Association of East Asian Research Universities

The Association of East Asian Research Universities, established in 1996 by nine universities of East Asian region, is now the organisation of 17 universities. The purpose of the organisation is to promote exchange among the member institutions, Open a forum where the major research universities of the East Asia may share research results.

Association of East Asian Research Universities
Traditional Chinese東亞研究型大學協會
Simplified Chinese东亚研究型大学协会

Member universities

Mainland China

Hong Kong




External links

Best Chinese Universities Ranking

The Best Chinese Universities Ranking (BCUR) is a ranking table of Chinese institutions of higher education. It is compiled by Shanghai Ruanke, the same agency that is behind the Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU).

College English Test

The College English Test (Chinese: 大学四六级英语考试/大学公共英语考试), better known as CET, is a national English as a foreign language test in the People's Republic of China. It examines the English proficiency of undergraduate and postgraduate students in China. It is meant to ensure that Chinese undergraduates and postgraduates reach the required English levels specified in the National College English Teaching Syllabuses (NCETS). This test has existed in China for 26 years and now 18 million people take it annually. It includes two levels — CET4 (非专业四级) and CET6 (非专业六级).

Another kind of national English as a foreign language test is Test for English Majors (Chinese: 高校英语专业考试), better known as TEM. It includes two levels — TEM4 (英语专业四级) and TEM8 (英语专业八级).

East Asian people

East Asian people (East Asians, Northeast Asians, or Orientals) is a racial classification specifier used for ethnic groups and subgroups that are indigenous to East Asia, which consists of China, Hong Kong, Macau, Japan, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, and Taiwan. The major ethnic groups that form the core of East Asia are the Han, Korean, and Yamato. Other ethnic groups of East Asia include the Bai, Hui, Tibetans, Manchus, Ryukyuan, Ainu, Zhuang, and Mongols.

Education in Tibet

Education in Tibet is the public responsibility of the Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China. Education of ethnic Tibetans is partly subsidized by the government. Primary and secondary education is compulsory, while preferential policies aimed at Tibetans seek to enroll more in vocational or higher education.


The Guozijian, sometimes translated as the Imperial College, Imperial Academy, Imperial University, National Academy, or National University, was the national central institution of higher learning in Chinese dynasties after the Sui. It was the highest institution of academic research and learning in China's traditional educational system, with the function of administration of education.

In Vietnam, the Imperial Academy (Vietnamese: Quốc Tử Giám) existed after the Lý dynasty. Several notable chairmen of Guozijian in Vietnam history are Chu Văn An, Nguyễn Phi Khanh, Vũ Miên, and Lê Quý Đôn.

Journal of East Asian Studies

The Journal of East Asian Studies is a peer-reviewed academic journal published triannually by Lynne Rienner Publishers. It was established in 2001 and is abstracted and indexed by Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, International Bibliography of the Social Sciences, International Political Science Abstracts, and Social Sciences Citation Index. As of 2012 the editor-in-chief is Stephan Haggard.

Language Proficiency Assessment for Teachers

The Language Proficiency Assessment for Teachers (LPAT ; Chinese: 教師語文能力評核) is an assessment examination for the language proficiency of teachers in Hong Kong. According to regulations, any teachers teaching English language or Putonghua (a.k.a. Mandarin Chinese) in Hong Kong, where Cantonese Chinese is mostly spoken, must have passed the LPAT, i.e. achieved a grade of not lower than Level 3 in each part of the assessment.

List of universities in China

This article is a list of universities in mainland China, and Hong Kong and Macau SARs of the PRC.

By May 2017, there were 2,914 colleges and universities, with over 20 million students enrolled in mainland China. More than 6 million Chinese students graduated from university in 2008. The "Project 211" for creating 100 universities began in the mid-1990s, and has merged more than 700 institutions of higher learning into about 300 universities. Corresponding with the merging of many public universities, has been the rapid expansion of the private sector in mainland China since 1999. Although private university enrollments are not clear, one report listed that in 2006 private universities accounted for around 6 percent, or about 1.3 million, of the 20 million students enrolled in formal higher education in China. As of 2018, the country has the world's second highest number of top universities.

National Key Disciplines

National Key Disciplines (simplified Chinese: 国家重点学科; traditional Chinese: 國家重點學科; pinyin: guójiā zhòngdiǎn xuékē) is a list of key disciplines currently recognized as important and receiving support by the central government of the People's Republic of China.

National Key Universities

National Key Universities (Chinese: 国家重点大学) previously referred to universities recognized as prestigious and which received a high level of support from the central government of the People's Republic of China. The term is no longer in official use. However, it remains part of the vernacular, as evidenced by numerous Chinese media articles which still refer to "National Key Universities".A list of 16 National Key Universities was first promulgated by the Chinese government in 1959, and included Peking University, Tsinghua University, University of Science and Technology of China, Renmin University, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Fudan University. In 1960, another 44 universities were added to this list. By 1978, there were 88 National Key Universities. At the end of the 20th century, after reforms to the system of higher education in China, the Chinese government instituted a two-tier system of universities, namely universities managed by the central government and universities managed by provincial governments. The majority of universities would be managed by provincial governments. A small number of universities which affected national development or were highly specialized would be managed by the Chinese Ministry of Education (or by a few other ministries). The term "National Key Universities" then became defunct, and these schools are now normally referred to as "211" universities, based on China's Project 211. Universities under the Chinese Ministry of Education, of which there are currently 75, became known as "Universities directly under the Ministry of Education" (教育部直属高校).The term "zhòngdiǎn" 重点, translated here as "key," in this phrase can also be translated as "major," "priority," or "focal."

National Taiwan University

National Taiwan University (NTU; Chinese: 國立臺灣大學; pinyin: Guólì Táiwān Dàxué; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Kok-li̍p Tâi-oân Tāi-ha̍k; colloquially, 臺大; Táidà / Tâi-tāi) is a national university in Taipei City, Taiwan. NTU is the most prestigious comprehensive university in Taiwan and one of the top ranked universities in the world. It consists of 11 colleges, 56 departments, 112 graduate institutes, four research centers and a school of professional education and continuing studies.The University was founded in 1928 during Japanese rule as one of the Imperial Universities, the Taihoku Imperial University to serve under the purpose of Japanese colonization. It is older than Imperial Osaka University and Nagoya University. After World War II, the Nationalist government assumed the administration of the university, together with other Provincial flagship Universities in Mainland China at that time before 1949, similar to the American State Universities System, the Ministry of Education of ROC reorganized and renamed the University as ROC Provincial National Taiwan University on November 15, 1945 with the root of liberal tradition from Peking University by former NTU President Fu Ssu-nien.Notable alumni include Tsai Ing-Wen, the current President of the Republic of China, former presidents Lee Teng-hui, Chen Shui-bian and Ma Ying-jeou, Turing Award laureate Andrew Yao, and Nobel Prize in Chemistry laureate Yuan T. Lee. NTU is affiliated with National Taiwan Normal University and National Taiwan University of Science and Technology as part of the NTU System.

In 2016, there were 16,499 undergraduate and 15,284 graduate students.

Pear Garden

The Pear Garden or Liyuan was the first known royal acting and musical academy in China. Founded during the Tang dynasty by Emperor Xuanzong (712–755), it is an example of an early institutional academy of music.

The Tang dynasty (618–907) is sometimes known as "The Age of 1000 Entertainments". Emperor Xuanzong (also known as Ming Huang) established schools in the palace city Chang'an (now Xi'an) for music, dancing, and acting. Three hundred musicians and performers were trained annually under the supervision of the emperor, who sometimes joined in the training as well as the performances. The Pear Garden, so named after the pear trees planted inside, was an acting school established to produce a form of drama that was primarily musical, although this suffered from the vicissitudes of the An Lushan Rebellion. Actors were commonly called "Children of the Pear Garden", and in later dynasties the phrase "Pear Garden" has been used to refer to the world of Chinese opera in general.

Project 985

Project 985 (Chinese: 985工程; pinyin: Jiǔbāwǔ gōngchéng) is a project that was first announced by CPC General secretary and Chinese President Jiang Zemin at the 100th anniversary of Peking University on May 4, 1998, to promote the development and reputation of the Chinese higher education system by founding world-class universities in the 21st century. The name derives from the date of the announcement, May 1998, or 98/5 according to the Chinese date format. The project involves both national and local governments allocating large amounts of funding to certain universities in order to build new research centers, improve facilities, hold international conferences, attract world-renowned faculty and visiting scholars, and help Chinese faculty attend conferences abroad.In 2009, the original 9 founding member universities of Project 985 formed the C9 League, which is referred to as the Chinese equivalent of the US Ivy League. By the end of the second phase of the project, 39 universities were sponsored. It was announced in 2011 that the project has closed its doors, and no more new schools will be able to join in.In September 2017, a related plan called the Double First Class University Plan was announced. It was unclear whether this plan represents a new way of ranking universities in China, or replaces Project 211 and Project 985.

Project Hope

Project Hope (希望工程) is a Chinese public service project organized by the China Youth Development Foundation (CYDF) and the Communist Youth League (CYL) Central Committee. [1] Started on October 30, 1989, it aims to bring schools into poverty-stricken rural areas of China, to help children whose families are too poor to afford it to complete elementary school education. Through Project Hope, the CYDF has also sought to improve educational facilities and improve teaching quality in poorer regions.


Scholar-officials, also known as Literati, Scholar-gentlemen or Scholar-bureaucrats (Chinese: 士大夫; pinyin: shì dàfū) were politicians and government officials appointed by the emperor of China to perform day-to-day political duties from the Han dynasty to the end of the Qing dynasty in 1912, China's last imperial dynasty. After the Sui dynasty these officials mostly came from the scholar-gentry (紳士 shēnshì) who had earned academic degrees (such as xiucai, juren, or jinshi) by passing the imperial examinations. The scholar-officials were schooled in calligraphy and Confucian texts. They dominated the government and local life of China until the mid-20th century. The American philosopher and historian Charles Alexander Moore concluded:

Generally speaking, the record of these scholar-gentlemen has been a worthy one. It was good enough to be praised and imitated in 18th century Europe. Nevertheless, it has given China a tremendous handicap in their transition from government by men to government by law, and personal considerations in Chinese government have been a curse.

Since only a select few could become court or local officials, the majority of the scholar-literati stayed in villages or cities as social leaders. The scholar-gentry carried out social welfare measures, taught in private schools, helped negotiate minor legal disputes, supervised community projects, maintained local law and order, conducted Confucian ceremonies, assisted in the governments collection of taxes, and preached Confucian moral teachings. As a class, these scholars claimed to represent morality and virtue. The district magistrate, who by regulation was not allowed to serve in his home district, depended on the local gentry for advice and for carrying out projects, which gave them the power to benefit themselves and their clients.

State Key Laboratories

The National Key Laboratories (simplified Chinese: 国家重点实验室; traditional Chinese: 國家重點實驗室; pinyin: guójiā zhòngdiǎn shíyànshì) is a list of university and private sector laboratories currently receiving funding and administrative support from the central government of the People's Republic of China.

These labs often specialize in particular areas of academic interest. This can include:


Mathematics and Physics



Information technology

Materials science




Taixue (Tai-hsueh; simplified Chinese: 太学; traditional Chinese: 太學; literally: 'Greatest Study or Learning'), or sometimes called the "Imperial Academy", "Imperial School", "Imperial University" or "Imperial Central University", was the highest rank of educational establishment in Ancient China between the Han Dynasty and Sui Dynasty. The university held 30,000 students and administration during the 2nd century. This provided the Han Dynasty with well-educated bureaucrats. It was replaced by the Guozijian. The first nationwide government school system in China was established in 3 CE under Emperor Ping of Han, with the Taixue located in the capital of Chang'an and local schools established in the prefectures and in the main cities of the smaller counties.Taixue taught Confucianism and Chinese literature among other things for the high level civil service, although a civil service system based upon examination rather than recommendation was not introduced until the Sui and not perfected until the Song Dynasty (960–1279).

U15 (German universities)

German U15 e.V. is an association of fifteen major research-intensive and leading medical universities in Germany with a full disciplinary spectrum, excluding any defining engineering sciences.

The governing body is the Albert Ludwig University of Freiburg, represented by Rector Hans-Jochen Schiewer; the deputy governing body is the University of Mainz, represented by President Georg Krausch. The managing director is Jan Wöpking.

The association's headquarters are in Berlin.

U15 has been a member of the Global Network of Research Universities since November 2014. The network includes the Russell Group (Great Britain, headquartered in London), Association of American Universities (United States of America, headquartered in Washington D.C.), League of European Research Universities (Europe, headquartered in Leuven/Belgium), Association of East Asian Research Universities (Chinese mainland, Japan, South Korea, Hong Kong und Taiwan), C9 League (China), Group of Eight (Australia, headquartered in Canberra), Research Universities 11 (Japan), and the U15 Group of Canadian Research Universities (Canada, headquartered in Ottawa).


The ZHC (Chinese: 职业汉语能力测试; pinyin: Zhíyè Hànyŭ Nénglì Cèshì; literally: 'Professional Chinese Ability Test') is a test held by the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security of the People's Republic of China to test Chinese citizens' proficiency in Mandarin Chinese.

Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinDōngyà yánjiū xíng Dàxué xiéhuì
Yue: Cantonese
Yale RomanizationDūng a yìhn gau yìhng daaih hohk hip wuih
JyutpingDung1 aa3 jin4 gau3 jing4 daai6 hok6 hip3 wui6*2
Association of East Asian Research Universities (AEARU)
Hong Kong
Countries and regions
Ethnic groups
Politics and economics
Science and technology


This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.