches Fernsehen (1993-2012)|
|46||11,156 V||Nickelodeon UK (1993–2001), TV Asia (1993-1996), VH-1 Germany(1995), The Paramount Channel (1995–2001)||Canal+|
|47||11,171 H||Sky Sports 2 (94-01), Sci Fi Channel UK (95-97), Sky Soap (95-97), Sky Sports Gold (95-97), Sky Travel (95-97), The History Channel UK (95-97), China News and Entertainment (1994–1995)||SFB1 (01-03)||RBB Berlin (03-05)||1-2-3 TV (2004–2008)||Orange|
|48||11,186 V||Südwest Fernsehen Baden-Württemberg (1993-2012)|
|1||11,214 H||Screensport (1989–1993)||RTL2 (1993-2012)|
|2||11,229 V||RTL (1989-2012)|
|3||11,244 H||TV3 Sweden (1989–1996)||Granada Plus/Granada Men & Motors (1996–2001)||RTL Shop/Channel 21 Shop (2001-2011)||ORF Digital|
|4||11,259 V||Eurosport (1989-2012)|
|5||11,273 H||Lifestyle/The Children's Channel (1989–1993)||VOX (1993-2012)|
|6||11,288 V||Sat.1 (1989-2012)|
|7||11,303 H||TV1000 (1989–1996)||Fox Kids (1996–2001)||Viva Zwei (2001–2002), Viva Plus (2002–2007)||Comedy Central Germany (2007–2009)||ORF Digital HD (2009-)|
|Sky 2 (96-97)||National Geographic Channel (1997–2001), Channel 7 Europe (1998), Sky Barker (1997-?)|
|8||11,318 V||Sky One (1989–2001), TV Asia (1992–1994)||Canal+|
|9||11,332 H||Eurosp. (1989)||Teleclub (1990–1995)||Kabel 1 (1995-2012)|
|10||11,347 V||3sat (1990-2012), ZDF Musikkanal (1990-1993)||ZDF HD|
|11||11,362 H||Filmnet (1989–1997), The Adult Channel (1997) Bloomberg UK (1997–1998), Sky Box Office 3 (1998-2000), Bloomberg DE (2000-2008)||ARD/ZDF/Arte HD||ZDF HD|
|12||11,377 V||Sky News (1989–2001)||XXP (-06)||DMAX (2006-2011)|
|13||11,391 H||RTL-Véronique (1989–1990)||RTL 4 (1990–1995)||Super RTL (1995-2012)|
|14||11,406 V||Pro Sieben (1989-2012)|
|15||11,421 H||MTV Europe (1989–1997)||MTV UK & Ireland (01-07)||MTV2 Pop (01-05)||Nick Germany (05-11), Comedy Central (09-11)||SES|
|16||11,436 V||Sky Movies (89-97), Sky Movies Screen 1 (97-98), Sky Moviemax (98-01)||Canal+||Arena||Canal+|
|17||11,464 H||Premiere (1991–2003)||sonnenklar.TV (2003–2009)||HD+ (2010-)|
|18||11,479 V||The Movie Channel (91-97), Sky Movies Screen 2 (97-98), Sky Premier (98-01)||CanalSat|
|19||11,494 H||Eins Plus (91-93)||Das Erste (1993–2012)||ARD HD|
|20||11,509 V||Sky Sports (1991–1996)||Sky Sports 1 (1996–2001)||Canal+||Globecast|
|21||11,523 H||Tele 5 (91-92)||DSF/Sport1 (1993-2012)|
|22||11,538 V||Eurosport (1991), MTV Europe (1992–1994), VH1 UK (1994–2001)||Canal+||Globecast|
|23||11,553 H||FilmNet (91-92)||UK Gold (1992–2001)||Tele 5 (2002-2012)|
|24||11,568 V||JSTV (1991-1996), The Children's Channel (1991-1993)||CMT Europe (1994–1996)||Sky Soap (1997–1999), The History Channel UK (1997–2001), Sci Fi Channel UK (1997–2001)||DVB||CanalSat|
|25||11,582 H||Nord 3 (1991–2001), NDR Fernsehen (2001-2012)||ARD HD|
|26||11,597 V||Comedy Channel (1991), The Adult Channel (1992-1993), TV Asia (1992-1995), Sky Movies Gold (1992-), Disney Channel UK (1995–2001)||DVB|
|27||11,612 H||TV3 Denmark (1991–1996)||VH1 Germany/ Nickelodeon Germany (1996-1998)||MTV Germany (1999-2010)||VIVA (11-12)||SES|
|28||11,627 V||CNN International (1992–2010)||Canal+|
|29||11,641 H||TV3 D:k (1991)||n-tv (1992-2012)|
|30||11,656 V||Cinemanía (1992-?)||ORB Fernsehen/RBB Fernsehen (1997-2012)|
|31||11,671 H||TV3 Norway (1991–1996)||Sky Sports 3 (1996–2001)||TV Puls (-2003)||UPC Direct||ProSieben|
|32||11,686 V||Documanía (1992–1996), Sportsmanía (1996–1997), BR alpha (1998-)||Canal+|
|71||11,837 H||Astra service||ARD Digital|
|73||11,876 H||Nethold||DVB||UPC Direct||Netsyst.||Premiere|
|77||11,954 H||Nethold||ZDF Vision|
|78||11,973 V||Canal+||MTV Networks|
|79||11,992 H||Wizja TV||UPC Direct||Premiere|
|81||12,032 H||DF 1||Premiere|
|82||12,051 V||ProSiebenSat.1 Media|
|83||12,070 H||DF 1||Premiere|
|84||12,090 V||DF 1||Premiere||CanalSat|
|85||12,110 H||Premiere||ARD Digital|
|87||12,148 H||DF 1||Premiere||DPC||SES Platform Services (now MX1)|
|89||12,188 H||RTL Group|
|91||12,226 H||DF 1||Filial TV||Eurosport|
|92||12,246 V||Canal+||DVB||SES Platform Services (now MX1)|
|93||12,266 H||Nethold||AB Sat||CanalSat||ARD Digital|
|95||12,304 H||Wizja TV||UPC Direct||Premiere|
|99||12,382 H||Wizja TV||UPC Direct||Premiere|
|101||12,422 H||ARD Digital||DF 1||ARD Digital|
|103||12,460 H||DF 1||Internet||DVB||DPC||SES Platform Services (now MX1)|
|104||12,480 V||DF 1||DVB||DVB||DPC||SES Platform Services (now MX1)|
|107||12,545 H||Chello HSI||DPC||AstraSat||AstraNet||ProSieben|
|111||12,604 H||ARD Digital||DVB||AstraNet||Sat@Once||DVB||ARD Digital|
|112||12,610 V||DF 1||DVB||DF 1||CanalSat|
|113||12,633 H||DVB||T-Systems||Media Broadcast|
|115||12,663 H||ZDF Vision||Internet||DVB||ORF Digital|
|116||12,670 V||Turner||DVB||DVB||TV Vlaanderen Digitaal||CanalSat|
|117||12,692 H||ORF Digital|
|118||12,699 V||MTV Networks||CanalSat|
|119||12,722 H||ARD Digital||Netsyst.||ProSieben Sat.1 HDTV (05-08)||TV Vlaanderen Digitaal|
Astra 1C was a geostationary communications satellites launched in 1993 by the Société Européenne des Satellites (SES), now SES Astra. The commsat remained in service until 2011 and is now derelict.Astra 1D
Astra 1D is a geostationary communications satellite launched in 1994 by the Société Européenne des Satellites (SES).
As of August 2012, the craft remains in service for occasional use.
Astra 1D was the fourth, and under original plans, last Astra communications satellite from SES. It was launched to SES' original solitary operational position at 19.2° east, and was intended as an in-orbit spare for Astra's 1A, 1B and 1C and to carry digital TV transmissions. However, development of digital reception equipment in Europe was not sufficiently advanced for Astra 1D to be SES' first digital satellite (the later Astra 1E fulfilled that role) and demand for additional capacity for both British and German television channels led to 12 of the satellite's transponders being leased to broadcast analogue TV channels before the satellite had been launched.Astra 1E
Astra 1E is one of the Astra communications satellites in geostationary orbit owned and operated by SES. It was launched in 1995 to the Astra 19.2°E orbital slot initially to provide digital television and radio for DTH across Europe.
Astra 1E was the first Astra satellite to be dedicated to digital TV broadcasting and it carried many of the first digital TV channels from networks broadcasting to France, Germany, and other European countries in the 1990s.The satellite originally provided two broadcast beams, of horizontal and vertical polarisation, for FSS (10.70-10.95 GHz) and for BSS (11.70-12.10 GHz) frequency bands. The FSS beams provide footprints that cover essentially the same area of Europe – northern, central and eastern Europe, including Spain and northern Italy – while the BSS horizontal beam excludes Spain and extends further east, and the BSS vertical beam includes Spain and more of southern Italy but does not extend so far east. Within the footprints, TV signals are usually received with a 60–80 cm dish.
In October 2007, following the successful deployment of Astra 1L at 19.2°E, Astra 1E was moved to Astra’s new DTH orbital position, 23.5°E where it provided capacity for the transmission of new services including the ASTRA2Connect two-way satellite broadband Internet service which provides high speed internet access and VOIP without landline connection at up to 2 Mbit/s download speeds and 128 kbit/s upload using four Ku band transponders for both forward and return paths from the user’s remote terminal.In May 2010 Astra 3B was launched to the 23.5° east position, coming into service in June 2010, at which time the services using Astra 1E were transferred to the new craft. In August 2010, Astra 1E left the 23.5° east position moving westwards, to the Astra 5°E position to provide backup for Astra 4A pending the launch of Astra 4B to that position in 2011. At 5° east, Astra 1E carried very little TV traffic. Following the launch of Astra 4B (renamed to SES-4) in February 2012, Astra 1E was moved to 108.2°E, in inclined orbit and with no traffic, and then to 31.5°E in Summer 2013. It returned to 23.5°E in February 2015 and started moving 5.4° west per day in June 2015, reaching 2°E at the end of 2015Astra 1K
Astra 1K was a communications satellite manufactured by Alcatel Space for SES. When it was launched on November 25, 2002 it was the largest civilian communications satellite ever launched, with a mass of 5,250 kilograms (11,570 lb). Intended to replace the Astra 1B satellite and provide backup for 1A, 1C and 1D at the Astra 19.2°E orbital position, the Blok DM3 upper stage of the Proton launch vehicle failed to function properly, leaving the satellite in an unusable parking orbit. Although some attempts were made to "rescue" the satellite, it was intentionally de-orbited on December 10, 2002.Astra 1KR
Astra 1KR is one of the Astra geostationary satellites owned by SES. It was launched in April 2006 as a replacement for Astra 1K, which failed to reach orbit on launch in 2002. The launch of Astra 1KR was the first attempted by SES since the Astra 1K failure.
The craft launched to 3.4° east for testing, before moving to Astra 19.2°E, where it replaced Astra 1B, which was effectively decommissioned, and Astra 1C, which was then elderly and running beneath full capacity. It was expected to also replace Astra 2C, which was under-utilised, and to allow that satellite to return to Astra 28.2°E to join 2A/2B/2D to provide additional capacity. However, SES stated that Astra 1L would replace Astra 2C.The first signals from the craft at 19.2° east were direct replacements for four transponders on the failing Astra 1E.Astra 1N
Astra 1N is one of the Astra communications satellites owned and operated by SES and is positioned at the Astra 19.2°E orbital slot. It was launched in 2011 and is the fourth satellite to be built for Astra by Astrium (now Airbus Defence and Space) and the 46th SES satellite in orbit, and entered commercial service at 28.2°E on 24 October 2011.Astra 23.5°E
Astra 23.5°E is a group of Astra communications satellites co-located at the 23.5° east position in the Clarke Belt owned and operated by SES based in Betzdorf, Luxembourg. 23.5° east is one of the major TV satellite positions serving Europe (the others being at 19.2° East, 13° East, 28.2° East, and 5° East).
The satellite currently occupying this position is the Astra 3B craft, which provide for services downlinking in the 10.70 GHz-12.70 GHz range of the Ku band and 21.40-22.00 GHz range of the Ka band across most of Central, Western and Eastern Europe and the Middle East.
A major reason for the usage of Astra 23.5°E as a source for direct-to-home (DTH) broadcasting is its proximity to Europe’s primary DTH position, Astra 19.2°E, allowing the use in target countries of a single small dish fitted with a monoblock Duo LNB to receive channels from both positions.Astra 28.2°E
Astra 28.2°E is the name for the group of Astra communications satellites co-located at the 28.2° East position in the Clarke Belt that are owned and operated by SES based in Betzdorf, Luxembourg. It is one of the major TV satellite positions serving Europe (the others being at 19.2° East, 13° East, 23.5° East, and 5° East).
The Astra satellites at 28.2° East provide for services downlinking in the 10.70 GHz-12.70 GHz range of the Ku band.Astra 2B
Astra 2B is one of the Astra communications satellites owned and operated by SES. Launched in 2000 to join Astra 2A at the Astra 28.2°E orbital slot providing digital television and radio broadcast services to the UK and Republic of Ireland, the satellite has also served at the Astra 19.2°E and the Astra 31.5°E positions.Astra 2C
Astra 2C is one of the Astra communications satellites owned and operated by SES. Designed to join Astra 2A and Astra 2B at the Astra 28.2°E orbital slot providing digital television and radio broadcast services to the UK and Republic of Ireland, the satellite was first used after launch in 2001 at 19.2°E for pan-European coverage.
The satellite provides one broadcast beam with horizontal and vertical polarisation, across a single footprint covering the areas of Central and Eastern Europe, Scandinavia, the Iberian peninsula and Canary Islands.TV signals can be received with a 50 cm dish across the majority of the British Isles with a 60 cm dish required in the extreme north and west. Astra 2C can also provide backup capacity, substituting for one or more transponders across the 10.70 GHz-12.20 GHz broadcast range used by Astra satellites in the Astra 19.2°E and Astra 28.2°E orbital positions.CMT Europe
CMT Europe was a European television channel. It was a European version of Country Music Television.
The channel started in 1992. It was closed down on March 31, 1998 after substantial losses.On the Astra 19.2°E position, the channel switched satellite several times and was for a long time only available as a daytime service. It first launched in 1993 on transponder 41 on Astra 1C as part of the Sky Multichannels package, where it was broadcasting on The Discovery Channel's daytime space and was on air from midnight until 4pm. It moved to transponder 24 on Astra 1B in September 1994, which allowed it to extend its broadcast hours until 7 p.m. It finally ended up on transponder 51 in 1996 and was then allowed to go 24 hours on Astra.
For cable networks, a 24-hour feed of CMT Europe was maintained on Intelsat 27.5 degrees west. It was available in several European countries, for example in Sweden. It was carried as part of the Scandinavian channel Sky Entertainment when it launched in September 1997. In the UK, it was available 24 hours a day on cable. However, a number of cable companies dropped CMT in autumn 1996, thereby massively reducing the potential audience for the channel. For example, Bell Cablemedia (later Cable & Wireless and then ntl) replaced CMT with The Box at the start of September 1996.Duo LNB
A Duo LNB is a double low-noise block downconverter (LNB) developed by SES for the simultaneous reception of satellite television signals from both the Astra 23.5°E and Astra 19.2°E satellite positions.
It is a monoblock LNB, which comprises two feedhorns with a single body of electronics containing the LNB stages along with switching circuitry to select which received signal is passed to the output(s). The Duo LNB uses linear polarisation.Go TV
go tv is a 24-hour music and animation channel based in Vienna, Austria. The channel launched on October 1, 2002. The channel targets audiences in Austria, but is also widely available throughout Europe.MCM (TV channel)
MCM is a French music video TV channel owned by Groupe MCM. It was started in 1989 by Groupe Europe 1 following the MTV model, as the French version of MTV. MCM broadcasts three encrypted music TV channels "MCM France", "MCM Pop" and "MCM Top" as part of the "CanalSat France" subscription TV package from the Astra 19.2°E cluster of direct-to-home broadcast satellites at the 19.2 degrees East orbital position.
From 2001 – 2003, MCM also broadcast in Thailand, operated by local licensee Broadcast Network Thailand playing a mix of alternative and electronica music, and hosted by a variety of bilingual VJs speaking Thai and English, including Sara Malakul, Kipsan Beck and Fah Chanika Sucharitkul.
Since 2013 the High Council of Audiovisual (CSA) published the authorization of the new positioning of the initial programming of the MCM channel, towards a more male audience between 15 and 34 years.Monoblock LNB
A monoblock (or monobloc) LNB is a type of low-noise block downconverter used in communications satellite reception, this dual LNB is the simplest solution to achieve multifeed reception for two, three or four satellites.
This design consists of two, three or four independent LNBs in a single case. The two, three or four LNBs can be automatically addressed with any DiSEqC 1.0 or higher receiver. In some cases, they can also be addressed with ToneBurst/MiniDiSEqC. However, they are only available for satellites with a fixed 3 degree, 4.3° or 6° spacing. In Europe, for example, there are monoblock single, twin and quad LNBs for the Ku band, which have a pre-defined spacing of 6 degrees (for Astra 19.2°E/Hot Bird 13°E).
In March 2007, a new type of monoblock, called the Duo LNB was introduced by CanalDigitaal in the Netherlands for the simultaneous reception of Astra 19.2°E/Astra 23.5°E with a spacing of just 4.3 degrees. Unlike most other monoblocks, the Duo LNB was intended for use with 60 cm dishes (most monoblocks require a larger, 80 cm or 1 m dish). The Duo LNB is available in twin and quad versions.Play UK
Play UK was a television channel broadcasting in the United Kingdom as part of the UKTV network of channels. The channel was launched (as UK Play) on 10 October 1998. The channel was aimed at playing (for most of the time) music in the morning and afternoon, while broadcasting comedy during primetime and evenings.
Play UK broadcast all day on the digital platforms, but on the Sky Analogue platform on the Astra 19.2°E satellite system it broadcast between 1 am and 7 am when UK Horizons was not broadcasting.
It closed on 30 October 2002 due to low ratings because of the closure of ITV Digital in July 2002; also it could not compete with MTV. Play UK's comedy programming was then moved to UK Gold (now Gold).WDR Fernsehen
WDR Fernsehen is a German free-to-air television network owned and operated by Westdeutscher Rundfunk and serving North Rhine-Westphalia. It is one of the seven regional "third programmes" television stations that are offered within the federal ARD network. The station began broadcasting on December 17, 1965, as Westdeutsches Fernsehen (WDF), changing its name to West 3 in 1988, before settling for WDR Fernsehen in 1994.
Originally airing only in North Rhine-Westphalia, the channel has become available across Germany with the advent of cable and satellite television. The station is also available free-to-air across Europe via Astra 19.2°E.
In November 2013, the channel faced a graphical rebrand.XXP
XXP was a German documentary TV station with its headquarters in Berlin.
It was started in 2001 by Spiegel TV and dctp together and showed documentaries, magazines and reports, discussions and interviews. There was also a daily news program. The shown programs mainly came from Spiegel TV, dctp, BBC, Süddeutsche Zeitung and others.
In January 2006 Discovery Communications bought the TV station. It was replaced in September 2006 by DMAX.
The station was available on satellite (Astra 19.2°E) and certain cable TV networks.ZDFtheaterkanal
ZDFtheaterkanal was a TV station and part of the digital TV package offered by ZDF. The channel was broadcast daily from 9 am until 2 am the following day, starting on 9 December 1999. The broadcasting was stopped on 7 May 2011 in favor of ZDFkultur.
The program was broadcast nationwide via the TV cable network (DVB-C) and the Astra 19.2°E (DVB-S). In addition, the channel was accessible via the IPTV offers Telekom Entertain and Alice as well as with via Zattoo.
In the summer of 2008, plans were presented to convert ZDFtheaterkanal into a cultural channel. On 7 May 2011, at 6:30 am, the new channel ZDFkultur started and replaced ZDFtheaterkanal to cover the topics of music, performing arts, film culture, network culture and gaming. The cut-over took place on 7 May 2011 at 1:20 AM.
ZDFtheaterkanal (as well as the following station ZDFkultur) was directed by Wolfgang Bergmann, previously by Walter Konrad.
Satellites operated by SES S.A.