The Assembly of the African Union, which is formally known as the African Union Assembly of Heads of State and Government (AU-AHSG), is one of several decision-making bodies within the African Union. The other bodies are the Pan-African Parliament; the Executive Council, consisting of foreign ministers of the AU members states; and the African Union Commission. The Chairperson of the Assembly has few formal functions, the most important of which is to preside at the Pan-African Parliament during the election and swearing in of the President of the Pan-African Parliament.
The Assembly came into existence on 25 May 1963, as part of the ratification of Organization of African Unity (OAU). Initially the Assembly consisted of 32 independent members, the heads of state of the African states that had achieved independence by 1963. Until 2001, the governing constitution of the Assembly was the OAU Charter. The Assembly is now subject to the Union Act that created the African Union.
The Assembly has nine basic functions:
The Assembly shall take its decisions by consensus or, failing which, by a two-thirds majority of the Member States of the Union. However, procedural matters, including the question of whether a matter is one of procedure or not, shall be decided by a simple majority.
Two-thirds of the total membership of the Union shall form a quorum at any meeting of the Assembly.
The Assembly may delegate any of its powers and functions to any organ of the Union.
The AU Assembly of the Heads of State and Government consists of the 54 heads of state and government of the member countries. The Assembly meets once a year at the AU Summit. The current Chairman of the Assembly is President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi of Egypt.
The current members of the AU-AHSG are:
|Member State||Representative||Title||Member since||Photo|
|Algeria||Abdelkader Bensalah||Acting Head of State||2 April 2019|
|Angola||João Lourenço||President||26 September 2017|
|Benin||Patrice Talon||President||6 April 2016|
|Botswana||Mokgweetsi Masisi||President||1 April 2018|
|Burkina Faso||Roch Marc Christian Kaboré||President||6 December 2015|
|Burundi||Pierre Nkurunziza||President||26 August 2005|
|Cabo Verde||Jorge Carlos Fonseca||President||9 September 2011|
|Cameroon||Paul Biya||President||6 November 1982|
|Central African Republic||Faustin-Archange Touadéra||President||30 February 2016|
|Chad||Idriss Déby||President||2 August 1990|
|Comoros||Azali Assoumani||President||26 May 2016|
|Democratic Republic of the Congo||Félix Tshisekedi||President||24 January 2019|
|Republic of the Congo||Denis Sassou Nguesso||President||25 August 1997|
|Côte d'Ivoire||Alassane Ouattara||President||4 December 2010|
|Djibouti||Ismail Omar Guelleh||President||8 May 1999|
|Egypt||Abdel Fattah el-Sisi||President||8 June 2014|
|Equatorial Guinea||Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo||President||3 August 1979|
|Eritrea||Isaias Afewerki||President||24 May 1993|
|Eswatini||Mswati III||King||25 April 1986|
|Ethiopia||Abiy Ahmed||Prime Minister||2 April 2018|
|Gabon||Ali Bongo Ondimba||President||19 October 2009|
|The Gambia||Adama Barrow||President||19 January 2017|
|Ghana||Nana Akuffo-Addo||President||7 January 2017|
|Guinea||Alpha Condé||President||21 December 2010|
|Guinea-Bissau||José Mário Vaz||President||23 June 2014|
|Kenya||Uhuru Kenyatta||President||9 April 2013|
|Lesotho||Tom Thabane||Prime Minister||16 June 2017|
|Liberia||George Weah||President||22 January 2018|
|Libya||Fayez al-Sarraj||Chairman of the Presidential Council||30 March 2016|
|Madagascar||Andry Rajoelina||President||19 January 2019|
|Malawi||Peter Mutharika||President||31 May 2014|
|Mali||Ibrahim Boubacar Keïta||President||4 September 2013|
|Mauritania||Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz||President||5 August 2009|
|Mauritius||Pravind Jugnauth||Prime Minister||23 January 2017|
|Mozambique||Filipe Nyusi||President||15 January 2015|
|Namibia||Hage Geingob||President||21 March 2015|
|Niger||Mahamadou Issoufou||President||7 April 2011|
|Nigeria||Muhammadu Buhari||President||29 May 2015|
|Rwanda||Paul Kagame||President||24 March 2000|
|Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic||Brahim Ghali||President||12 July 2016|
|São Tomé and Príncipe||Evaristo Carvalho||President||3 September 2016|
|Senegal||Macky Sall||President||2 April 2012|
|Seychelles||Danny Faure||President||16 October 2016|
|Sierra Leone||Julius Maada Bio||President||4 April 2018|
|Somalia||Hassan Ali Khayre||Prime Minister||16 February 2017|
|South Africa||Cyril Ramaphosa||President||15 February 2018|
|South Sudan||Salva Kiir Mayardit||President||9 July 2011|
|Sudan||Abdel Fattah Abdelrahman Burhan||Chairman of the Transitional Military Council||12 April 2019|
|Tanzania||John Magufuli||President||5 November 2015|
|Togo||Faure Gnassingbé||President||4 May 2005|
|Tunisia||Beji Caid Essebsi||President||31 December 2014|
|Uganda||Yoweri Museveni||President||26 January 1986|
|Zambia||Edgar Lungu||President||25 January 2015|
|Zimbabwe||Emmerson Mnangagwa||President||24 November 2017|
The 17th Ordinary African Union Summit was held 28 June 2011 through 1 July 2011 in Malabo, the capital city of the Equatorial Guinea. In addition to the meeting of AU heads of state, the AU summit in Malabo included the 19th Ordinary Session of the Executive Council and the 22nd Ordinary Session of the Permanent Representatives Committee (PRC).AD-PUT
The Africa and Diaspora Public Television Screening Conference (ADPUT) is Africa's own version of INPUT. It is modeled on the international public television organization that is dedicated to television as public service and in the public interest yet ADPUT focuses on Africa's own specific public broadcast challenges.African Continental Free Trade Area
The African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) is a planned free trade area, outlined in the African Continental Free Trade Agreement among 49 of the 55 African Union nations. If the agreement is ratified, the free-trade area will be the largest in the world in terms of participating countries since the formation of the World Trade Organization.The agreement was brokered by the African Union (AU) and was signed on by 44 of its 55 member states in Kigali, Rwanda on March 21, 2018. The agreement initially requires members to remove tariffs from 90% of goods, allowing free access to commodities, goods, and services across the continent. The United Nations Economic Commission for Africa estimates that the agreement will boost intra-African trade by 52 percent by 2022. The proposal will come into force after ratification by 22 of the signatory states.African Court of Justice and Human Rights
The African Court of Justice and Human Rights is an international and regional court in Africa.
It was founded in 2004 by a merger of the African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights and the Court of Justice of the African Union. It is the primary judicial agency of the African Union.The court is based in the city of Arusha, Tanzania, as is the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda and as was its predecessor the Court of Justice of the African Union.
The court has two chambers, one for general legal matters and one for rulings on the human rights treaties.
Within this the court has both an advisory opinion role and adjudicative role. The court is competent to interpret its own judgments in an appellate chamber.African Union
The African Union (AU) is a continental union consisting of 55 member states located on the continent of Africa, with exception of various territories of European possessions located in Africa. The bloc was founded on 26 May 2001 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and launched on 9 July 2002 in South Africa. The intention of the AU is to replace the Organisation of African Unity (OAU), established on 25 May 1963 in Addis Ababa by 32 signatory governments. The most important decisions of the AU are made by the Assembly of the African Union, a semi-annual meeting of the heads of state and government of its member states. The AU's secretariat, the African Union Commission, is based in Addis Ababa.
The African Union has an area of around 29 million km2 (11 million sq mi) and includes popular world landmarks, including the Sahara and the Nile. The primary languages spoken include Arabic, English, French and Portuguese and the languages of Africa. Within the African Union, there are official bodies such as the Peace and Security Council and the Pan-African Parliament.Antipas Mbusa
Antipas Mbusa Nyamwisi (born November 15, 1959 in North Kivu) is a politician and former rebel leader in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. He leads the Forces for Renewal political party and was Minister of Decentralization and Urban and Regional Planning until September 2011 when he resigned to run for president. He was previously the Minister of Foreign Affairs from 2007 to 2008.
Mbusa is also a member of the political bureau for Together for Change, the opposition political coalition formed by former Katnaga governor Moïse Katumbi to support his presidential bid in the upcoming 2018 presidential election.Continental union
A continental union is a regional organization which facilitates pan-continental integration. Continental unions vary from collaborative intergovernmental organizations, to supranational politico-economic unions. Continental unions are a relatively new type of political entity in the history of human government. Throughout most of human history, political organization has been at the local level (i.e. tribal, city state) and in more recent centuries, the sub-regional ("regional")/sub-continental level (i.e. river system/basin empires, the modern "nation-state"); however, starting with the advent of better transportation, weapons and communication there was for the first time the ability for a union of member states to organize at the continental level. After the devastation of the first and second world wars in the middle of the twentieth century, Europe began to slowly integrate with the founding of the "European Community", which became a political union covering much of the European continent (28 member states as of 2016).Emblem of the African Union
The emblem of the African Union features a golden, boundary-less map of Africa inside two concentric circles, with stylised palm leaves shooting up on either side of the outer circle.
Although when the AU was formed, a competition was announced for designing a new emblem and flag, the Assembly of the African Union decided at the Addis Ababa session of 2004 to retain the emblem and flag of its predecessor, the Organisation of African Unity, and adopt them as the new AU flag and emblem.Flag of the African Union
The current flag of the African Union was adopted at its 14th Ordinary Session of the Assembly of Heads of State and Government, which took place in Addis Ababa on 31 January 2010.Friends of the African Union
Friends of the African Union (FAU) is an economic, social, humanitarian, charitable, educational and new media civil-society ruling body founded to work for the benefit of the African Union and the African diaspora in their host countries.
FAU has developed programs with allied companies to supply metropolitan, regional and site-specific sewers, water systems, power, communications, computing, gas, and trash solutions along with urban planning services, architectural design, and mufti-disciplinary engineering services for members of the African Union, the African diaspora and its allies. FAU will work with the allied peoples of the African American diaspora, non-governmental organizations and governments of the world who support the African Union and the people of the African diaspora.History of the African Union
The African Union is a geo-political entity covering the entirety of the African continent.
Its origin dates back to the First Congress of Independence African States, held in Accra, Ghana, from 15 to 22 April 1958. The conference aimed at forming the Africa Day to mark the liberation movement, each year, regarding the willingness of the African people to free themselves from foreign dictatorship, as well as subsequent attempts to unite Africa, including the Organisation of African Unity (OAU), which was established on 25 May 1963, and the African Economic Community in 1981.
Critics argued that the OAU in particular did little to protect the rights and liberties of African citizens from their own political leaders, often dubbing it the "Dictators' Club".The idea of creating the AU was revived in the mid-1990s under the leadership of Libyan head of state Muammar al-Gaddafi: the heads of state and government of the OAU issued the Sirte Declaration (named after Sirte, in Libya) on September 9, 1999 calling for the establishment of an African Union. The Declaration was followed by summits at Lomé in 2000, when the Constitutive Act of the African Union was adopted, and at Lusaka in 2001, when the plan for the implementation of the African Union was adopted. During the same period, the initiative for the establishment of the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD), was also established.Intergovernmentalism
In political science, intergovernmentalism treats states, and national governments in particular, as the primary actors in the integration process. Intergovernmentalist approaches claim to be able to explain both periods of radical change in the European Union because of converging governmental preferences and periods of inertia because of diverging national interests. Intergovernmentalism is distinguishable from realism and neorealism because of its recognition of the significance of institutionalisation in international politics and the impact of domestic politics upon governmental preferences.International sanctions
International sanctions are political and economic decisions that are part of diplomatic efforts by countries, multilateral or regional organizations against states or organizations either to protect national security interests, or to protect international law, and defend against threats to international peace and security. These decisions principally include the temporary imposition on a target of economic, trade, diplomatic, cultural or other restrictions (sanctions measures) that are lifted when the motivating security concerns no longer apply, or when no new threats have arisen.
According to the Charter of the United Nations, only the UN Security Council has a mandate by the international community to apply sanctions (Article 41) that must be complied with by all UN member states (Article 2,2). They serve as the international community's most powerful peaceful means to prevent threats to international peace and security or to settle them. Sanctions do not include the use of military force. However, if sanctions do not lead to the diplomatic settlement of a conflict, the use of force can be authorized by the Security Council separately under Article 42.
UN sanctions should not be confused with unilateral sanctions that are imposed by individual countries in furtherance of their strategic interests. Typically intended as strong economic coercion, measures applied under unilateral sanctions can range between coercive diplomatic efforts, economic warfare, or as preludes to war.
There are several types of sanctions.
Economic sanctions – typically a ban on trade, possibly limited to certain sectors such as armaments, or with certain exceptions (such as food and medicine)
Diplomatic sanctions – the reduction or removal of diplomatic ties, such as embassies.
Military sanctions – military intervention
Sport sanctions – preventing one country's people and teams from competing in international events.
Sanctions on Environment – since the declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, international environmental protection efforts have been increased gradually.Economic sanctions are distinguished from trade sanctions, which are applied for purely economic reasons, and typically take the form of tariffs or similar measures, rather than bans on trade.Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma
Nkosazana Clarice Dlamini-Zuma (born 27 January 1949), sometimes referred to by her initials NDZ, is a South African politician and anti-apartheid activist, currently serving as Minister in the Presidency for the National Planning Commission for Policy and Evaluation. She was South Africa's Minister of Health from 1994–99, under President Nelson Mandela, and then Minister of Foreign Affairs, under presidents Thabo Mbeki and Kgalema Motlanthe. She was moved to the position of Minister of Home Affairs in the first term of former President Jacob Zuma, with whom she was previously married for 16 years.
On 15 July 2012, Dlamini-Zuma was elected by the African Union Commission as its chairperson, making her the first woman to lead the organisation (including its predecessor, the Organisation of African Unity); she took office on 15 October 2012. On 30 January 2017, she was replaced as Chairperson of the AU Commission by Chadian Foreign Minister Moussa Faki.She ran for the position of President of the African National Congress in 2017, but was defeated by Cyril Ramaphosa at the 54th National Conference of the African National Congress.Pan-African Parliament
The Pan-African Parliament (PAP), also known as the African Parliament, is the legislative body of the African Union and held its inaugural session in March 2004. The PAP exercises oversight, and has advisory and consultative powers, lasting for the first five years. Initially the seat of the Pan-African Parliament was in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia but it was later moved to Midrand, South Africa.
On 28 October 2009, the second legislature of the Pan-African Parliament opened its first ordinary session and began a new 5-year mandate. South African president, Jacob Zuma, gave the opening speech and called for the PAP to be given full legislative powers and its members elected by universal suffrage.Peace and Security Council
The Peace and Security Council is the organ of the African Union in charge of enforcing union decisions. It is patterned somewhat after the United Nations Security Council.
Members are elected by the Assembly of the African Union so as to reflect regional balance within Africa, as well as a variety of other criteria, including capacity to contribute militarily and financially to the union, political will to do so, and effective diplomatic presence at Addis Ababa.
The council is composed of fifteen countries, of which five are elected to three-year terms, and ten to two-year terms. Countries are immediately re-eligible upon the expiration of their terms.Regional Strategic Analysis and Knowledge Support System
The Regional Strategic Analysis and Knowledge Support System (ReSAKSS) was established in 2006 and compiles and analyzes information to help design and evaluate rural development strategies and monitor the progress of the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP). CAADP is a program of the African Union and the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD), which aims to increase the share of national budgets allocated to agriculture.Sirte Declaration
The Sirte Declaration was the resolution adopted by the Organisation of African Unity on 9 September 1999, at the fourth Extraordinary Session of the OAU Assembly of African Heads of State and Government held at Sirte, Libya. The Declaration announces decisions to:
establish the African Union
speed up the implementation of the provisions of the Abuja Treaty, to create an African Economic Community, African Central Bank, African Monetary Union, African Court of Justice and Pan-African Parliament, with the Parliament to be established by 2000
prepare a Constitutive Act of the African Union that can be ratified by 31 December 2000 and become effective the following year
give President Abdelaziz Bouteflika of Algeria and President Thabo Mbeki of South Africa a mandate to negotiate for the cancellation of the African indebtedness
convene an African Ministerial Conference on security, stability, development and co-operationThe Declaration was followed by summits at Lomé in 2000, when the Constitutive Act of the African Union was adopted, and at Lusaka in 2001, when the plan for the implementation of the African Union was adopted. The first session of the Assembly of the African Union was held in Durban on 9 July 2002.
The inaugural session of the Pan-African Parliament was held in March 2004.Timeline of Maputo
The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Maputo, Mozambique (until 1976 known as Lourenço Marques).
African Union (AU)