Association of Research Libraries

The Association of Research Libraries (ARL) is a nonprofit organization of 124 research libraries at comprehensive, research institutions in the United States and Canada. ARL member libraries make up a large portion of the academic and research library marketplace, spending more than $1.4 billion every year on information resources and actively engaging in the development of new models of scholarly communications.[3]

ARL co-founded an affiliate organization, the Coalition for Networked Information (CNI), in 1990.[4] CNI is a joint program of ARL and EDUCAUSE, a nonprofit association whose mission is to advance higher education through the use of information technology.[5] ARL is also a member of the Library Copyright Alliance, a consortium of major library associations that have joined forces to address copyright issues affecting libraries and their patrons.[6]

Association of Research Libraries
Association of Research Libraries word mark 2016
FormationDecember 29, 1932 in Chicago, Illinois [1]
TypeNonprofit organization [2]
HeadquartersWashington, D.C.
Location
Membership
124
President
Susan Gibbons, Yale University
Key people
Mary Lee Kennedy, Executive Director
Websitewww.arl.org

History 1932–1962

The Association of Research Libraries held its first meeting in Chicago, Illinois on December 29, 1932. At that time, its membership included 42 major university and research libraries. This first meeting was primarily organizational. The prepared constitution and bylaws were accepted and each library adopted a constitution that stated, "the object shall be, by cooperative effort, to develop and increase the resources and usefulness of the research collections in American libraries."[7] Donald B. Gilchrist was elected as Executive Secretary. The Advisory Committee members included J. Christian Bay (John Crerar Library), James T. Gerould (Princeton University), Harold L. Leupp (University of California – Berkeley), C. C. Williamson (Columbia University), and Phineas L. Windsor (Illinois University).[1]

The first venture to be undertaken by ARL was a project for the collection of data regarding manuscript collections. This project had little support and was relatively short-lived.[1] However, the second project, the annual listings of the titles of the PhD theses was a significant contribution to the profession. The first volume of Doctoral Dissertations Accepted by American Universities was compiled by ARL and was published by H.W. Wilson in 1933. This series of publications would become the predecessor of what is now Dissertation Abstracts.[7] Passed into law in 1933, the National Industrial Recovery Act allowed trade associations and industry representatives to draft industrial codes of fair competition. In order to encourage the preservation of these records, ARL published Address List of Local Code Authorities under N.R.A.: 1933-1935 in 1933 which had been prepared by the National Recovery Administration for the Joint Committee on Materials for Research established by the American Council of Learned Societies and the National Research Council.[1] Two new members were added to ARL in 1936; Grosvenor Library (Buffalo) and New York University. The National Archives had expressed interest in joining but rejected the subsequent invitation.

ARL initiated two projects in 1937; publication of the Library of Congress catalog and an investigation into the pricing policy of the Wilson Company. In December 1937, Keyes D. Metcalf (Harvard University) succeeded Gilchrist as Executive Secretary. Gilchrist continued to edit Doctoral Dissertations Accepted by American Universities and serve on the Wilson Pricing Policy Committee.[1] The University of California – Los Angeles joined the ARL in 1937. Louisiana State University joined ARL in 1938. Keyes's term ended in 1940 and he was replaced by Paul N. Rice (New York Public Library).

In a meeting in January 1942, a proposal for the division of acquisition responsibility was presented. Rice formed a Committee on Postwar Competition in Book Purchases. Members of this committee included Archibald MacLeish (Library of Congress), Keyes D. Metcalf, and Robert Downs (future Director of Libraries at the University of Illinois). This program served as a pilot project for the Farmington Plan.[1] As part of the Library of Congress project, the ARL sponsored the publication of A Catalog of Books Represented by L.C. Printed Cards in 1942.

A two-day meeting was held in March 1944 to discuss a multitude of issues. Resulting from the meeting were a number of committees: Committee on Division of Responsibility for the Acquisition and Recording of Research Materials, Committee to Investigate the Wilson Proposal for Publication of LC Catalog Cards in Book Form, Committee on Reprinting the British Museum Catalog, Committee on Securing Complete Files of Foreign Documents in Certain Designated American Libraries, Committee on Standards for Graduate Colleges, Committee on Statistics of Library Holdings, Committee to Study Plans of Cancellation of Library Discards, Joint Committee on Government Documents, and Joint Committee on Cooperative Buying of Chinese Materials.[1] In 1946, Charles E. David (University of Pennsylvania) was elected Executive Secretary.

The Farmington Plan was initiated in January 1948 covering limited to monographs published in France, Sweden, and Switzerland by 52 cooperating libraries. The overhead expenses were paid for by a grant from the Carnegie Corporation.[8] Also in 1948, ARL Minutes were submitted for publication in College & Research Libraries for the first time.

Robert A. Miller was elected Executive Secretary in December 1951. The Foreign Newspaper Microfilm project was initiated in January 1956. It has 46 subscribers and a first year budget of $14,000.[1] William S. Dix, the 6th Executive Secretary, was elected in 1957. His term lasted only 2 years as he was elected Chairman of the U.S. National Commission for UNESCO in 1959. Stephen A. McCarthy was elected in 1960.

On December 5, 1961 the ARL was incorporated under the laws of the District of Columbia.[7] In May 1962, the National Science Foundation approved a 2-year grant of $58,350 towards the establishment of a full-time ARL Secretariat. The June 1962 invitation meeting brought the total number of ARL members to 72. In 1963, ARL assumed responsibility of publishing annual library statistics.

Leadership

Executive Secretaries 1932–1962

Executive Secretaries 1932-1962[9]
Date(s) Name Affiliation
1932-37 Donald B. Gilchrist University of Rochester
1938-41 Keyes D. Metcalf Harvard University
1942-46 Paul N. Rice New York Public Library
1947-51 Charles W. David University of Pennsylvania
1952-56 Robert A. Miller Indiana University
1957-59 William S. Dix Princeton University
1960-62 Stephen A. McCarthy Cornell University

Executive Directors 1963–present

Executive Directors 1963–present[10][11]
Date(s) Name
1963-67 James E. Skipper
1967 Donald F. Cameron
1968-74 Stephen A. McCarthy
1975-76 John P. McDonald
1977-79 John G. Lorenz
1980-81 Ralph E. McCoy
1981-87 Shirley Echelman
1988-07 Duane E. Webster
2008-12 Charles B. Lowry
2013-2017 Elliott Shore
2018 (Jan.-Mar.) Anne Kenney (interim)
2018- Mary Lee Kennedy

Presidents 1962–present

Presidents 1962–present[12][11]
Date(s) Name Affiliation
1962-63 William S. Dix Princeton University
1963 Robert Vosper University of California, Los Angeles
1964 Richard H. Logsdon Columbia University
1965 Edward G. Freehafer New York Public Library
1966 Foster E. Mohrhardt National Agricultural Library
1967 Rutherford D. Rogers Stanford University
1968 Andrew J. Eaton Washington University
1969 Douglas W. Bryant Harvard University
1970 Warren J. Haas Columbia University
1971 Thomas R. Buckman Northwestern University
1971-72 John P. McDonald University of Connecticut
1973 William S. Budington John Crerar Library
1974 Ralph H. Hopp University of Minnesota
1975 Richard De Gennaro University of Pennsylvania
1976 Virginia P. Whitney Rutgers University
1977 Edward C. Lathem Dartmouth College
1978 Ray W. Frantz University of Virginia
1979 Le Moyne Anderson Colorado State University
1980 Connie Dunlap Duke University
1981 Jay K. Lucker Massachusetts Institute of Technology
1982 Millicent D. Abell University of California, San Diego
1983 James E. Govan University of North Carolina
1984 Eldred Smith University of Minnesota
1985 Richard J. Talbot University of Massachusetts
1986 Anne Woodsworth University of Pittsburgh
1987 Herbert F. Johnson Emory University
1988 Elaine Sloan Indiana University
1989 Charles E. Miller Florida State University
1990 Martin Runkle University of Chicago
1991 Marilyn D. Sharrow University of California, Davis
1992 Arthur Curley Boston Public Library
1993 Susan Nutter North Carolina State University
1994 John Black University of Guelph
1995 Jerry Campbell Duke University
1996 Nancy Cline Pennsylvania State University
1997 Gloria Werner University of California, Los Angeles
1998 James G. Neal Johns Hopkins University
1999 Betty G. Bengtson University of Washington
2000 Kenneth Frazier University of Wisconsin
2001 Shirley K. Baker Washington University in St. Louis
2002 Paula T. Kaufman University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
2003 Fred Heath Texas A&M University
2004 Sarah Thomas Cornell University
2005 Ann J. Wolpert Massachusetts Institute of Technology
2006 Brian E. C. Schottlaender University of California, San Diego
2007 Sherrie Schmidt Arizona State University
2008 Marianne I. Gaunt Rutgers University
2009 Thomas C. Leonard University of California, Berkeley
2010 Brinley Franklin University of Connecticut
2011 Carol A. Mandel New York University
2012 Winston Tabb Johns Hopkins University
2013 Wendy Pradt Lougee University of Minnesota
2014 Carol Pitts Diedrichs Ohio State University
2015 Deborah Jakubs Duke University
2016 Larry Alford University of Toronto
2017 Mary Case University of Illinois at Chicago
2018 Mary Ann Mavrinac University of Rochester
2019 Susan Gibbons Yale University

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h McGowan, F.M. (1972). The Association of Research Libraries: 1932-1962. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh.
  2. ^ "History of ARL". Association of Research Libraries. Retrieved 23 November 2013.
  3. ^ "About". Association of Research Libraries. Retrieved 21 July 2017.
  4. ^ "History". Coalition for Networked Information. 2010-11-15. Retrieved 2018-06-11.
  5. ^ "Mission and Organization". EDUCAUSE. Retrieved 2018-06-11.
  6. ^ "About". Library Copyright Alliance. Retrieved 2018-06-11.
  7. ^ a b c George, L.A. & Blixrud, J. "Celebrating Seventy Years of the Association of Research Libraries, 1932–2002" (PDF). ARL. Association of Research Libraries. Retrieved 23 November 2013.
  8. ^ Metcalf, K. D. (Autumn 1948). "The Farmington Plan". Harvard Library Bulletin. 2 (3): 296. Retrieved 23 November 2013.
  9. ^ "A Gala Celebration of the 75th Anniversary of ARL's Founding: 1932–2007" (PDF). Association of Research Libraries. October 2007. p. 6.
  10. ^ "A Gala Celebration of the 75th Anniversary of ARL's Founding: 1932–2007" (PDF). Association of Research Libraries. October 2007. p. 6.
  11. ^ a b ARL records, 2008–2018.
  12. ^ "A Gala Celebration of the 75th Anniversary of ARL's Founding: 1932–2007" (PDF). Association of Research Libraries. October 2007. pp. 6–7.
Access2Research

Access2Research is a campaign in the United States for academic journal publishing reform led by open access advocates Michael W. Carroll, Heather Joseph, Mike Rossner, and John Wilbanks.On May 20, 2012, it launched a petition to the White House to "require free access over the Internet to journal articles arising from taxpayer-funded research". The White House has committed to issue an official response to such petitions if they reach 25,000 signatures within 30 days. Access2Research reached this milestone within two weeks. On February 22, 2013, the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy and announced an executive directive ordering all US Federal Agencies with research & development budgets over $100M to develop public access policies within twelve months.

The petition builds on previous campaigns asking scholars, publishers, funders, governments and the general public to remove paywalls to publicly funded scholarly research. It follows initiatives previously targeted at academics such as The Cost of Knowledge calling for lower prices for scholarly journals and to promote increased access to scientific information. The campaign refers to the NIH Public Access Policy as an example of a mandate that should be expanded to all federally funded research.

Canadian Association of Research Libraries

The Canadian Association of Research Libraries (CARL) was established in 1976 and brings together thirty-one research libraries. Twenty-nine members are university libraries, plus Library and Archives Canada (LAC) and the National Research Council Canada National Science Library (NSL).

Carl

Carl may refer to:

Carl, Georgia, city in USA

Carl, West Virginia, an unincorporated community

Carl (name), includes info about the name, variations of the name, and a list of people with the name

Carl², a TV series

"Carl", an episode of television series Aqua Teen Hunger Force

An informal nickname for a student or alum of Carleton CollegeCARL may refer to:

Canadian Association of Research Libraries

Colorado Alliance of Research Libraries

Charles Harvey Brown

Charles Harvey Brown (December 23, 1875 – January 19, 1960) was an American librarian and leader in the American Library Association. He received a bachelor's degree from Wesleyan University in 1897 and a master's degree in 1899. He went on to receive a second bachelor's degree in Library Science at the New York State Library School in 1901. He later received a Literary Doctorate from Wesleyan University in 1937. He began working at Wesleyan University from 1897 to 1899 and then worked for the Library of Congress from 1901 to 1903. Brown worked for the John Crerar Library from 1903 to 1909 and the Brooklyn Public Library from 1909 to 1919.Brown joined the United States Navy in 1919, leaving the service in 1922 to work for the Iowa State College Library. Brown directed the Iowa State University Library from 1922 to 1946 until he retired and was named Librarian Emeritus.He was president of the American Library Association from 1941 to 1942. Brown helped to form the Association of Research Libraries and in 1932, and the Association of College and Research Libraries in 1938.

Concordia University Library

Concordia University Library is the library system at Concordia University in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Concordia University has two library locations, the R. Howard Webster Library located in the J.W. McConnell Building of the Sir George Williams Campus and the Georges P. Vanier Library located at the Loyola Campus. On September 2, 2014, the Library opened the Grey Nuns Reading Room, a silent study space for Concordia students located in the former Chapel of the Invention of the Holy Cross. The Reading Room has seating for 192 students, with an additional 42 chairs in small reading rooms. A student of Political Science was the first to enter.The Concordia University Library houses several special collections including the Azrieli Holocaust Collection and the Irving Layton Collection. Most Special Collections are located in the Vanier Library. The Library also maintains the University's institutional repository, Spectrum.The Concordia University Library is a member of the Canadian Association of Research Libraries. Concordia University Library also has partnerships with the Canadian Research Knowledge Network and The Data Liberation Initiative.Since 1990, Concordia University Library has been hosting an annual public holiday auction, held every December, where all proceeds go to over 10 Montreal-based charities. The fund-raising event is planned and run wholly by the Library staff, also featuring a bazaar and pot luck lunch.

Danish National Art Library

The Danish National Art Library is the national research library for architecture, art history, visual arts and museology in Denmark. It was founded in 1754 as part of the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts and has been located at Charlottenborg's Nyhavn Wing in Copenhagen. It became an independent, self-owning institution in 1996. The library is a member of the Danish Association of Research Libraries.

Frank Melville Jr. Memorial Library

The Frank Melville Jr. Memorial Library is the main library at the State University of New York at Stony Brook. It is named for the father of philanthropist Ward Melville. Originally constructed in 1962 as a modest sized three-story building, it was renovated almost immediately and greatly expanded and re-dedicated in 1967-1971. It holds more than 2.1 million bound volumes and over four million rolls of microfilm. The library is a member of the Association of Research Libraries, a consortium of the top 120 research libraries in the country. The library has a Special Collections Department which houses over 16,000 rare books, 800 antique and hand-drawn maps, and over 150 collections, including the papers of Senator Jacob K. Javits, the Environmental Defense Archive, and the William Butler Yeats Microfilmed Manuscripts Collection.The building consists of six floors, and a commuter lounge, and is located on the Academic Mall of the university. There are also separate branch libraries in Math, Physics & Astronomy, Chemistry, Music, Computer Science, and Marine Science. The Library also contains offices for different academic departments, as well as classrooms, computer labs, a career center and a bookstore.

James F. Williams

James F. Williams II is an African-American librarian, the Dean of Libraries at the University of Colorado at Boulder.He holds a bachelor's degree in sociology from Morehouse College (1966) and a master's degree in library science from Atlanta University. His wife, Nancy Allen, is also a librarian, the Dean of Libraries at the University of Denver.Since January 2003 he has been a member of the editorial board of the journal Portal: Libraries and the Academy. He is on the board of directors of the Association of Research Libraries and chairs the ARL's Strategic Direction Steering Committee on Influencing Public Policies for 2010–2013. He is also on the boards of visitors for the School of Information Sciences at the University of Pittsburgh and for the libraries at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, a member of the Libraries' National Council of Washington University in St. Louis, and a trustee of the Denver Art Museum.In 2002, Williams won the Melvil Dewey Medal of the American Library Association for his "distinguished service to the profession of librarianship".

Library assessment

Library assessment is a process undertaken by libraries to learn about the needs of users (and non-users) and to evaluate how well they support these needs, in order to improve library facilities, services and resources. In many libraries successful library assessment is dependent on the existence of a 'culture of assessment' in the library whose goal is to involve the entire library staff in the assessment process and to improve customer service.

Although most academic libraries have collected data on the size and use of their collections for decades, it is only since the late 1990s that many have embarked on a systematic process of assessment (see sample workplans) by surveying their users as well as their collections. Today, many academic libraries have created the position of Library Assessment Manager in order to coordinate and oversee their assessment activities. In addition, many libraries publish on their web sites the improvements that were implemented following their surveys as a way of demonstrating accountability to survey participants.

Several libraries have undertaken renovation or expansion projects as a result of their assessment activities as well as enhance resource discovery tools, improve web site usability and stop redundant services.

Library publishing

Library publishing, also known as campus-based publishing, is the practice of an academic library providing publishing services.

List of the largest libraries in the United States

The size of libraries in the United States be determined by a number of metrics, including number of holdings (in terms of volumes or titles held), by circulation (i.e., library materials checked out or renewed); or by number of library visits.The largest public library in the United States—and the largest library in the world—is the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C., which is the de facto national library of the United States. It holds more than 167 million items, including "more than 39 million books and other printed materials, 3.6 million recordings, 14.8 million photographs, 5.5 million maps, 8.1 million pieces of sheet music and 72 million manuscripts." Other than the Library of Congress, the largest public library in the United States is the New York Public Library, while the largest research library in the United States is the Harvard Library.

Comparing the size of public libraries with research libraries (such as academic libraries) is complicated by the different definition of holdings or volumes used. The Association of Research Libraries uses the National Information Standards Organization definition of volume, which is "A single physical unit of any printed, typewritten, handwritten, mimeographed, or processed work, distinguished from other units by a separate binding, encasement, portfolio, or other clear distinction, which has been cataloged, classified, and made ready for use, and which is typically the unit used to charge circulation transactions." In contrast, the Public Library Data Service Statistical Report (a publication of the Public Library Association, which is a division of the American Library Association) defines holdings as "the number of cataloged items (number of items, number of titles) plus paperbacks and videocassettes even if uncataloged."

Paul North Rice

Paul North Rice (February 9, 1888 – April 16, 1967) was an American librarian who served as Chief of the Reference Department of the New York Public Library, Executive Secretary of the Association of Research Libraries and President of the American Library Association.

Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition

The Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC) is an international alliance of academic and research libraries developed by the Association of Research Libraries in 1998 which promotes open access to scholarship. The coalition currently includes some 800 institutions in North America, Europe, Japan, China and Australia.

Richard Johnson served as director 1998-2005. Heather Joseph became executive director in 2005.

Special collections

In library science, special collections (Spec. Coll. or S.C.) are libraries or library units that house materials requiring specialized security and user services.

Materials housed in special collections can be in any format (including rare books, manuscripts, photographs, archives, ephemera, and digital records), and are generally characterized by their artifactual or monetary value, physical format, uniqueness or rarity, and/or an institutional commitment to long-term preservation and access. They can also include association with important figures or institutions in history, culture, politics, sciences, or the arts.Individual libraries or archival institutions determine for themselves what constitute their own special collections, resulting in a somewhat mutable definition. For research libraries, a special collections area or division can be a fundamental part of their mission. Some special collections are standalone institutions that are privately funded, such as the Newberry Library or the American Antiquarian Society while others are part of a larger institution, such as the Beinecke Library at Yale University. Many American university special collections grew out of the merging of rare book rooms and manuscripts departments in a university's library system.

In contrast to general (or circulating) libraries, the uniqueness of special collections means that they are not easily replaced (if at all) and therefore require a higher level of security and handling.

University of British Columbia Library

The University of British Columbia Library is the library system of the University of British Columbia (UBC). In 2014, UBC Library ranked 22nd among members of the Association of Research Libraries.UBC Library is one of the largest research libraries in Canada, with 15 branches and divisions at UBC and at other locations, including branches at Vancouver Hospital and Health Sciences Centre, and one at the UBC Okanagan campus.

As of February 2016, UBC Library's collection comprises more than seven million volumes, more than 2.1 million e-books, more than 5.3 million microforms and more than 923,000 maps, videos and other multimedia materials.UBC Library has the largest collection of Asian-language materials in North America and the largest biomedical collection in Western Canada. It is a depository library for publications of the governments of British Columbia (BC), Canada, Japan and the United Nations.

The Library's collections of special and unique materials include the archives of Canadian author and artist Douglas Coupland, the Uno Langmann Family Collection of B.C. Photographs (consisting of more than 18,000 rare and unique early photographs of British Columbia), the H. Colin Slim Stravinsky Collection (the largest collection of its kind in Canada, including more than 130 items documenting the work and life of Igor Stravinsky) and the Wallace B. Chung and Madeline H. Chung Collection, containing more than 25,000 rare and one-of-a-kind items relating to the discovery of BC, the development of the Canadian Pacific Railway, and Chinese immigration to Canada. The collection includes documents, books, maps, posters, paintings, photographs, silver, glass, ceramic ware and other artifacts.

In October 2015, UBC Library opened its newest facility, Library Preservation and Archives (PARC), a new modular storage facility designed to accommodate the future growth of library collections. The building is located at UBC Vancouver’s South Campus (in the Research Precinct) and provides 2,280 square metres of high-density collection storage. It can store about 1.6 million volumes and the facility also houses a campus-wide records management service.

University of California, Berkeley Libraries

The University of California, Berkeley's 32 constituent and affiliated libraries together make it the fourth largest university library by number of volumes in the United States, surpassed only by the libraries of Harvard, Yale, and the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. As of 2006, Berkeley's library system contains over 10 million volumes and maintains over 70,000 serial titles.

The libraries together cover over 12 acres (49,000 m2) of land and compose one of the largest library complexes in the world. In 2003, the Association of Research Libraries ranked it as the top public and third overall university library in North America based on various statistical measures of quality.

University of Maryland Libraries

The University of Maryland Libraries is the largest university library in the Washington, D.C. - Baltimore area. The university's library system includes eight libraries: six are located on the College Park campus, while the Severn Library, an off-site storage facility, is located just outside campus, and the Priddy Library is located on the University System of Maryland satellite campus in Shady Grove.The UMD Libraries are a key academic resource that supports the teaching, learning, and research goals of the university. The various materials collected by the libraries can be accessed by students, scholars, and the general public. The libraries feature 4 million volumes and a substantial number of e-resources (including more than 17,000 e-journal titles), a variety of archives and special collections, and a host of technological resources which enable remote online access to the Libraries' holdings and services. They are members of both the Big Ten Academic Alliance (BTAA) and the University System of Maryland and Affiliate Institutions (USMAI). The libraries are currently ranked 10th in electronic resources as a percentage of total library materials by the 115-member Association of Research Libraries.

William F. Ekstrom Library

The William F. Ekstrom Library is the main branch of the University of Louisville Libraries system. Located on the university's Belknap Campus in Louisville, Kentucky, Ekstrom Library contains collections in the humanities, sciences, and social sciences. The University of Louisville Libraries is a member of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) and, along with Ekstrom, includes libraries for Art, Health Sciences, Law, and Music, as well as the Archives and Special Collections. The University of Louisville Libraries hold approximately 2.2 million print volumes, subscribe to several thousand serials, and provide full-text electronic access to approximately 74,000 journals. Ekstrom is a Federal Depository Library and houses the largest selective government document collection in Kentucky.

York University Libraries

York University Libraries is the library system of York University in Toronto, Ontario. The four main libraries and one archive contain more than 2,500,000 volumes. The library is named for William Pearson Scott.

Established in the 1960s under the direction of Thomas F. O'Connell, a former librarian at Harvard University, the need to build large collections in a short space of time was immediate and pressing. Accordingly, O'Connell made arrangements to purchase the entire stock of two bookstores: The Starr Book Company in Boston and Librarie Ducharme in Montreal. An early decision was also made not to duplicate research strengths at the University of Toronto and soon the Libraries owned impressive collections in American history, French Canadiana, and later sociology and psychology. Archibald Macleish formally dedicated the Libraries on 30 October 1971.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.