Aston Martin

Aston Martin Lagonda Global Holdings plc is a British independent manufacturer of luxury sports cars and grand tourers. It was founded in 1913 by Lionel Martin and Robert Bamford. Steered from 1947 by David Brown, it became associated with expensive grand touring cars in the 1950s and 1960s, and with the fictional character James Bond following his use of a DB5 model in the 1964 film Goldfinger. Their sports cars are regarded as a British cultural icon.[2] Aston Martin has held a Royal Warrant as purveyor of motorcars to the Prince of Wales since 1982.[3] It has over 150 car dealerships in over 50 countries on six continents, making them a global automobile brand.[4] The company is traded at the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 250 Index.[5] In 2003 it received the Queen's Award for Enterprise for outstanding contribution to international trade.[6]

Headquarters and main production site are in Gaydon, Warwickshire, England, alongside one of Jaguar Land Rover's development centres on the site of a former RAF V Bomber airbase. One of Aston Martin's recent cars was named after the 1950s Avro Vulcan bomber.[7] Aston Martin has announced plans to turn itself into a global luxury brand, and is increasingly branching out into projects including speed boats, bicycles, clothing and real estate development, even submarines[8] and aircraft, mostly on a licensing basis.[9][10][11][12][13][14][15]

Aston Martin Lagonda Global Holdings plc
Public limited company
Traded asLSEAML
IndustryAutomobile manufacturing, luxury goods
FoundedLondon, 1913
FoundersLionel Martin
Robert Bamford
Headquarters
Gaydon, Warwickshire
,
England, United Kingdom
Area served
Worldwide
Key people
Penny Hughes
(Chair)
Andy Palmer
(President and Group CEO)
ProductsAutomobiles, luxury goods
Revenue£1,096.5 million (2018)[1]
£146.9 million (2018)[1]
£(57.1) million (2018)[1]
Subsidiaries
Websiteastonmartin.com astonmartinlagonda.com
DSC06182-Aston Martin DBS Superleggera
Aston Martin DBS Superleggera, the brand's current flagship model

History

Aston Martin had a troubled history after the third quarter of the 20th century but has also enjoyed long periods of success and stability. "In the first century we went bankrupt seven times", incoming CEO Andy Palmer told Automotive News Europe. "The second century is about making sure that is not the case."[16]

Founding

Aston Martin was founded in 1913 by Lionel Martin and Robert Bamford.[17] The two had joined forces as Bamford & Martin the previous year to sell cars made by Singer from premises in Callow Street, London where they also serviced GWK and Calthorpe vehicles. Martin raced specials at Aston Hill near Aston Clinton, and the pair decided to make their own vehicles.[18] The first car to be named Aston Martin was created by Martin by fitting a four-cylinder Coventry-Simplex engine to the chassis of a 1908 Isotta Fraschini.[19][20]

They acquired premises at Henniker Mews[21] in Kensington and produced their first car in March 1915. Production could not start because of the outbreak of the first World War, and Martin joined the Admiralty and Bamford joined the Army Service Corps.[22]

Inter war years

1923 Aston Martin Razor Blade team car in Morges 2013 - AM logo and radiator calormeter closeup
1923 Razor Blade Team car
1924 Aston Martin sidevalve tourer - fvl (4668551949)
1924 tourer
1937 Aston Martin Kop Hill Climb 2010 5029332450
1937 2-Litre open 2/4-seater Speed model, Kop Hill 2010

After the war they found new premises at Abingdon Road, Kensington and designed a new car. Bamford left in 1920 and Bamford & Martin was revitalised with funding from Count Louis Zborowski. In 1922, Bamford & Martin produced cars to compete in the French Grand Prix, which went on to set world speed and endurance records at Brooklands. Three works Team Cars with 16-valve twin cam engines were built for racing and record breaking: chassis number 1914, later developed as the Green Pea; chassis number 1915, the Razor Blade record car; and chassis number 1916, later developed as the Halford Special.[23]

Approximately 55 cars were built for sale in two configurations; long chassis and short chassis. Bamford & Martin went bankrupt in 1924 and was bought by Dorothea, Lady Charnwood who put her son John Benson on the board. Bamford & Martin got into financial difficulty again in 1925 and Martin was forced to sell the company (Bamford had already left).[24]

Later that year, Bill Renwick, Augustus (Bert) Bertelli and investors including Lady Charnwood took control of the business. They renamed it Aston Martin Motors and moved it to the former Whitehead Aircraft Limited Hanworth works in Feltham. Renwick and Bertelli had been in partnership some years and had developed an overhead-cam four-cylinder engine using Renwick's patented combustion chamber design, which they had tested in an Enfield-Allday chassis. The only "Renwick and Bertelli" motor car made, it was known as "Buzzbox" and still survives.[25]

The pair had planned to sell their engine to motor manufacturers, but having heard that Aston Martin was no longer in production realised they could capitalise on its reputation to jump start the production of a completely new car.[25]

Between 1926 and 1937 Bertelli was both technical director and designer of all new Aston Martins, since known as "Bertelli cars". They included the 1½-litre "T-type", "International", "Le Mans", "MKII" and its racing derivative, the "Ulster", and the 2-litre 15/98 and its racing derivative, the "Speed Model". Most were open two-seater sports cars bodied by Bert Bertelli's brother Enrico (Harry), with a small number of long-chassis four-seater tourers, dropheads and saloons also produced.[25]

Bertelli was a competent driver keen to race his cars, one of few owner/manufacturer/drivers. The "LM" team cars were very successful in national and international motor racing including at Le Mans.[25]

Financial problems reappeared in 1932. Aston Martin was rescued for a year by Lance Prideaux Brune before passing it on to Sir Arthur Sutherland. In 1936, Aston Martin decided to concentrate on road cars, producing just 700 until World War II halted work. Production shifted to aircraft components during the war.[26][27]

David Brown

In 1947, old-established (1860) privately owned Huddersfield gear and machine tools manufacturer David Brown Limited bought Aston Martin putting it under control of its Tractor Group. David Brown became Aston Martin's latest saviour.[28] He also acquired without its factory Lagonda's business[29] for its 2.6-litre W. O. Bentley-designed engine. Lagonda moved operations to Newport Pagnell and shared engines, resources and workshops. Aston Martin began to build the classic "DB" series of cars.[30]

In April 1950, they announced planned production of their Le Mans prototype to be called the DB2,[31] followed by the DB2/4 in 1953, the DB2/4 MkII in 1955, the DB Mark III in 1957 and the Italian-styled 3.7 L DB4 in 1958.[30]

While these models helped Aston Martin establish a good racing pedigree, the DB4 stood out and yielded the famous DB5 in 1963. Aston stayed true to its grand touring style with the DB6 (1965–70), and DBS (1967–1972).[30]

The six-cylinder engines of these cars from 1954 up to 1965 were designed by Tadek Marek.[32]

Willson

1986 Aston Martin V580 engine from the rear
The Tadek Marek-designed V8 engine was a mainstay of the Aston Martin lineup for decades, and was built from 1969 until 2000.

Aston Martin was often financially troubled. In 1972, David Brown paid off all its debts, said to be £5 million or more, and handed it for £101 to Company Developments, a Birmingham-based investment bank consortium chaired by accountant William Willson.[33] More detail on this period may be read at Willson's biography. The worldwide recession, lack of working capital and the difficulties of developing an engine to meet California's exhaust emission requirements — it stopped the company's US sales — again pulled Aston Martin into receivership at the end of 1974. The company had employed 460 workers when the manufacturing plant closed.[34]

Sprague and Curtis

The receiver sold the business in April 1975 for £1.05 million to North American businessmen Peter Sprague of National Semiconductor and Toronto hotelier, George Minden,[35] and Jeremy Turner, a London businessman,[36] who insisted to reporters Aston Martin remained a British controlled business. Sprague later claimed he had fallen in love with the factory, not the cars, the workforce's craftsmanship dedication and intelligence. At this point, he and Minden had brought in investor, Alan Curtis, a British office property developer together with George Flather, a retired Sheffield steel magnate.[37]

Six months later, in September 1975, the factory — shut-down the previous December — re-opened under its new owner as Aston Martin Lagonda Limited with 100 employees and plans to lift staff to 250 by the end of 1975.[34] In January 1976, AML revealed that it now held orders for 150 cars for US, 100 for other markets and another 80 from a Japanese importing agency.[38] At the Geneva Motor Show, Fred Hartley, managing director and sales director for 13 years before that, announced he had resigned over "differences in marketing policy".[39]

The new owners pushed Aston Martin into modernising its line, introducing the V8 Vantage in 1977, the convertible Volante in 1978, and the one-off Bulldog styled by William Towns in 1980. Towns also styled the futuristic new Lagonda saloon, based on the V8 model.[40]

Curtis, who had a 42% stake in Aston Martin,[41] also brought about a change in direction from the usual customers who were Aston Martin fanatics (fans) to successful young married businessmen. Prices had been increased by 25%.[37] There was speculation that AML was about to buy Italian automobile manufacturer Lamborghini.[42] At the end of the 1970s, there was widespread debate about running MG into the Aston Martin consortium. 85 Tory MPs formed themselves into a pressure group to get British Leyland to release their grip and hand it over.[43] CH Industrials plc (car components) bought a 10% share in AML. But in July 1980, blaming a recession, AML cut back their workforce of 450 by more than 20% making those people redundant.[44]

Gauntlett

In January 1981, there having been no satisfactory revival partners, Alan Curtis and Peter Sprague announced they had never intended to maintain a long term financial stake in Aston Martin Lagonda and it was to be sold to Pace Petroleum's Victor Gauntlett. Sprague and Curtis pointed out that under their ownership AML finances had improved to where an offer for MG might have been feasible.[45]

Gauntlett bought a 12.5% stake in Aston Martin for £500,000 via Pace Petroleum in 1980, with Tim Hearley of CH Industrials taking a similar share. Pace and CHI took over as joint 50/50 owners at the beginning of 1981, with Gauntlett as executive chairman. Gauntlett also led the sales team, and after some development and publicity when the Lagonda became the world's fastest four-seater production car, was able to sell the car in Oman, Kuwait, and Qatar.[46]

In 1982, Aston Martin was granted a Royal Warrant of Appointment by the Prince of Wales.[3]

Understanding that it would take some time to develop new Aston Martin products, they created an engineering service subsidiary to develop automotive products for other companies. It was decided to use a trade name of Salmons & Son, their in-house coachbuilder, Tickford which Aston Martin had bought in 1955. Tickford's name had been long associated with expensive high quality carriages and cars along with their folding roofs. New products included a Tickford Austin Metro, a Tickford Ford Capri and even Tickford train interiors, particularly on the Jaguar XJS.[46] Pace continued sponsoring racing events, and now sponsored all Aston Martin Owners Club events, taking a Tickford-engined Nimrod Group C car owned by AMOC President Viscount Downe, which came third in the Manufacturers Championship in both 1982 and 1983. It also finished seventh in the 1982 24 Hours of Le Mans race. However, sales of production cars were now at an all-time low of 30 cars produced in 1982.[46]

As trading became tighter in the petroleum market, and Aston Martin was requiring more time and money, Gauntlett agreed to sell Hays/Pace to the Kuwait Investment Office in September 1983. As Aston Martin required greater investment, he also agreed to sell his share holding to American importer and Greek shipping tycoon Peter Livanos, who invested via his joint venture with Nick and John Papanicolaou, ALL Inc. Gauntlett remained chairman of AML, 55% of the stake was owned by ALL, with Tickford a 50/50 venture between ALL and CHI. The uneasy relationship was ended when ALL exercised options to buy a larger share in AML; CHI's residual shares were exchanged for CHI's complete ownership of Tickford, which retained development of existing Aston Martin projects. In 1984, Papanicolaou's Titan shipping business was in trouble so Livanos's father George bought out the Papanicolaou's shares in ALL, while Gauntlett again became a shareholder with a 25% holding in AML. The deal valued Aston Martin/AML at £2 million, the year it built its 10,000th car.[46]

Although as a result Aston Martin had to make 60 members of the workforce redundant, Gauntlett bought a stake in Italian styling house Zagato, and resurrected its collaboration with Aston Martin.[47]

Aston Martin Volante
Aston Martin V8 Vantage from The Living Daylights

In 1986, Gauntlett negotiated the return of fictional British secret agent James Bond to Aston Martin. Cubby Broccoli had chosen to recast the character using actor Timothy Dalton, in an attempt to re-root the Bond-brand back to a more Sean Connery-like feel. Gauntlett supplied his personal pre-production Vantage for use in the filming of The Living Daylights, and sold a Volante to Broccoli for use at his home in America. Gauntlett turned down the role of a KGB colonel in the film, however: "I would have loved to have done it but really could not afford the time."[48]

Aston Martin needed funds to survive in the long term. In May 1987, Gauntlett and Prince Michael of Kent were staying at the home of Contessa Maggi, the wife of the founder of the original Mille Miglia, while watching the revival event. Another house guest was Walter Hayes, vice-president of Ford of Europe. Despite problems over the previous acquisition of AC Cars, Hayes saw the potential of the brand and the discussion resulted in Ford taking a share holding in September 1987.[49] In 1988, having produced some 5,000 cars in 20 years, a revived economy and successful sales of limited edition Vantage, and 52 Volante Zagato coupés at £86,000 each; Aston Martin finally retired the ancient V8 and introduced the Virage range.[50]

Although Gauntlett was contractually to stay as chairman for two years, his racing interests took the company back into sports car racing in 1989 with limited European success. However, with engine rule changes for the 1990 season and the launch of the new Volante model, Ford provided the limited supply of Cosworth engines to the Jaguar cars racing team. As the entry-level DB7 would require a large engineering input, Ford agreed to take full control of Aston Martin, and Gauntlett handed over Aston Martin's chairmanship to Hayes in 1991.[51] In 1992, the high-performance variant of the Virage called the Vantage was announced, and the following year Aston Martin renewed the DB range by announcing the DB7.[52]

Ford Motor Company

Ford placed Aston Martin in the Premier Automotive Group, invested in new manufacturing and ramped up production. In 1994, Ford opened a new factory at Banbury Road in Bloxham to manufacture the DB7. In 1995, Aston Martin produced a record 700 cars. Until the Ford era, cars had been produced by hand coachbuilding craft methods, such as the English wheel. In 1998, the 2,000th DB7 was built, and in 2002, the 6,000th, exceeding production of all of the previous DB series models. The DB7 range was revamped by the addition of more powerful V12 Vantage models in 1999, and in 2001, Aston Martin introduced the V12-engined flagship model called the Vanquish which succeeded the aging Virage (now called the V8 Coupé).[53]

At the North American International Auto Show in Detroit, Michigan in 2003, Aston Martin introduced the AMV8 Vantage concept car. Expected to have few changes before its introduction in 2005, the Vantage brought back the classic V8 engine to allow Aston Martin to compete in a larger market. 2003 also saw the opening of the Gaydon factory, the first purpose-built factory in Aston Martin's history. Also introduced in 2003 was the DB9 coupé, which replaced the ten-year-old DB7. A convertible version of the DB9, the DB9 Volante, was introduced at the 2004 Detroit Auto Show.[54]

In October 2004, Aston Martin set up the dedicated 12,500 square metres (135,000 sq ft) AMEP engine production plant within the Ford Germany Niehl, Cologne plant. With the capacity to produce up to 5,000 engines a year by 100 specially trained personnel, like traditional Aston Martin engine production from Newport Pagnell, assembly of each unit was entrusted to a single technician from a pool of 30, with V8 and V12 variants assembled in under 20 hours. By bringing engine production back to within Aston Martin, the promise was that Aston Martin would be able to produce small runs of higher performance variants' engines.[55] This expanded engine capacity allowed the entry-level V8 Vantage sports car to enter production at the Gaydon factory in 2006, joining the DB9 and DB9 Volante.[56]

In December 2003, Aston Martin announced it would return to motor racing in 2005. A new division was created, called Aston Martin Racing, which became responsible, together with Prodrive, for the design, development, and management of the DBR9 program. The DBR9 competes in the GT class in sports car races, including the world-famous 24 Hours of Le Mans.[57]

In 2006, an internal audit led Ford to consider divesting itself of parts of its Premier Automotive Group. After suggestions of selling Jaguar Cars, Land Rover, or Volvo Cars were weighed, Ford announced in August 2006 it had engaged UBS AG to sell all or part of Aston Martin at auction.[58]

2007–2013: The Richards Era

On 12 March 2007, a consortium led by Prodrive chairman David Richards purchased Aston Martin for £475 million (US$848 million).[59] The group included American investment banker John Singers and two Kuwaiti companies namely Investment Dar and Adeem Investment;[60][61] Prodrive had no financial involvement in the deal.[62] Ford kept a stake in Aston Martin valued at £40 million (US$70 million).[63]

In order to demonstrate the V8 Vantage's durability across hazardous terrain and promote the car in China, the first east-west crossing of the Asian Highway was undertaken between June and August 2007. A pair of Britons drove 12,089 km (7,512 miles) from Tokyo to Istanbul before joining the European motorway network for another 3,259 km (2,025 miles) to London. The promotion was so successful Aston Martin opened dealerships in Shanghai and Beijing within three months.[64]

On 19 July 2007, the Newport Pagnell plant rolled out the last of nearly 13,000 cars made there since 1955, a Vanquish S. The Tickford Street facility was converted to Aston Martin's service and restoration department.[65] UK production is now concentrated at Gaydon on the former RAF V-bomber airfield.[66] In March 2008, Aston Martin announced a partnership with Magna Steyr to outsource manufacture of over 2,000 cars annually to Graz, Austria, reassuringly stating: "The continuing growth and success of Aston Martin is based upon Gaydon as the focal point and heart of the business, with the design and engineering of all Aston Martin products continuing to be carried out there."[67]

More dealers in Europe and the new pair in China brought the total to 120 in 28 countries.[68]

On 1 September 2008, Aston Martin announced the revival of the Lagonda marque, proposing a concept car to be shown in 2009 to coincide with the brand's 100th anniversary. The first production cars were slated for production in 2012.[69]

In December 2008, Aston Martin announced it would cut its workforce from 1,850 to 1,250 due to the ongoing economic recession.[70]

The first four-door Rapide grand tourers rolled out of the Magna Steyr factory in Graz, Austria in 2010.[71] The contract manufacturer provides dedicated facilities to ensure compliance with the exacting standards of Aston Martin and other marques, including Mercedes-Benz. Then CEO of the company, Dr. Ulrich Bez had publicly speculated about outsourcing all of Aston Martin's operations with the exception of marketing.[72] In September 2011, it was announced that production of the Rapide would be returned to Gaydon in the second half of 2012, restoring all of the company's automobile manufacture there.[73]

David Richards left Aston Martin in 2013, returning to concentrate on Prodrive.[74]

2012–present: Investindustrial Stakeholding and The Palmer Era

Italian private equity fund Investindustrial signed a deal on 6 December 2012 to buy a 37.5% stake in Aston Martin, investing £150 million as a capital increase.[75][76][77][78] This was confirmed by Aston Martin in a press release on 7 December 2012.[79] In April 2013, it was reported that Dr, Ulrich Bez would be leaving his role as the Chief Executive Officer to take up a more ambassadorial position[80] widely seen as the first move by the new shareholders in reviewing the leadership and strategy of Aston Martin. On 2 September 2014, Aston Martin announced it had appointed the Nissan executive Andy Palmer as the new CEO[81] with Ulrich Bez retaining a position as non-executive chairman. As sales had been declining from 2015, Aston Martin sought new customers (particularly wealthy female buyers) with introducing concept cars like the DBX SUV along with track focused cars like the Vulcan.[82][83] According to Palmer, the troubles started when sales of the DB9 failed to generate sufficient fund to develop next-generation models which led to a downward spiral of declining sales and profitability.[16]

In 2014, Aston Martin suffered a pre-tax loss of £72 million, almost triple of the amount of 2013 selling 3,500 cars during the year, well below the 7,300 cars sold in 2007 and 4,200 sold in 2013 respectively.[84] In March 2014, Aston Martin issued "payment in kind" notes of US$165 million, at 10.25% interest, in addition to the £304 million of senior secured notes at 9.25% issued in 2011.[84] Aston Martin also had to secure an additional investment of £200 million from its shareholders to fund development of new models.[84] It was reported that Aston Martin's pre-tax losses for 2016 increased by 27% to £162.8 million, the sixth year it continued to suffer a loss.[85]

Aston Martin returned to profit in 2017 after selling over 5,000 cars. The company made a pre-tax profit of £87 million compared with a £163 million loss in 2016.[86] In June 2019, Aston Martin opened its new 90-acre factory in St. Athan for the production of its upcoming SUV, the DBX, and two new models under the Lagonda marque.[87][88]

Relationship with Mercedes-AMG

In 2013, Aston Martin signed a deal with Daimler AG, which owned a 5% stake in Aston Martin, to supply the next generation of Aston Martin cars with Mercedes-AMG engines.[89] Mercedes-AMG also was to supply Aston Martin with electrical systems. This technical partnership was intended to support Aston Martin's launch of a new generation of models that would incorporate new technology and engines. The first model to sport the Mercedes-Benz technology was the DB11, announced at the 2016 Geneva Motor Show which also has Mercedes-Benz electronics for the entertainment, navigation and other systems. The 2018 V8 Vantage, unveiled in late 2017, employed a Mercedes-Benz twin-turbocharged V8 engine and infotainment systems.[90]

Going public

After “completing a turnaround for the once perennially loss-making company that could now be valued at up to 5 billion pounds ($6.4 billion),”[91] and now reporting a full-year pre-tax profit of £87 million (compared with a £163 million loss in 2016) Aston Martin in August 2018 announced plans to float the company at the London Stock Exchange as Aston Martin Lagonda Global Holdings plc.[92][91] The company was the subject of an initial public offering on the London Stock Exchange on 3 October 2018.[5]

Notable events

In August 2017, a 1956 Aston Martin DBR1/1 sold at a Sotheby's auction at the Pebble Beach, California Concours d'Elegance for US$22,550,000, which made it the most expensive British car ever sold at an auction, according to Sotheby's. The car was previously driven by Carroll Shelby and Stirling Moss. [93][94]

Models

Pre-war cars

  • 1921–1925 Aston Martin Standard Sports
  • 1927–1932 Aston Martin First Series
  • 1929–1932 Aston Martin International
  • 1932–1932 Aston Martin International Le Mans
  • 1932–1934 Aston Martin Le Mans
  • 1933–1934 Aston Martin 12/50 Standard
  • 1934–1936 Aston Martin Mk II
  • 1934–1936 Aston Martin Ulster
  • 1936–1940 Aston Martin 2-litre Speed Models (23 built) The last 8 were fitted with C-type bodywork
  • 1937–1939 Aston Martin 15/98

Post-war sports and GT cars

Other

Current models

Upcoming models

1933 Aston Martin Le Mans

1932–1934 Aston Martin Le Mans short chassis

Aston Martin 2 Litre 1950

1948–1950 Aston Martin DB1

Aston Martin DB2-4 Mark I

1950–1957 DB2 and later DB2/4

Aston-Martin DB4

1958–1963 Aston Martin DB4/GT

AMDB5No1

1963–1965 Aston Martin DB5

Aston Martin DB6 r

1965–1971 Aston Martin DB6

Aston Martin DBS V8 and Series II

1967–1989 DBS and later V8s

Virage Volante

1989–2000 Virage/V8/Vantage

Amvanquish

2001–2007 Aston Martin V12 Vanquish/S

Zagato Paris

2002–2003 DB7 Zagato coupé/roadster

Aston Martin DB AR1

2002–2004 Aston Martin DB AR1 roadster

Aston Martin DB9 - Flickr - Alexandre Prévot (16) (cropped)

2003–2016 Aston Martin DB9 coupé/Volante

Aston Martin V8 Vantage - Flickr - Alexandre Prévot (15) (cropped)

2005–2017 Aston Martin V8/V12 Vantage

Aston Martin DBS - Flickr - Alexandre Prévot (11) (cropped)

2007–2012 Aston Martin DBS V12

Aston Martin One-77 (8701486190) (cropped)

2009–2012 Aston Martin One-77

2012 Aston Martin Virage coupé

2011–2012 Aston Martin Virage

Aston Martin Cygnet (82)

2011–2013 Aston Martin Cygnet

White Aston Martin Vanquish in France (cropped)

2012–2018 Aston Martin Vanquish

Brand expansion

Since 2015, Aston Martin has sought to increase its appeal to women as a luxury lifestyle brand.[103] A female advisory panel was established to adapt the design of the cars to the taste of women.[104] In September 2016, a 37-foot long Aston Martin speedboat was unveiled called the Aston Martin AM37 powerboat.[105] In September 2017, Aston Martin announced that they had partnered with submarine building company Triton Submarines to build a submarine called Project Neptune.[106] Aston Martin has collaborated with the luxury clothing company Hackett London to deliver items of clothing.[14] In November 2017, Aston Martin unveiled a special limited edition bicycle after collaborating with bicycle manufacturer Storck.[13]

Aston Martin and global property developer G&G Business Developments are currently building a 66-storey luxury condominium tower called Aston Martin Residences at 300 Biscayne Boulevard Way in Miami, Florida which is set for completion in 2021.[107]

In July 2018, Aston Martin unveiled the Volante Vision Concept, a luxury concept aircraft with vertical take-off and landing capabilities.[108] Also in July, a Lego version of James Bond's DB5 car was put on sale [109] and an Aston Martin branded watch was released in collaboration with TAG Heuer.[110]

In October 2018, Aston Martin announced it was opening a design and brand studio in Shanghai.[111]

Motorsport

1957AstonMartinDBR1
DBR1/2 at Goodwood Festival of Speed 2009
Charouz Lola Aston Martin
Part of Aston Martin's current racing program, Charouz Racing System competes with sports prototypes powered by an Aston Martin V12

Whole race cars (post-war)

Engine supply only

Formula One World Championship results

(key)

Year Chassis Engine Tyres Driver 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Points WCC
1959 Aston Martin DBR4 Aston Martin L6 Avon
Dunlop
MON 500 NED FRA GBR GER POR ITA USA 0 NC
United Kingdom Roy Salvadori Ret 6 6 Ret
United States Carroll Shelby Ret Ret 8 10
1960 Aston Martin DBR4 Aston Martin L6 Dunlop ARG MON 500 NED BEL FRA GBR POR ITA USA 0 NC
United Kingdom Roy Salvadori DNS
Aston Martin DBR5 Ret
France Maurice Trintignant 11
Source:[112]

24 Hours of Le Mans finishes

Year Pos Class No Team Drivers Chassis Engine Laps
1931 5 1.5 25 United Kingdom Aston Martin United Kingdom A.C. Bertelli
United Kingdom Maurice Harvey
Aston Martin 1½-litre International Aston Martin 1.5L I4 139
1932 5 1.5 20 United Kingdom Aston Martin Ltd. United Kingdom Sammy Newsome
Sweden Henken Widengren
Aston Martin 1½-litre Le Mans Aston Martin 1.5L I4 174
7 1.5 21 United Kingdom Aston Martin Ltd. United Kingdom A.C. Bertelli
United Kingdom Pat Driscoll
Aston Martin 1½-litre Le Mans Aston Martin 1.5L I4 168
1933 5 1.5 25 United Kingdom Aston Martin Ltd. United Kingdom Pat Driscoll
United Kingdom Clifton Penn-Hughes
Aston Martin 1½-litre Le Mans Aston Martin 1.5L I4 188
7 1.5 24 United Kingdom Aston Martin Ltd. United Kingdom A.C. Bertelli
United Kingdom Sammy Davis
Aston Martin 1½-litre Le Mans Aston Martin 1.5L I4 174
1934 10 1.5 20 United Kingdom M.R.E. Tongue United Kingdom Reggie Tongue
United Kingdom Maurice Faulkner
Aston Martin 1½-litre Le Mans Aston Martin 1.5L I4 188
11 1.5 24 United Kingdom John Cecil Noël United Kingdom John Cecil Noël
United Kingdom Jen Wheeler
Aston Martin 1½-litre Le Mans Aston Martin 1.5L I4 180
1935 3 1.5 29 United Kingdom Roy Eccles United Kingdom Charles E.C. Martin
United Kingdom Charles Brackenbury
Aston Martin 1½-litre Ulster Aston Martin 1.5L I4 215
8 1.5 33 United Kingdom Maurice Faulkner United Kingdom Maurice Faulkner
United Kingdom Tom Clarke
Aston Martin 1½-litre Ulster Aston Martin 1.5L I4 202
10 1.5 32 United Kingdom C.T. Thomas United Kingdom C.T. Thomas
United Kingdom M. Kenyon
Aston Martin 1½-litre Ulster Aston Martin 1.5L I4 199
11 1.5 31 United Kingdom P.L. Donkin United Kingdom Peter Donkin
United Kingdom Lord Malcolm Douglas-Hamilton
Aston Martin 1½-litre Ulster Aston Martin 1.5L I4 199
12 1.5 27 United Kingdom John Cecil Noël United Kingdom Jim Elwes
United Kingdom Mortimer Morris-Goodall
Aston Martin 1½-litre Aston Martin 1.5L I4 196
15 1.5 30 United Kingdom R.P. Gardner United Kingdom R.P. Gardner
United Kingdom A.C. Beloë
Aston Martin 1½-litre Ulster Aston Martin 1.5L I4 190
1937 5 1.5 37 United Kingdom J.M. Skeffington United Kingdom J.M. Skeffington
United Kingdom R.C. Murton-Neale
Aston Martin 1½-litre Ulster Aston Martin 1.5L I4 205
11 2.0 31 United Kingdom C.T. Thomas United Kingdom Mortimer Morris-Goodall
United Kingdom Robert P. Hichens
Aston Martin Speed Model Aston Martin 2.0L I4 193
1939 12 2.0 29 United Kingdom Robert Peverell Hichens United Kingdom Robert P. Hichens
United Kingdom Mortimer Morris-Goodall
Aston Martin Speed Model Aston Martin 2.0L I4 199
1949 7 S
2.0
27 United Kingdom Arthur Jones United Kingdom Arthur Jones
United Kingdom Nick Haines
Aston Martin 2-Litre Sports (DB1) Aston Martin 2.0L I4 207
11 S
2.0
29 United Kingdom Robert Lawrie United Kingdom Robert Lawrie
United Kingdom Robert W. Walke
Aston Martin 2-Litre Sports (DB1) Aston Martin 2.0L I4 ?
1950 5 S
3.0
19 United Kingdom Aston Martin Ltd. United Kingdom George Abecassis
United Kingdom Lance Macklin
Aston Martin DB2 Aston Martin 2.6L I6 249
6 S
3.0
21 United Kingdom Aston Martin Ltd. United Kingdom Charles Brackenbury
United Kingdom Reg Parnell
Aston Martin DB2 Aston Martin 2.6L I6 244
1951 3 S
3.0
26 United Kingdom Aston Martin Ltd. United Kingdom Lance Macklin
United Kingdom Eric Thompson
Aston Martin DB2 Aston Martin 2.6L I6 257
5 S
3.0
25 United Kingdom Aston Martin Ltd. United Kingdom George Abecassis
United Kingdom Brian Shawe-Taylor
Aston Martin DB2 Aston Martin 2.6L I6 255
7 S
3.0
24 United Kingdom Aston Martin Ltd. United Kingdom Reg Parnell
United Kingdom David Hampshire
Aston Martin DB2 Aston Martin 2.6L I6 252
10 S
3.0
28 United Kingdom N.H. Mann United Kingdom Nigel Mann
United Kingdom Mortimer Morris-Goodall
Aston Martin DB2 Aston Martin 2.6L I6 236
13 S
3.0
27 United Kingdom P.T.C. Clark United Kingdom Peter Clark
United Kingdom James Scott Douglas
Aston Martin DB2 Aston Martin 2.6L I6 233
1952 7 S
3.0
32 United Kingdom Peter C.T. Clark United Kingdom Peter Clark
United Kingdom Mike Keen
Aston Martin DB2 Aston Martin 2.6L I6 248
1955 2 S
3.0
23 United Kingdom Aston Martin Ltd. United Kingdom Peter Collins
Belgium Paul Frère
Aston Martin DB3S Aston Martin 2.9L I6 302
1956 2 S
3.0
8 United Kingdom Aston Martin Ltd. United Kingdom Stirling Moss
United Kingdom Peter Collins
Aston Martin DB3S Aston Martin 2.9L I6 299
1957 11 S
3000
21 United Kingdom David Brown France Jean-Paul Colas
France Jean Kerguen
Aston Martin DB3S Aston Martin 3.0L I6 272
1958 2 S
3000
5 United Kingdom P & A.G. Whitehead United Kingdom Graham Whitehead
United Kingdom Peter Whitehead
Aston Martin DB3S Aston Martin 3.0L I6 293
1959 1 S
3.0
5 United Kingdom David Brown Racing Dept. United States Carroll Shelby
United Kingdom Roy Salvadori
Aston Martin DBR1/300 Aston Martin 3.0L I6 323
2 S
3.0
6 United Kingdom David Brown Racing Dept. France Maurice Trintignant
Belgium Paul Frère
Aston Martin DBR1/300 Aston Martin 3.0L I6 322
1960 3 S
3.0
7 United Kingdom Border Reivers United Kingdom Roy Salvadori
United Kingdom Jim Clark
Aston Martin DBR1/300 Aston Martin 3.0L I6 306
9 S
3.0
8 United Kingdom Major Ian B. Baillie United Kingdom Ian B. Baillie
United Kingdom Jack Fairman
Aston Martin DBR1/300 Aston Martin 3.0L I6 281
1977 17 GTP 83 United Kingdom SAS Robin Hamilton United Kingdom Robin Hamilton
United Kingdom David Preece
United Kingdom Mike Salmon
Aston Martin DBS V8 RHAM/1 Aston Martin 5.3L V8 260
1982 7 C 32 United Kingdom Viscount Downe Pace Petroleum United Kingdom Ray Mallock
United Kingdom Simon Phillips
United Kingdom Mike Salmon
Nimrod NRA/C2 Aston Martin-Tickford DP1229 5.3L V8 317
1983 17 C 41 United Kingdom EMKA Productions Ltd. United Kingdom Tiff Needell
United Kingdom Steve O'Rourke
United Kingdom Nick Faure
EMKA C83/1 Aston Martin-Tickford 5.3L V8 275
1985 11 C1 66 United Kingdom EMKA Productions, Ltd. United Kingdom Tiff Needell
United Kingdom Steve O'Rourke
United Kingdom Nick Faure
EMKA C84/1 Aston Martin-Tickford 5.3L V8 338
1989 11 C1 18 United Kingdom Aston Martin
United Kingdom Ecurie Ecosse
United Kingdom Brian Redman
Republic of Ireland Michael Roe
Greece Costas Los
Aston Martin AMR1 Aston Martin (Callaway) RDP87 6.0L V8 340
2005 9 GT1 59 United Kingdom Aston Martin Racing Australia David Brabham
France Stéphane Sarrazin
United Kingdom Darren Turner
Aston Martin DBR9 Aston Martin 6.0L V12 333
2006 6 GT1 007 United Kingdom Aston Martin Racing Czech Republic Tomáš Enge
United Kingdom Darren Turner
Italy Andrea Piccini
Aston Martin DBR9 Aston Martin 6.0L V12 350
9 GT1 62 Russia Russian Age Racing
United Kingdom Team Modena
Spain Antonio García
Australia David Brabham
Brazil Nelson Piquet Jr.
Aston Martin DBR9 Aston Martin 6.0L V12 343
10 GT1 009 United Kingdom Aston Martin Racing Portugal Pedro Lamy
France Stéphane Sarrazin
Monaco Stéphane Ortelli
Aston Martin DBR9 Aston Martin 6.0L V12 342
2007 1 GT1 009 United Kingdom Aston Martin Racing Australia David Brabham
United KingdomDarren Turner
Sweden Rickard Rydell
Aston Martin DBR9 Aston Martin 6.0L V12 343[113]
3 GT1 008 France AMR Larbre Compétition Denmark Casper Elgaard
United KingdomJohnny Herbert
ItalyFabrizio Gollin
Aston Martin DBR9 Aston Martin 6.0L V12 341[113]
4 GT1 007 United Kingdom Aston Martin Racing Czech Republic Tomáš Enge
United KingdomJohnny Herbert
NetherlandsPeter Kox
Aston Martin DBR9 Aston Martin 6.0L V12 337[113]
2008 1 GT1 009 United Kingdom Aston Martin Racing Australia David Brabham
United KingdomDarren Turner
Spain Antonio Garcia
Aston Martin DBR9 Aston Martin 6.0L V12 344
4 GT1 007 United Kingdom Aston Martin Racing Germany Heinz-Harald Frentzen
ItalyAndrea Piccini
AustriaKarl Wendlinger
Aston Martin DBR9 Aston Martin 6.0L V12 339
2009 4 LMP1 007 Czech Republic AMR Eastern Europe Czech Republic Tomáš Enge
Czech RepublicJan Charouz
Germany Stefan Mücke
Lola-Aston Martin B09/60 Aston Martin 6.0L V12 373
13 LMP1 008 United Kingdom Aston Martin Racing United Kingdom Anthony Davidson
United KingdomDarren Turner
Netherlands Jos Verstappen
Lola-Aston Martin B09/60 Aston Martin 6.0L V12 342
3 GT1 66 United Kingdom Jetalliance Racing Austria Lukas Lichtner-Hoyer
Austria Thomas Gruber
Germany Alex Müller
Aston Martin DBR9 Aston Martin 6.0L V12 294
2010 6 LMP1 007 United Kingdom Aston Martin Racing Switzerland Harold Primat
MexicoAdrián Fernández
Germany Stefan Mücke
Lola-Aston Martin B09/60 Aston Martin 6.0L V12 365
3 GT1 52 Germany Young Driver AMR Czech Republic Tomáš Enge
DenmarkChristoffer Nygaard
Netherlands Peter Kox
Aston Martin DBR9 Aston Martin 6.0L V12 311
2011 7 LMP1 22 Belgium Kronos Racing
Belgium Marc VDS Racing Team
Belgium Vanina Ickx
BelgiumBas Leinders
Belgium Maxime Martin
Lola-Aston Martin B09/60 Aston Martin 6.0L V12 328
2012 3 GTE-Pro 97 United Kingdom Aston Martin Racing United Kingdom Darren Turner
MexicoAdrián Fernández
Germany Stefan Mücke
Aston Martin V8 Vantage GTE Aston Martin 4.5L V8 332
2013 3 GTE-Pro 97 United Kingdom Aston Martin Racing United Kingdom Darren Turner
United KingdomPeter Dumbreck
Germany Stefan Mücke
Aston Martin V8 Vantage GTE Aston Martin 4.5L V8 314
6 GTE-Am 96 United Kingdom Aston Martin Racing Germany Roald Goethe
United KingdomJamie Campbell-Walter
United Kingdom Stuart Hall
Aston Martin V8 Vantage GTE Aston Martin 4.5L V8 301

Sponsorships

Aston Martin sponsors 2. Bundesliga club 1860 Munich.[114]

See also

References

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External links

Aston Martin DB11

The Aston Martin DB11 is a grand tourer produced by British luxury car manufacturer Aston Martin since 2016. It debuted at the Geneva Motor Show in March 2016 as a replacement to the DB9. It is the first model launched in Aston Martin's 'second century' plan and the first car launched since the company's tie-up with Daimler AG.

Aston Martin DB5

The Aston Martin DB5 is a British luxury grand tourer (GT) that was made by Aston Martin and designed by the Italian coachbuilder Carrozzeria Touring Superleggera. Released in 1963, it was an evolution of the final series of DB4. The DB series was named honouring Sir David Brown (the owner of Aston Martin from 1947 to 1972).

Although not the first in the DB series, the DB5 is the best-known cinematic James Bond car, first appearing in the James Bond film Goldfinger (1964).

Aston Martin DB7

The Aston Martin DB7 is a grand tourer which was produced by British luxury automobile manufacturer Aston Martin from September 1994 to December 2004. The car was available either as a coupé or a convertible. The prototype was complete by November 1992 and debuted at the Geneva Motor Show in March, 1993; the car was designed by Ian Callum and Keith Helfet. The six-cylinder DB7 (based on the Jaguar AJ6 engine) was positioned as an "entry-level" model below the hand-built V8 Virage introduced a few years earlier. This model was the highest produced Aston Martin automobile ever, with more than 7,000 built before it was replaced by the DB9 in 2004.

Aston Martin DB9

The Aston Martin DB9 is a British grand tourer first shown by Aston Martin at the 2003 Frankfurt Auto Show. Available both in coupé and a convertible bodystyles, the latter being known as the Volante, the DB9 was the successor of the DB7. It was the first model built at Aston Martin's Gaydon facility.

The DB9 was originally designed by Henrik Fisker, has an aluminium construction. The chassis is the Ford developed VH platform whilst the engine is the 5.9-litre V12 from the Vanquish. The 2013 model year facelift saw many improvements to the design, the engine and the overall driving experience.

The DB9 is rated well by car critics, who appreciate the car's interior and exterior design. In spite of comments regarding the DB9's poor handling, reviewers liked the car's ride and driving experience. Some also held issue with the DB9's small rear seats, cargo space and poor satnav.

Aston Martin Racing adapted the DB9 for sports car racing, producing the DBR9 for FIA GT1 and the DBRS9 for FIA GT3. These two cars are modified DB9 models adapted for motorsport; the interior features are removed and the aluminium body panels are replaced by carbon fibre panels. Additionally, the engine has been tweaked in both the cars to produce more horsepower and torque.

Production of the DB9 ended after 12 years in 2016, having been replaced by the DB11 which uses an all-new platform and engine.

Aston Martin DBR9

The Aston Martin DBR9 is a racing car built by Aston Martin Racing, debuting in 2005 and racing actively in international sportscar racing until the end of GT1 category in 2011. The name DBR9 is derived from the original 24 Hours of Le Mans-winning DBR1 car, named for then-owner David Brown, which not only won the 24 Hour race in 1959 but also the World Sportscar title. The car is most famous for taking two LMGT1 class wins at Le Mans 24 Hours (2007 and 2008) by the Aston Martin Racing factory team.

Aston Martin DBS V12

The Aston Martin DBS is a high performance grand tourer based on the DB9 and manufactured by the British luxury automobile manufacturer Aston Martin.

Aston Martin has used the DBS name once before on their 1967–72 grand tourer coupé. The modern car replaced the 2004 Vanquish S as the flagship of the marque. The DBS ended production in 2012 and was succeeded by the second-generation of the Vanquish.

Aston Martin Music

"Aston Martin Music" is the third single from rapper Rick Ross's fourth studio album Teflon Don. The song was released as a single on October 5, 2010. The song, which was produced by J.U.S.T.I.C.E. League, features vocals from Canadian recording artist Drake and American singer Chrisette Michele.

Aston Martin Racing

Aston Martin Racing is a British auto racing team established in 2004 as a partnership between automobile manufacturer Aston Martin and engineering group Prodrive. The partnership was initially created for the purpose of returning Aston Martin to sports car racing with the DBR9, a heavily modified variant of the Aston Martin DB9. Since the DBR9's racing debut in 2005, Aston Martin Racing has expanded to build a variety of cars available to customers, as well as development of Aston Martin's V12 engine for Le Mans Prototype use. Aston Martin Racing's program has earned several successes over the years.

Although all cars are built by Prodrive at their factory, Aston Martin plays an integral part in designing the race cars, as well as integrating elements of the race cars back into Aston Martin's road cars.

On 23 April 2009, Aston Martin chairman and Prodrive founder David Richards announced his intent to return to Formula One in 2010 with the possibility of using the Aston Martin name, however this never materialised. Aston Martin had previously raced in the 1959 and 1960 Formula One seasons but failed to score points in either year.

Aston Martin Vanquish

The Aston Martin Vanquish is a grand tourer introduced by British luxury automobile manufacturer Aston Martin in 2001 as a successor to the ageing Virage range.

The first-generation of the V12 Vanquish, designed by Ian Callum and unveiled at the 2001 Geneva Motor Show, was produced from 2001 to 2005. The prototype, built by the Ford Motor Company and Indian designer Dilip Chhabria, was driven by James Bond in the 2002 film Die Another Day. In 2004, a more powerful version called the Vanquish S became the marque's flagship, followed by the DBS in 2007.

The second-generation of the Vanquish was introduced in 2012, followed in 2017 by the Vanquish S with a more powerful engine and improved aerodynamics.

The Vanquish was succeeded by the DBS Superleggera in 2018.

Aston Martin Vantage (2005)

The Aston Martin Vantage is a series of hand-built sports cars from the British automotive manufacturer Aston Martin. Aston Martin has previously used the "Vantage" name on high-performance variants of their existing GT models, notably on the Virage-based car of the 1990s. The modern car, in contrast, is the leanest and most agile car in Aston's lineup. As such, it is intended as a more focused model to reach out to potential buyers of cars such as the Porsche 911 as well as the exotic sports and GT cars with which Aston Martins traditionally compete.

Production of the V8 Vantage ended in 2017 while production of the V12 Vantage continued until 2018. In November 2017, Aston Martin unveiled a new redesigned Vantage. The new model was unveiled in 2017 and began production in 2018.

Aston Martin Vantage GT2

The Aston Martin Vantage GT2 is the most powerful racing variant of the Aston Martin V8 Vantage family. The Vantage GT2 is based on the V8 engined Aston Martin Vantage road car but is designed to run on both standard race fuel or E85 bio-ethanol.

Darren Turner

Darren Turner (born 13 April 1974) is a British professional racing driver currently racing for Aston Martin Racing as a factory driver in the FIA World Endurance Championship.

He was McLaren Autosport BRDC Young Driver of the Year in 1996. He is a former test driver for the McLaren Formula One team, but has raced primarily in touring cars and sportscars since 2000. He spent 2 years in the DTM for Keke Rosberg's Mercedes-Benz-powered team, also winning several ASCAR races. In 2006 he raced sportscars for Aston Martin, but also competed five rounds of the British Touring Car Championship for SEAT, sharing their 2nd car with James Thompson. In his first drive for the team he finished 3rd.

He finished second in the first two races at Knockhill, but lost both results for technical infringements. While running second to team-mate Jason Plato under a safety car in race one, he did not stay close to Plato's car, thus preventing Plato's championship rivals from being close to him. This incurred a 20-second time penalty, dropping him to 10th, however the team then removed the 'Success Ballast' he had earned for second place. As this applies to the order cars cross the line, not the final amended race result (drivers who were elevated by his penalty did not gain extra success ballast), this is a disqualification offence.

He remained with the team for 2007, now full-time team-mate to Plato. Luck was again against him at Rockingham – after qualifying on pole the car had an electrical failure before race one. His first win came in race 11 at Croft [1], with two more at Knockhill.

As well as driving for SEAT in the BTCC, Darren also competed in the 2007 Le Mans 24 Hours, competing in the GT1 class driving for Prodrive Aston Martin Racing alongside David Brabham and Rickard Rydell. After a tense fight against the Corvette Racing Corvette C6.R of Johnny O'Connell, Jan Magnussen and Ron Fellows, the Aston prevailed to win a Le Mans class race for the first time since the return of Aston Martin to endurance sportscar racing.

He opened his 2008 racing season by competing in the Rolex 24 finishing 4th in class and overall sharing a Krohn Racing Pontiac-Riley with Niclas Jonsson and Ricardo Zonta. At the 2008 24 Hours of Le Mans Turner won the GT1 class (13th overall) driving an Aston Martin DBR9 shared with David Brabham and Antonio García.

Turner also participated in the Gold Coast 600 race as part of the 2011 International V8 Supercars Championship. He entered the race as a replacement driver to Dan Wheldon, who was scheduled to drive in the race but was killed in a 15-car crash at the IndyCar World Championship race at the Las Vegas Motor Speedway, less than a week before the race.

In 2012, Turner competed in the 2012 FIA World Endurance Championship season with Aston Martin Racing in the GTE-Pro class Aston Martin Vantage.

In the 80th edition of the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 2012, Turner and the Aston Martin Racing finished third place in the GTE-Pro class along with his co-drivers the German Stefan Mücke and the Mexican Adrián Fernández, their Aston Martin Vantage 4.5 L-V8 covered a total of 332 laps (2,811.65 miles), in the Circuit de la Sarthe without failure or serious mechanical problems. Also the team achieved the fastest lap of the category with 3 minutes and 54.928 seconds.For 2013 Turner continues with Aston Martin Racing and will be entering the FIA World Endurance Championship in an Aston Martin Aston Martin Vantage GTE alongside Stefan Mücke and will be joined by Peter Kox for the 6 Hours of Austin and the 24 Hours of Le Mans.

Geneva Motor Show

The Geneva International Motor Show is an annual auto show held in March in the Swiss city of Geneva. The show is hosted at the Palexpo, a convention centre located next to the Geneva Cointrin International Airport. The Salon is organised by the Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs d'Automobiles, and is considered an important major international auto show.First held in 1905, the Salon has hosted almost all major internal combustion engined models in the history of the automobile, along with benzene- and steam-powered cars from the beginning of the century. Exotic supercars often steal the spotlight during their debuts at the show. Prototypes, new equipment, technical breakthroughs, international partnerships, as well as political and social debates, have been announced at the exhibition. The show is regarded as a level playing field for the world's automakers, aided by the fact Switzerland lacks an auto industry of its own.

Lagonda

Lagonda is a British luxury car marque established in 1906, which has been owned by Aston Martin since 1947. The marque has had a non-continuous presence in the luxury car market, being dormant for several times during its existence, most recently from 1995 to 2008 and 2010 to 2013.

Pedro Lamy

José Pedro Mourão Lamy Viçoso, OIH, known as Pedro Lamy (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈpeðɾu laˈmi]; born 20 March 1972) is a Portuguese professional racing driver currently racing in endurance races teaming up with Mathias Lauda and gentleman driver Paul Dalla Lana. He was the first Portuguese driver to score a point in a Formula One World Championship event, in the 1995 Australian Grand Prix, for Minardi.

Prodrive

Prodrive is a British motorsport and advanced engineering group based in Banbury, Oxfordshire, England. It designs, constructs and races cars for companies and teams such as Aston Martin, Mini and Volkswagen. Its advanced technology division now applies this motorsport engineering approach to deliver engineering solutions into automotive OEMs, aerospace, defence, marine and other sectors, which now represents more than half its turnover. Prodrive also has a specialist composite division based in Milton Keynes where it manufactures lightweight carbon composite CFRP and visual carbon components for many supercars and increasingly for the luxury automotive, aerospace and marine sectors.

Prodrive first became well known for its involvement in the World Rally Championship with the Subaru World Rally Team, developing championship-winning cars for Colin McRae and Richard Burns, which now reside in the Prodrive heritage collection alongside many other of its classic race and rally cars at its new Banbury headquarters. While the Subaru World Rally programme ended in 2008, today its motorsport manufacturer programmes include Aston Martin Racing in the FIA World Endurance Championship and VW in the Chinese Rally Championship. It also created the Megane RX for GC Kompetition for the FIA World Rallycross Championship.

The company employs nearly 500 in the UK at operations in Banbury and Milton Keynes.

Red Bull Racing

Red Bull Racing (also known as Red Bull or RBR and competing as Aston Martin Red Bull Racing) is a Formula One racing team, racing under an Austrian licence and based in the United Kingdom. The team raced under a British licence from 2005 to 2006 and has raced under an Austrian licence since 2007. It is one of two Formula One teams owned by beverage company Red Bull GmbH, the other being Scuderia Toro Rosso. The team has been managed by Christian Horner since its formation in 2005.Red Bull had Cosworth engines in 2005 and Ferrari engines in 2006. The team used engines supplied by Renault between 2007 and 2018 (from 2016 to 2018 the Renault engine was re-badged as a TAG Heuer following the breakdown in the relationship between Red Bull and Renault in 2015). During this partnership they won four successive Drivers' and Constructors' Championship titles from 2010 to 2013, becoming the first Austrian-licensed team to win the title. The team began using Honda engines in 2019.

Stefan Mücke

Stefan Mücke (born 22 November 1981) is a German professional racing driver.

Toyota iQ

The Toyota iQ is a transverse engined, front-wheel-drive city car that was manufactured by Toyota and marketed in a single generation for Japan (2008–2016), Europe (2008–2015), and North America (2012–2015) where it was marketed as the Scion iQ. A rebadged variant was marketed in Europe as the Aston Martin Cygnet (2009–2013).

Designed at the Toyota European Design and Development studio in Nice, France, the iQ is noted for its specialized engineering to maximize passenger space, while minimizing exterior length. The design accommodates three passengers—and provisionally a fourth, under very tight conditions.

Following a concept presented at the 2007 Frankfurt Auto Show, the production iQ debuted at the March 2008 Geneva Motor Show. Japanese sales began in November 2008 and European sales in January 2009.In 2008, the iQ was named the Japanese Car of the Year. The name iQ, an initialism of the term intelligence quotient, recalls a competitor, the Smart Fortwo. The letters "iQ" also stand for "individuality", "innovation", "quality", a hint at its "cubic form" and also a "cue" for owners to embrace new types of vehicles and lifestyles.

The iQ reached the end of production in December 2015, and it was discontinued in Japan on 4 April 2016.

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