The Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) is a main men's tennis governing body.
It was formed in September 1972 by Donald Dell, Jack Kramer, and Cliff Drysdale to protect the interests of male professional tennis players, and Drysdale became the first President. Since 1990, the association has organized the ATP Tour, the worldwide tennis tour for men and linked the title of the tour with the organization's name. It is the governing body of men's professional tennis. In 1990 the organization was called the ATP Tour, which was renamed in 2001 as just ATP and the tour being called ATP Tour. In 2009 the name of the tour was changed again and was known as the ATP World Tour, but changed again to the ATP Tour by 2019. It is an evolution of the tour competitions previously known as Grand Prix tennis tournaments and World Championship Tennis (WCT).
The ATP's global headquarters are in London, United Kingdom. ATP Americas is based in Ponte Vedra Beach, United States; ATP Europe is headquartered in Monaco; and ATP International, which covers Africa, Asia and Australasia, is based in Sydney, Australia.
The counterpart organisation in the women's professional game is the Women's Tennis Association (WTA).
|Association of Tennis Professionals|
Ponte Vedra Beach
|Current season: 2019 ATP World Tour|
Started in 1972 by Jack Kramer, Donald Dell, and Cliff Drysdale, it was first managed by Jack Kramer, as Executive Director, and Cliff Drysdale, as President. Jim McManus was a founding member. Jack Kramer created the professional players' rankings system, which started the following year and is still in use. From 1974 to 1989, the men's circuit was administered by a sub-committee called the Men's International Professional Tennis Council (MIPTC). It was made up of representatives of the International Tennis Federation (ITF), the ATP, and tournament directors from around the world. The ATP successfully requested that the MIPTC introduce a drug testing rule, making tennis the first professional sport to institute a drug-testing program.
In May 1973 Nikola Pilić, Yugoslavia's number one tennis player, was suspended by his national lawn tennis association, who claimed he had refused to play in a Davis Cup tie for his country earlier that month. The initial suspension of nine months, supported by the International Lawn Tennis Federation (ILTF), was later reduced by the ILTF to one month which meant that Pilic would not be allowed to play at Wimbledon.
In response the ATP threatened a boycott, stating that if Pilić was not allowed to compete none should. After last-ditch attempts at a compromise failed the ATP voted in favor of a boycott and as a result 81 of the top players, including reigning champion Stan Smith and 13 of the 16 men's seeds, did not compete at the 1973 Wimbledon Championships. Three ATP players, Ilie Năstase, Roger Taylor and Ray Keldie defied the boycott and were fined by the ATP's disciplinary committee.
But the tour was still run by the tournament directors and the ITF. The lack of player representation and influence within the MIPTC as well as dissatisfaction with the way the sport was managed and marketed culminated in a player mutiny in 1988 that changed the entire structure of the tour.
CEO Hamilton Jordan is credited with the Parking Lot Press Conference on 30 August 1988 during which the ATP announced their withdrawal from the MIPTC (then called the MTC) and the creation of their own ATP Tour from 1990 onwards. This re-organisation also ended a lawsuit with Volvo and Donald Dell. On 19 January 1989 the ATP published the Tour calendar for the inaugural 1990 season.
By 1991, the men had their first television package to broadcast 19 tournaments to the world. Coming online with their first website in 1995, this was quickly followed by a multi-year agreement with Mercedes-Benz. Lawsuits in 2008, around virtually the same issues, resulted in a restructured tour.
In 2009, ATP introduced a new tour structure called ATP World Tour consisting of ATP World Tour Masters 1000, ATP World Tour 500, and ATP World Tour 250 tier tournaments. Broadly speaking the Tennis Masters Series tournaments became the new Masters 1000 level and ATP International Series Gold and ATP International Series events became ATP 500 level and 250 level events respectively.
The Masters 1000 tournaments are Indian Wells, Miami, Monte Carlo, Madrid, Rome, Toronto/Montreal, Cincinnati, Shanghai and Paris. The end-of-year event, the ATP Finals, moved from Shanghai to London. Hamburg has been displaced by the new clay court event at Madrid, which is a new combined men's and women's tournament. In 2011, Rome and Cincinnati also became combined tournaments. Severe sanctions are placed on top players skipping the Masters 1000 series events, unless medical proof is presented.
Plans to eliminate Monte Carlo and Hamburg as Masters Series events led to controversy and protests from players as well as organisers. Hamburg and Monte Carlo filed lawsuits against the ATP, and as a concession it was decided that Monte Carlo would remain a Masters 1000 level event, with more prize money and 1000 ranking points, but it would no longer be a compulsory tournament for top-ranked players. Monte Carlo later dropped its suit. Hamburg was "reserved" to become a 500 level event in the summer. Hamburg did not accept this concession, but later lost its suit.
The ATP & ITF have declared that Davis Cup World Group and World Group Playoffs award a total of up to 500 points. Players accumulate points over the 4 rounds and the playoffs and these are counted as one of a player's four best results from the 500 level events. An additional 125 points are given to a player who wins all 8 live rubbers and wins the Davis Cup.
The ATP Tour comprises ATP World Tour Masters 1000, ATP World Tour 500 series, and ATP World Tour 250 series. The ATP also oversees the ATP Challenger Tour, a level below the ATP World Tour, and the ATP Champions Tour for seniors. Grand Slam tournaments, a small portion of the Olympic tennis tournament, the Davis Cup, the Hopman Cup and the introductory level Futures tournaments do not fall under the auspices of the ATP, but are overseen by the ITF instead and the International Olympic Committee (IOC) for the Olympics. In these events, however, ATP ranking points are awarded, with the exception of the Olympics and Hopman Cup. The four-week ITF Satellite tournaments were discontinued in 2007.
Players and doubles teams with the most ranking points (collected during the calendar year) play in the season-ending ATP Finals, which, from 2000–2008, was run jointly with the International Tennis Federation (ITF). The details of the professional tennis tour are:
|Event||Number||Total prize money (USD)||Winner's ranking points||Governing body|
|Grand Slam||4||See individual articles||2,000||ITF|
|ATP Finals||1||4,450,000||1,100–1,500||ATP (2009–present)|
|ATP World Tour Masters 1000||9||2,450,000 to 3,645,000||1000||ATP|
|ATP World Tour 500 series||13||755,000 to 2,100,000||500||ATP|
|ATP World Tour 250 series||40||416,000 to 1,024,000||250||ATP|
|ATP Challenger Tour||178||40,000 to 220,000||80 to 125||ATP|
|ITF Men's Circuit||534||10,000 and 25,000||18 to 35||ITF|
|Olympics||1||See individual articles||0||IOC|
ATP publishes weekly rankings of professional players: Emirates ATP Rankings (commonly known as the ‘world rankings’), a 52-week rolling ranking, and the Emirates ATP Rankings Race to London, a year to date ranking. All ATP players also have a Universal Tennis Rating, based on head-to-head results.
The ATP Rankings is used for determining qualification for entry and seeding in all tournaments for both singles and doubles. Within the ATP Rankings period consisting of the past year, points are accumulated, with the exception of those for the ATP Finals, whose points are dropped following the last ATP event of the year. The player with the most points by the season's end is the world No. 1 of the year.
The ATP Rankings Race To London is a calendar-year indicator of what the Emirates ATP Rankings will be on the Monday after the end of the regular season. Players finishing in the top eight of the Emirates ATP Rankings following the Paris Masters will qualify for the ATP Finals.
At the start of the 2009 season, all accumulated ranking points were doubled to bring them in line with the new tournament ranking system.
†Change since previous week's rankings
‡Change since previous week's rankings
The six-member ATP Board of Directors includes the Executive Chairman & President, along with three tournament representatives and two player representatives. The player representatives are elected by the ATP Player Council. The current board members are:
The 12-member ATP Player Council delivers advisory decisions to the Board of Directors, which has the power to accept or reject the Council's suggestions. As of November 13th, 2018, the Council consists of four players who are ranked within the top 50 in singles (Kevin Anderson - Vice-President, Robin Haase, John Isner, Sam Querrey), two players who are ranked between 51 and 100 in singles (Yen-Hsun Lu and Vasek Pospisil), two top 100 players in doubles (Jamie Murray and Bruno Soares), two at-large members (Novak Djokovic - President and Stefano Travaglia), one alumni member (Colin Dowdeswell), and one coach (Daniel Vallverdu).
The ATP Tournament Council consists of a total of 13 members, of which five are representatives from the European region, along with four representatives from both the Americas and the International Group of tournaments.
The 1994 BMW Open was an Association of Tennis Professionals men's tennis tournament held in Munich, Germany. The tournament was held from 25 April through 2 May 1994. Michael Stich won the singles title.1997 BMW Open
The 1997 BMW Open was an Association of Tennis Professionals men's tennis tournament held in Munich, Germany. The tournament was held from April 28 to May 5. Mark Philippoussis won the singles title.1998 BMW Open
The 1998 BMW Open was an Association of Tennis Professionals men's tennis tournament held in Munich, Germany. The tournament was held from April 27 to May 4. Thomas Enqvist won the singles title.2000 BMW Open
The 2000 BMW Open was an Association of Tennis Professionals men's tennis tournament held in Munich, Germany. The tournament was held from May 1 to May 8. Franco Squillari won the singles title.2003 ABN AMRO World Tennis Tournament
The 2003 ABN AMRO World Tennis Tournament was a men's tennis tournament played on indoor hard courts at Ahoy Rotterdam in the Netherlands. It was part of the International Series Gold of the 2003 ATP Tour. The tournament ran from 17 February through 23 February 2003. Unseeded Max Mirnyi won the singles title.
The singles draw featured Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) No. 3, Australian Open quarterfinalist, Tennis Masters Cup and Sydney runner-up Juan Carlos Ferrero, Doha quarterfinalist and Marseille winner Roger Federer and Sydney quarterfinalist and Paris Masters champion Marat Safin. Other seeded players were French Open champion Albert Costa, Wimbledon semifinalist Tim Henman, Sébastien Grosjean, Àlex Corretja and Sjeng Schalken.ATP Challenger Tour
The ATP Challenger Tour, known until the end of 2008 as the ATP Challenger Series, is a series of international men's professional tennis tournaments. The top tier of annual men's tennis is the ATP World Tour, Challenger Tour events are the second highest level of competition, and the Futures tournaments on the ITF Men's Circuit are the third and fourth tier of international professional tennis competition. The ATP Challenger Tour is administered by the Association of Tennis Professionals. Players who succeed on the ATP Challenger Tour earn sufficient ranking points to become eligible for main draw or qualifying draw entry at ATP World Tour tournaments. Players on the Challenger Tour are either young players looking to advance their careers, those who fail to qualify for ATP events, or former ATP winners looking to get back into the big tour.ATP Tour
The ATP Tour (known as the ATP World Tour from January 2009 until December 2018) is a worldwide top-tier tennis tour for men organized by the Association of Tennis Professionals. The second-tier tour is the ATP Challenger Tour and the third-tier is ITF Men's Circuit.Adriatic Challenger
The Adriatic Challenger is a professional tennis tournament played on clay courts. It is currently part of the Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) Challenger Tour. It is held annually in Fano, Italy, since 2016.Astana Challenger Capital Cup
The Astana Challenger Capital Cup is a professional tennis tournament played on indoor hard courts. It is part of the Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) Challenger Tour. It has been held in Astana, Kazakhstan in 2016.BFD Energy Challenger
The BFD Energy Challenger is a professional tennis tournament played on clay courts. It is currently part of the Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) Challenger Tour. It is held annually in Rome, Italy since 2015.Brest Challenger
The Brest Challenger is a professional tennis tournament played on hard courts. It is currently part of the Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) Challenger Tour. It is held annually in Brest, France since 2015.Columbus Challenger
The Columbus Challenger is a professional tennis tournament played on hard courts. It is currently part of the Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) Challenger Tour. It is held annually in Columbus, Ohio, U.S.A, as it has been since 2015, the tournament's start.Gastão Elias
Gastão José Ministro Elias (Portuguese pronunciation: [gɐʃˈtɐ̃w eˈliɐʃ]; born 24 November 1990) is a Portuguese professional tennis player, who competes on the ATP World Tour. He became the fifth Portuguese tennis player to break into the top 100 of the Association of Tennis Professionals singles rankings. In October 2016, he reached a career-high singles ranking of world No. 57 to become the second-highest-ranked Portuguese player, after João Sousa (No. 28).Hungarian Challenger Open
The Hungarian Challenger Open is a professional tennis tournament played on hard courts. It is currently part of the Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) Challenger Tour. It is held annually in Budapest, Hungary since 2016.International Challenger Zhangjiagang
The International Challenger Zhangjiagang is a professional tennis tournament played on hard courts. It is currently part of the Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) Challenger Tour. It is held annually in Zhangjiagang, China since 2017.International Tennis Tournament of Cortina
The International Tennis Tournament of Cortina is a professional tennis tournament played on outdoor red clay courts. It is currently part of the Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) Challenger Tour. It is held annually in Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy, since 2014.Jim McManus (tennis)
James Henry McManus (September 16, 1940 – January 18, 2011) was an American tennis player who reached the semifinals of the US Open men's doubles in 1968. McManus was a founding member of the Association of Tennis Professionals. McManus was coached by Tom Stow who guided Don Budge to the Grand Slam.
McManus was born to Tom and Margaret McManus on September 16, 1940. McManus had two brothers by the names of Tom and Bob. McManus was married to his wife Carole for over thirty years and had two children, Kate and Jordy. McManus grew up in Northern California and learnt the game of tennis at the Berkeley Tennis Club where he was given lessons from a series of coaches including Tom Stow, coach of tennis legend Don Budge. Later McManus played #1 Singles at the University of California for Coach Chet Murphy. The team finished #3 in the NCAA tournament in his Senior year of 1961.McManus was a founding member of the Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) in 1972 and a member of its original Board of Directors.In 2010 he published a book Tennis History: Professional Tournaments - Winners & Runner-Ups. In 2015 the ATP launched the Jim McManus Memorial Fund in his honor.List of ATP number 1 ranked singles tennis players
The ATP Rankings are the Association of Tennis Professionals' (ATP) merit-based method for determining the rankings in men's tennis. The top-ranked player is the player who, over the previous 52 weeks, has garnered the most ranking points on the ATP Tour. Points are awarded based on how far a player advances in tournaments and the category of those tournaments. The ATP has used a computerized system for determining the rankings since August 23, 1973. Starting in 1979, an updated rankings list is released at the beginning of each week.
Since 1973, 26 men have been ranked No. 1 by the ATP, of which 17 have been year-end No. 1. The current world number one is Novak Djokovic.Monterrey Challenger
The Monterrey Challenger is a professional tennis tournament played on hard courts. It is currently part of the Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) Challenger Tour. It is held annually in Monterrey, Mexico since 2015.
Men's tennis seasons
|Pre-Open era tour|
|ITF Independent tour|
|National Tennis League|
|World Championship Tennis|
|Grand Prix tennis circuit|
|ATP Tour / ATP World Tour|
ATP Tour Masters 1000 (since 2009)
ATP World Tour 500 series (since 2009)
ATP World Tour 250 series (since 2009)
Former tournament categories (1990–2008)
ATP Challenger Tour seasons
World rankings – Top ten tennis players as of week of 18 March 2019