Aspect ratio (image)

The aspect ratio of an image describes the proportional relationship between its width and its height. It is commonly expressed as two numbers separated by a colon, as in 16:9. For an x:y aspect ratio, no matter how big or small the image is, if the width is divided into x units of equal length and the height is measured using this same length unit, the height will be measured to be y units.

For example, in a group of images that all have an aspect ratio of 16:9, one image might be 16 inches wide and 9 inches high, another 16 centimeters wide and 9 centimeters high, and a third might be 8 yards wide and 4.5 yards high. Thus, aspect ratio concerns the relationship of the width to the height, not an image's actual size.

Common image aspect ratios
Square. Used in some social networks, and in few devices.
1.2:1 (6:5)
Fox Movietone aspect ratio
1.25:1 (5:4)
Early television & large-format computer monitors
1.3:1 (4:3)
Traditional television & computer monitor standard
1.375:1 (11:8)
Academy standard film aspect ratio
IMAX motion picture film format
1.5:1 (3:2)
Classic 35 mm still photographic film
1.6:1 (16:10)
A common computer screen ratio
The golden ratio
1.6:1 (5:3)
A common European widescreen standard; Paramount format;[1] native Super 16 mm film
1.7:1 (16:9)
HD video standard; US & UK digital broadcast TV standard
DCI standard for 4K; Digital IMAX
Standard 70mm film
2.3:1 or 2.370:1 (7:3 or 64:27)
Widescreen computer monitors
2.35:1 or 2.39:1
A current widescreen cinema standard
The silver ratio
3.5:1 or 3.6:1
Super Ultrawide, Ultra-WideScreen 3.6
Used only in Napoléon (1927)

Some common examples

The most common aspect ratios used today in the presentation of films in cinemas are 1.85:1 and 2.39:1.[2] Two common videographic aspect ratios are 4:3 (1.3:1),[a] the universal video format of the 20th century, and 16:9 (1.7:1), universal for high-definition television and European digital television. Other cinema and video aspect ratios exist, but are used infrequently.

In still camera photography, the most common aspect ratios are 4:3, 3:2, and more recently found in consumer cameras, 16:9.[3] Other aspect ratios, such as 5:3, 5:4, and 1:1 (square format), are used in photography as well, particularly in medium format and large format.

With television, DVD and Blu-ray Disc, converting formats of unequal ratios is achieved by enlarging the original image to fill the receiving format's display area and cutting off any excess picture information (zooming and cropping), by adding horizontal mattes (letterboxing) or vertical mattes (pillarboxing) to retain the original format's aspect ratio, by stretching (hence distorting) the image to fill the receiving format's ratio, or by scaling by different factors in both directions, possibly scaling by a different factor in the center and at the edges (as in Wide Zoom mode).

Practical limitations

In motion picture formats, the physical size of the film area between the sprocket perforations determines the image's size. The universal standard (established by William Dickson and Thomas Edison in 1892) is a frame that is four perforations high. The film itself is 35 mm wide (1.38 in), but the area between the perforations is 24.89 mm × 18.67 mm (0.980 in × 0.735 in), leaving the de facto ratio of 4:3, or 1.3:1.[4]

With a space designated for the standard optical soundtrack, and the frame size reduced to maintain an image that is wider than tall, this resulted in the Academy aperture of 22 mm × 16 mm (0.866 in × 0.630 in) or 1.375:1 aspect ratio.

Cinema terminology

The motion picture industry convention assigns a value of 1.0 to the image's height; an anamorphic frame (since 1970, 2.39:1) is often incorrectly described (rounded) as 2.40:1 or 2.40 ("two-four-oh"). After 1952, a number of aspect ratios were experimented with for anamorphic productions, including 2.66:1 and 2.55:1.[5] A SMPTE specification for anamorphic projection from 1957 (PH22.106-1957) finally standardized the aperture to 2.35:1.[5] An update in 1970 (PH22.106-1971) changed the aspect ratio to 2.39:1 in order to make splices less noticeable.[5] This aspect ratio of 2.39:1 was confirmed by the most recent revision from August 1993 (SMPTE 195-1993).[5]

In American cinemas, the common projection ratios are 1.85:1 and 2.39:1. Some European countries have 1.6:1 as the wide screen standard. The "Academy ratio" of 1.375:1 was used for all cinema films in the sound era until 1953 (with the release of George Stevens' Shane in 1.6:1). During that time, television, which had a similar aspect ratio of 1.3:1, became a perceived threat to movie studios. Hollywood responded by creating a large number of wide-screen formats: CinemaScope (up to 2.6:1), Todd-AO (2.20:1), and VistaVision (initially 1.50:1, now 1.6:1 to 2.00:1) to name just a few. The "flat" 1.85:1 aspect ratio was introduced in May 1953, and became one of the most common cinema projection standards in the U.S. and elsewhere.

The goal of these various lenses and aspect ratios was to capture as much of the frame as possible, onto as large an area of the film as possible, in order to fully utilize the film being used. Some of the aspect ratios were chosen to utilize smaller film sizes in order to save film costs while other aspect ratios were chosen to use larger film sizes in order to produce a wider higher resolution image. In either case the image was squeezed horizontally to fit the film's frame size and avoid any unused film area.[6]

Movie camera systems

Development of various film camera systems must ultimately cater to the placement of the frame in relation to the lateral constraints of the perforations and the optical soundtrack area. One clever wide screen alternative, VistaVision, used standard 35 mm film running sideways through the camera gate, so that the sprocket holes were above and below frame, allowing a larger horizontal negative size per frame as only the vertical size was now restricted by the perforations. There were even a limited number of projectors constructed to also run the print-film horizontally. Generally, however, the 1.50:1 ratio of the initial VistaVision image was optically converted to a vertical print (on standard four-perforation 35 mm film) to show with the standard projectors available at theaters, and was then masked in the projector to the US standard of 1.85:1. The format was briefly revived by Lucasfilm in the late 1970s for special effects work that required larger negative size (due to image degradation from the optical printing steps necessary to make multi-layer composites). It went into obsolescence largely due to better cameras, lenses, and film stocks available to standard four-perforation formats, in addition to increased lab costs of making prints in comparison to more standard vertical processes. (The horizontal process was also adapted to 70 mm film by IMAX, which was first shown at the Osaka '70 Worlds Fair.)

Super 16 mm film was frequently used for television production due to its lower cost, lack of need for soundtrack space on the film itself (as it is not projected but rather transferred to video), and aspect ratio similar to 16:9 (the native ratio of Super 16 mm is 15:9). It also can be blown up to 35 mm for theatrical release and therefore is sometimes used for feature films.

Current video standards

1:1 (Square)

Square displays are rarely used in devices[7][8] and monitors.[9] Nonetheless, video consumption on social apps has grown rapidly and led to the emergence of new video formats more suited to mobile devices that can be held in horizontal and vertical orientations. In that sense, square video was popularized by mobile apps such as Instagram and has since been supported by other major social platforms including Facebook and Twitter. It can fill nearly twice as much screen space compared to 16:9 format (when the device is held differently while viewing from how video was recorded).

4:3 standard

4:3 (1.3:1) (generally read as "Four-Three", "Four-by-Three", or "Four-to-Three") for standard television has been in use since the invention of moving picture cameras and many computer monitors used to employ the same aspect ratio. 4:3 was the aspect ratio used for 35 mm films in the silent era. It is also very close to the 1.375:1 Academy ratio, defined by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences as a standard after the advent of optical sound-on-film. By having TV match this aspect ratio, movies originally photographed on 35 mm film could be satisfactorily viewed on TV in the early days of the medium (i.e. the 1940s and the 1950s). Since the start of the 21st century broadcasters worldwide are phasing out the 4:3 standard entirely, as manufacturers started to favor the 16:9 aspect ratio of all modern high-definition television sets and broadcast cameras.

16:9 standard

16:9 (1.7:1) (generally named as "Sixteen-by-Nine", "Sixteen-Nine", and "Sixteen-to-Nine") is the international standard format of HDTV, non-HD digital television and analog widescreen television PALplus. Japan's Hi-Vision originally started with a 5:3 (= 15:9) ratio but converted when the international standards group introduced a wider ratio of 5⅓ to 3 (= 16:9). Many digital video cameras have the capability to record in 16:9 (= 42:32), and 16:9 is the only widescreen aspect ratio natively supported by the DVD standard. DVD producers can also choose to show even wider ratios such as 1.85:1 and 2.39:1[2] within the 16:9 DVD frame by hard matting or adding black bars within the image itself. However, it was used often in British TVs in the United Kingdom in the 1990s before the 21st century.


When cinema attendance dropped, Hollywood created widescreen aspect ratios in order to differentiate the film industry from TV. One of the most common being the 1.85:1 ratio.[10]


The 2:1 aspect ratio was first used in the 1950s for the RKO Superscope format.[11][12]

Since 1998, cinematographer Vittorio Storaro has advocated for a format named "Univisium" that uses a 2:1 format.[13] It is designed to be a compromise between the cinema 2.39:1 aspect ratio and the HD-TV broadcast 16:9 ratio. Univisium has gained little traction in the theatrical film market, but has recently been used by Netflix and Amazon Video for productions such as House of Cards and Transparent, respectively. This aspect ratio is standard on the acquisition formats mandated by these content platforms and is not necessarily a creative choice.[14]

Moreover, some mobile devices, such as the LG G6, LG V30, Huawei Mate 10 Pro, Google Pixel 2 XL and OnePlus 5T, are embracing the 2:1 format (advertised as 18:9), as well as the Samsung Galaxy S8, Samsung Galaxy Note 8, Samsung Galaxy S9 and Samsung Galaxy Note 9 with a slightly similar 18.5:9 format.[15][16] The Apple iPhone X also has a similar screen ratio of 19.5:9 (2.16:1).

2.35:1, 2.39:1 or 2.4:1

Anamorphic format is the cinematography technique of shooting a widescreen picture on standard 35 mm film or other visual recording media with a non-widescreen native aspect ratio. When projected, image have an approximated 2.35:1, 2.39:1 or 2.4:1 aspect ratio. "21:9 aspect ratio" is actually 64:27 (= 43:33), and is a near cinematic movie ratio.

Vertical video

Another trend arising from the massive use of smartphones is Vertical video (9:16), that is intended for viewing in portrait mode. It was popularized by Snapchat and is also now being adopted by Twitter and Facebook.

Obtaining height, width, and area of the screen

Often, screen specifications are given by their diagonal length. The following formulae can be used to find the height (h), width (w) and area (A), where r stands for ratio, written as a fraction, and d for diagonal length.


This article primarily addresses the aspect ratio of images as displayed, which is more formally referred to as the display aspect ratio (DAR). In digital images, there is a distinction with the storage aspect ratio (SAR), which is the ratio of pixel dimensions. If an image is displayed with square pixels, then these ratios agree; if not, then non-square, "rectangular" pixels are used, and these ratios disagree. The aspect ratio of the pixels themselves is known as the pixel aspect ratio (PAR) – for square pixels this is 1:1 – and these are related by the identity:


Rearranging (solving for PAR) yields:


For example, a 640 × 480 VGA image has a SAR of 640/480 = 4:3, and if displayed on a 4:3 display (DAR = 4:3), has square pixels, hence a PAR of 1:1. By contrast, a 720 × 576 D-1 PAL image has a SAR of 720/576 = 5:4, but is displayed on a 4:3 display (DAR = 4:3), so by this formula it would have a PAR of (4:3)/(5:4) = 16:15.

However, because standard definition digital video was originally based on digitally sampling analog television, the 720 horizontal pixels actually capture a slightly wider image to avoid loss of the original analog picture. In actual images, these extra pixels are often partly or entirely black, as only the center 704 horizontal pixels carry actual 4:3 or 16:9 image. Hence, the actual pixel aspect ratio for PAL video is a little different from that given by the formula, specifically 12:11 for PAL and 10:11 for NTSC. For consistency, the same effective pixel aspect ratios are used even for standard definition digital video originated in digital form rather than converted from analog. For more details refer to the main article.

In analog images such as film there is no notion of pixel, nor notion of SAR or PAR, and "aspect ratio" refers unambiguously to DAR. Actual displays do not generally have non-square pixels, though digital sensors might; they are rather a mathematical abstraction used in resampling images to convert between resolutions.

Non-square pixels arise often in early digital TV standards, related to digitalization of analog TV signals – whose horizontal and vertical resolutions differ and are thus best described by non-square pixels – and also in some digital videocameras and computer display modes, such as Color Graphics Adapter (CGA). Today they arise particularly in transcoding between resolutions with different SARs.

DAR is also known as image aspect ratio and picture aspect ratio, though the latter can be confused with pixel aspect ratio.

Visual comparisons

Comparing two different aspect ratios poses some subtleties – when comparing two aspect ratios, one may compare images with equal height, equal width, equal diagonal, or equal area. More amorphous questions include whether particular subject matter has a natural aspect ratio (panoramas being wide, full-length images of people being tall), or whether a particular ratio is more or less aesthetically pleasing, for example the golden ratio (~1.618).

Televisions and other displays typically list their size by their diagonal. Given the same diagonal, a 4:3 screen has more area compared to 16:9. For CRT-based technology, an aspect ratio that is closer to square is cheaper to manufacture. The same is true for projectors, and other optical devices such as cameras, camcorders, etc. For LCD and plasma displays, however, the cost is more related to the area. Producing wider and shorter screens can yield the same advertised diagonal, but with less area.

The following compares crops of an image at 4:3 and 16:9 ratios, with different dimensions set equal. Note that either image (or both) can be cropped; one aspect doesn't necessarily show more detail than the other.

  • Images using the same diagonal size:
Aspect ratio 4 3 example
4:3 (1.3:1)
Aspect ratio 16 9 example3
16:9 (1.7:1)
  • Images using the same area / same number of pixels:
Aspect ratio 4 3 example4
4:3 (1.3:1)
Aspect ratio 16 9 example4
16:9 (1.7:1)
  • Images using the same height / same vertical size:
Aspect ratio 4 3 example
4:3 (1.3:1)
Aspect ratio 16 9 example
16:9 (1.7:1)
  • Images using the same width/ same horizontal size:
Aspect ratio 4 3 example
4:3 (1.3:1)
Aspect ratio 16 9 example2
16:9 (1.7:1)

Previous and currently used aspect ratios

See list of common resolutions for a listing of computer resolutions and aspect ratios.
See list of film formats for a full listing of film formats, including their aspect ratios.
Filmaspectratios svg
Comparison of several film aspect ratios with the heights forced to be equal.
  • 1.19:1 (19:16): Sometimes referred to as the Movietone ratio, this ratio was used briefly during the transitional period when the film industry was converting to sound, from 1926 to 1932 approx. It is produced by superimposing an optical soundtrack over a full-gate 1.3 aperture in printing, resulting in an almost square image. Films shot in this ratio are often projected or transferred to video incorrectly using a 1.37 mask or squashed to 1.37. Examples of films shot in the Movietone ratio include Sunrise, M and Hallelujah!.[17]
  • 1.25:1 (5:4): Once-popular aspect for larger format computer monitors, especially in the guise of mass-produced 17" and 19" LCD panels or 19" and 21" CRTs, using 1280×1024 (SXGA) or similar resolutions. Notably one of the few popular display aspect ratios narrower than 4:3, and one popularised by business (CAD, DTP) rather than entertainment use, as it is well-suited to full-page layout editing. Historically, 5:4 was also the original aspect ratio of early 405-line television broadcasts, which progressed to a wider 4:3 as the idea of broadcasting cinema films gained traction.
  • 1.3:1 (4:3): 35 mm original silent film ratio, today commonly known in TV and video as 4:3. Also standard ratio for MPEG-2 video compression. This format is still used in many personal video cameras today and has influenced the selection or design of other aspect ratios. It is the standard Super 35mm ratio.
  • 1.37:1: 16 mm standard ratio.
  • 1.375:1 (11:8): 35 mm full-screen sound film image, nearly universal in movies between 1932 and 1953. Officially adopted as the Academy ratio in 1932 by AMPAS. Rarely used in theatrical context nowadays, but occasionally used for other context.
  • 1.43:1: IMAX format. IMAX productions use 70 mm wide film (the same as used for 70 mm feature films), but the film runs through the camera and projector horizontally. This allows for a physically larger area for each image.
  • 1.5:1 (3:2): The aspect ratio of 35 mm film used for still photography when 8 perforations are exposed. Also the native aspect ratio of VistaVision, for which the film runs horizontally. Used on the Chrome OS-based Chromebook Pixel Notebook PC, the Game Boy Advance portable game console, the Surface Pro 3 laplet and Surface Studio.
  • 1.5:1 (14:9): Widescreen aspect ratio sometimes used in shooting commercials etc. as a compromise format between 4:3 and 16:9. When converted to a 16:9 frame, there is slight pillarboxing, while conversion to 4:3 creates slight letterboxing. All widescreen content on ABC Family's SD feed until January 2016 were presented in this ratio.
  • 1.6:1 (16:10 = 8:5): Widescreen computer monitor ratio (for instance 1920×1200 resolution).
  • 1.6:1 (5:3): 35 mm widescreen ratio, originally invented by Paramount Pictures, now a standard among several European countries. It is also the native Super 16 mm frame ratio. Sometimes this ratio is rounded up to 1.6:1. From the late 1980s to the early 2000s, Walt Disney Feature Animation's CAPS program animated their features in the 1.6:1 ratio (a compromise between the 1.85:1 theatrical ratio and the 1.3:1 ratio used for home video), this format is also used on the Nintendo 3DS's top screen as well.
  • 1.75:1 (7:4): Early 35 mm widescreen ratio, primarily used by MGM and Warner Bros. between 1953 and 1955, and since abandoned, though Disney has cropped some of its post-50's Full Screen films to this ratio for DVD, including The Jungle Book.
  • 1.7:1 (16:9 = 42:32): Video widescreen standard, used in high-definition television, one of three ratios specified for MPEG-2 video compression. Also used increasingly in personal video cameras. Sometimes this ratio is rounded up to 1.78:1.
  • 1.85:1 (37:20): 35 mm US and UK widescreen standard for theatrical film. Introduced by Universal Pictures in May, 1953. Projects approximately 3 perforations ("perfs") of image space per 4 perf frame; films can be shot in 3-perf to save cost of film stock. Also the ratio of Ultra 16 mm.
  • 1.896:1 (256:135): DCI / SMPTE digital cinema basic resolution container aspect ratio.[18]
  • 2:1: Recently popularized by the Red Digital Cinema Camera Company. Original SuperScope ratio, also used in Univisium. Used as a flat ratio for some American studios in the 1950s and abandoned in the 1960s. Also used in recent mobile phones such as the LG G6, Google Pixel 2 XL, HTC U11+, and Huawei Mate 10 Pro, while the Samsung Galaxy S8, Note 8, and S9 use the similar 18.5:9 ratio.
  • 2.2:1 (11:5): 70 mm standard. Originally developed for Todd-AO in the 1950s. Specified in MPEG-2 as 2.21:1, but hardly used.
  • 2.35:1 (~47:20): 35 mm anamorphic prior to 1970, used by CinemaScope ("'Scope") and early Panavision. The anamorphic standard has subtly changed so that modern anamorphic productions are actually 2.39,[2] but often referred to as 2.35 anyway, due to old convention. (Note that anamorphic refers to the compression of the image on film to maximize an area slightly taller than standard 4-perf Academy aperture, but presents the widest of aspect ratios.) All Indian Bollywood films released after 1972 are shot in this standard for theatrical exhibition.
  • 2.37:1 (64:27 = 43:33): TVs were produced with this aspect ratio between 2009 and 2012[19] and marketed as "21:9 cinema displays". But this aspect ratio is still seen on higher end monitors, and are sometimes called UltraWide monitors.
  • 2.39:1 (~43:18): 35 mm anamorphic from 1970 onwards. Aspect ratio of current anamorphic widescreen theatrical viewings. Often commercially branded as Panavision format or 'Scope'.
  • 2.4:1 (12:5): Specified as 2.40:1 for Blu-ray Disc film releases (1920×800 resolution).
  • 2.55:1 (~23:9): Original aspect ratio of CinemaScope before optical sound was added to the film in 1954. This was also the aspect ratio of CinemaScope 55.
  • 2.59:1 (~13:5): Cinerama at full height (three specially captured 35 mm images projected side-by-side into one composite widescreen image).
  • 2.6:1 (8:3): Full frame output from Super 16 mm negative when an anamorphic lens system has been used. Effectively, an image that is of the ratio 24:9 is squashed onto the native 15:9 aspect ratio of a Super 16 mm negative.
  • 2.76:1 (~11:4): Ultra Panavision 70/MGM Camera 65 (65 mm with 1.25× anamorphic squeeze). Used only on a handful of films between 1957 and 1966 and two films in the 2010s, for some sequences of How the West Was Won (1962) with a slight crop when converted to three strip Cinerama, and films such as It's a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World (1963) and Ben-Hur (1959). Quentin Tarantino used it for The Hateful Eight (2015), Gareth Edwards for Rogue One (2016), Kirill Serebrennikov for Summer (2018).
  • 3.5:1 (32:9): In 2017, Samsung and Phillips announced 'Super UltraWide displays', with aspect ratio of 32:9.
  • 3.6:1 (18:5): In 2016, IMAX announced the release of films in 'Ultra-WideScreen 3.6' format,[20] with an aspect ratio of 36:10.[21] Ultra-WideScreen 3.6 video format didn't spread, as cinemas in an even wider ScreenX 270° format were released.[22]
  • 4:1: Rare use of Polyvision, three 35 mm 1.3:1 images projected side by side. First used in 1927 on Abel Gance's Napoléon.
  • 12:1: Circle-Vision 360° developed by the Walt Disney Company in 1955 for use in Disneyland. Uses nine 4:3 35 mm projectors to show an image that completely surrounds the viewer. Used in subsequent Disney theme parks and other past applications.

Aspect ratio releases

Original aspect ratio (OAR)

Original Aspect Ratio (OAR) is a home cinema term for the aspect ratio or dimensions in which a film or visual production was produced – as envisioned by the people involved in the creation of the work. As an example, the film Gladiator was released to theaters in the 2.39:1 aspect ratio. It was filmed in Super 35 and, in addition to being presented in cinemas and television in the Original Aspect Ratio of 2.39:1, it was also broadcast without the matte, altering the aspect ratio to the television standard of 1.3:1. Because of the varied ways in which films are shot, IAR (Intended Aspect Ratio) is a more appropriate term, but is rarely used.

Modified aspect ratio (MAR)

Modified Aspect Ratio is a home cinema term for the aspect ratio or dimensions in which a film was modified to fit a specific type of screen, as opposed to original aspect ratio. Modified aspect ratios are usually either 1.3:1 (historically), or (with the advent of widescreen television sets) 1.7:1 aspect ratio. 1.3:1 is the modified aspect ratio used historically in VHS format. A modified aspect ratio transfer is achieved by means of pan and scan or open matte, the latter meaning removing the cinematic matte from a 1.85:1 film to open up the full 1.3:1 frame. Another name for it is "prescaled" aspect ratio".

Problems in film and television

A windowboxed image

Multiple aspect ratios create additional burdens on directors and the public, and confusion among TV broadcasters. It is common for a widescreen film to be presented in an altered format (cropped, letterboxed or expanded beyond the original aspect ratio). It is also not uncommon for windowboxing to occur (when letterbox and pillarbox happen simultaneously). For instance, a 16:9 broadcast could embed a 4:3 commercial within the 16:9 image area. A viewer watching on a standard 4:3 (non-widescreen) television would see a 4:3 image of the commercial with 2 sets of black stripes, vertical and horizontal (windowboxing or the postage stamp effect). A similar scenario may also occur for a widescreen set owner when viewing 16:9 material embedded in a 4:3 frame, and then watching that in 16:9. Active Format Description is a mechanism used in digital broadcasting to avoid this problem. It is also common that a 4:3 image is stretched horizontally to fit a 16:9 screen to avoid pillar boxing but distorts the image so subjects appear short and fat.

Both PAL and NTSC have provision for some data pulses contained within the video signal used to signal the aspect ratio (See ITU-R BT.1119-1 – Widescreen signaling for broadcasting). These pulses are detected by television sets that have widescreen displays and cause the television to automatically switch to 16:9 display mode. When 4:3 material is included (such as the aforementioned commercial), the television switches to a 4:3 display mode to correctly display the material. Where a video signal is transmitted via a European SCART connection, one of the status lines is used to signal 16:9 material as well.

Still photography

Common aspect ratios in still photography include:

  • 1:1
  • 5:4 (1.25:1)
  • 4:3 (1.3:1)
  • 3:2 (1.5:1)
  • 5:3 (1.6:1)
  • 16:9 (1.7:1)
  • 3:1

Many digital still cameras offer user options for selecting multiple image aspect ratios. Some achieve this through the use of multi-aspect sensors (notably Panasonic), while others simply crop their native image format to have the output match the desired image aspect ratio.


Is the classic Kodak image, and is available as a choice in some digital still cameras, and hearkens back to the days of film cameras when the square image was popular with photographers using twin lens reflex cameras. These medium format cameras used 120 film rolled onto spools. The 6 × 6 cm image size was the classic 1:1 format in the recent past. 120 film can still be found and used today. Many Polaroid instant films were designed as square formats. Furthermore, up until August 2015, photo-sharing site Instagram only allowed users to upload images in 1:1 format. In 2017, Fujifilm added the 1:1 Instax Square format to their lineup of instant film cameras.


Common in large and medium format photography, and still in common use for prints from digital cameras in the 8"×10" size.


Is used by most digital point-and-shoot cameras, Four Thirds system, Micro Four Thirds system cameras and medium format 645 cameras. The 4:3 digital format popularity was developed to match the then prevailing digital displays of the time, 4:3 computer monitors.

The next several formats have their roots in classic film photography image sizes, both the classic 35 mm film camera, and the multiple format Advanced Photo System (APS) film camera. The APS camera was capable of selecting any of three image formats, APS-H ("High Definition" mode), APS-C ("Classic" mode) and APS-P ("Panoramic" mode).


is used by classic 35 mm film cameras using a 24 mm × 36 mm image size, and their digital derivatives represented by DSLRs. Typical DSLRs come in two flavors, the so-called professional "full frame" (24 mm × 36 mm) sensors and variations of smaller, so called "APS-C" sensors. The term "APS" is derived from another film format known as the APS and the "-C" refers to "Classic" mode, which exposed images over a smaller area (25.1 mm × 16.7 mm) but retaining the same "classic" 3:2 proportions as full frame 35 mm film cameras.

When discussing DSLR's and their non-SLR derivatives, the term APS-C has become an almost generic term. The two major camera manufacturers Canon and Nikon each developed and established sensor standards for their own versions of APS-C sized and proportioned sensors. Canon actually developed two standards, APS-C and a slightly larger area APS-H (not to be confused with the APS-H film format), while Nikon developed its own APS-C standard, which it calls DX. Regardless of the different flavors of sensors, and their varying sizes, they are close enough to the original APS-C image size, and maintain the classic 3:2 image proportions that these sensors are generally known as an "APS-C" sized sensor.

The reason for DSLR's image sensors being the flatter 3:2 versus the taller point-and-shoot 4:3 is that DSLRs were designed to match the legacy 35 mm SLR film, whereas the majority of digital cameras were designed to match the predominant computer displays of the time, with VGA, SVGA, XGA and UXGA all being 4:3. Widescreen computer monitors did not become popular until the advent of HDTV, which uses a 16:9 image aspect ratio.


16:9 is another format that has its roots in the APS film camera. Known as APS-H (30.2 mm × 16.7 mm), with the "-H" denoting "High Definition", the 16:9 format is also the standard image aspect ratio for HDTV. 16:9 is gaining popularity as a format in all classes of consumer still cameras which also shoot High Definition (HD) video. When still cameras have an HD video capability, some can also record stills in the 16:9 format, ideal for display on HD televisions and widescreen computer displays.


is another format that can find its roots in the APS film camera. Known as APS-P (30.2 × 9.5 mm), with the -P" denoting "Panorama", the 3:1 format was used for panorama photography. The APS-P panorama standard is the least adhered to any APS standard, and panoramic implementation varies with by manufacturer on different cameras, with the only commonality being that the image is much longer than it is tall, in the classic "panorama" style.

Common print sizes in the U.S. (in inches) include 4×6 (1.5), 5×7 (1.4), 4×5 and 8×10 (1.25), and 11×14 (1.27); large format cameras typically use one of these aspect ratios. Medium-format cameras typically have format designated by nominal sizes in centimeters (6×6, 6×7, 6×9, 6×4.5), but these numbers should not be interpreted as exact in computing aspect ratios. For example, the usable height of 120-format roll film is 56mm, so a width of 70mm (as in 6×7) yields an aspect ratio of 4:5 — ideal for enlarging to make an 8×10" portrait. Print sizes are usually defined by their portrait dimensions (tall) while equipment aspect ratios are defined by their landscape dimensions (wide, flipped sideways). A good example of this a 4×6 print (6 inch wide by 4 inch tall landscape) perfectly matches the 3:2 aspect ratio of a DSLR/35 mm, since 6/2=3 and 4/2=2.

For analog projection of photographic slides, projector and screen use a 1:1 aspect ratio, supporting horizontal and vertical orientation equally well. In contrast, digital projection technology typically supports vertically oriented images only at a fraction of the resolution of landscape-oriented images. For example, projecting a digital still image having a 3:2 aspect ratio on a 16:9 projector employs 84.3% of available resolution in horizontal orientation, but only 37.5% in vertical orientation.

See also


  1. ^ Repeating decimal notation


  1. ^ BBC Academy: Beyond HD
  2. ^ a b c The 2.39:1 ratio is commonly labeled 2.40:1, e.g., in the American Society of Cinematographers' American Cinematographer Manual (Many widescreen films before the 1970 SMPTE revision used 2.35:1).
  3. ^ "Panasonic Introduces 2 New Cameras". India: Tech Tree. Archived from the original on 2009-01-23.
  4. ^ Burum, Stephen (2004). American Cinematographer Manual (9th ed.). ASC Press. ISBN 0-935578-24-2.
  5. ^ a b c d "ALEXA Anamorphic De-squeeze". Arri. 2011-07-07. Retrieved 2014-06-21.
  6. ^ "Anamorphic Now" (PDF). Film and Digital Times (53): 24–31. April 2013. Retrieved 2014-06-21.
  7. ^ "BlackBerry Passport - Full phone specifications". Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  8. ^ "Sony SmartWatch 3 SWR50 - Full phone specifications". Retrieved 2019-01-24.
  9. ^ "Eizo's 27-inch 3K display is perfectly square -". 2014-11-20. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  10. ^ John. "". Retrieved 2018-10-30.
  11. ^ "Widescreen Museum - CinemaScope Derivatives - Superscope 1". Retrieved 2018-11-02.
  12. ^ "The Aspect Ratio of 2.00 : 1 is Everywhere | VashiVisuals". Retrieved 2018-11-02.
  13. ^ Vittorio Storaro, "What is UNIVISIUM?," .
  14. ^ O'Falt, Chris (2017-04-04). "What Amazon and Netflix's Demand for 4K Means for Documentaries". IndieWire. Retrieved 2018-05-10.
  15. ^ Daniel P., "So, what is this 2:1 Univisium display ratio on the LG G6 and likely the S8?," February 26, 2017,
  16. ^ The official Honor website displays that it has an 18:9 ratio (visit the gaming tab).
  17. ^ Scott Eyman, The Speed of Sound: Hollywood and the Talkie Revolution, 1926–1930, New York, Simon & Schuster (1997), p. 222.
  18. ^ Arne Nowak (October 2010). "Digital Cinema Technologies from the Archive's Perspective" (PDF). p. 4. Retrieved May 16, 2016.
  19. ^ Goddard, Louis. Philips discontinuing super-wide Cinema 21:9 TVs due to lack of demand. The Verge. 2012-08-28. Retrieved 2013-03-18.
  20. ^ "Voyage of Time: The IMAX® Experience in Ultra-Widescreen". Dec 7, 2016. Retrieved April 27, 2018.
  21. ^ Kristopher Tapley (Dec 5, 2016). "'Ultra Widescreen' Version of Terrence Malick's 'Voyage of Time' Set for Release". Retrieved April 27, 2018.
  22. ^ Aftab, Kaleem. "Introducing Screen X, Cinema in 270 Degrees | Filmmaker Magazine". Filmmaker Magazine. Retrieved 2018-10-12.

External links


1080p (1920×1080 px; also known as Full HD or FHD and BT.709) is a set of HDTV high-definition video modes characterized by 1,920 pixels displayed across the screen horizontally and 1,080 pixels down the screen vertically; the p stands for progressive scan, i.e. non-interlaced. The term usually assumes a widescreen aspect ratio of 16:9, implying a resolution of 2.1 megapixels. It is often marketed as full HD, to contrast 1080p with 720p resolution screens.

1080p video signals are supported by ATSC standards in the United States and DVB standards in Europe. Applications of the 1080p standard include television broadcasts, Blu-ray Discs, smartphones, Internet content such as YouTube videos and Netflix TV shows and movies, consumer-grade televisions and projectors, computer monitors and video game consoles. Small camcorders, smartphones and digital cameras can capture still and moving images in 1080p resolution.

16K resolution

The term 16K resolution (8640p) refers to a display resolution that has 15360 horizontal pixels by 8640 vertical pixels, for a total of 132.7 megapixels. It has four times as many pixels as 8K resolution, sixteen times as many pixels as 4K resolution and sixty-four times as many pixels as 1080p resolution.

Innolux's 100-inch 16K8K S-UHD (15360×8640) display module displayed at Touch Taiwan is the only single display as of August 2018.Currently 16k resolutions can run on Multi-monitor setups with AMD Eyefinity or NVIDIA Surround.

2K resolution

2K resolution is a generic term for display devices or content having horizontal resolution of approximately 2,000 pixels. Digital Cinema Initiatives (DCI) defines 2K resolution standard as 2048×1080.In the movie projection industry, DCI is the dominant standard for 2K output.


3/2 may refer to:

March 2 (month-day date notation)

3 February (day-month date notation)

The fraction for one and one half (​3⁄2 = ​1 1⁄2), or in decimal form 1.5

Just perfect fifth

3rd Battalion 2nd Marines

A triple metre time signature

A common aspect ratio (image)


4K resolution

4K resolution, also called 4K, refers to a horizontal display resolution of approximately 4,000 pixels. Digital television and digital cinematography commonly use several different 4K resolutions. In television and consumer media, 3840 × 2160 (4K UHD) is the dominant 4K standard, whereas the movie projection industry uses 4096 × 2160 (DCI 4K).

The 4K television market share increased as prices fell dramatically during 2014 and 2015. By 2020, more than half of U.S. households are expected to have 4K-capable TVs, a much faster adoption rate than that of Full HD (1080p).

Aspect ratio (disambiguation)

The aspect ratio of a geometric shape is the ratio of its sizes in different dimensions.

In specific fields, aspect ratio may also refer to:

Aspect ratio (aeronautics), the ratio of a wing's span to its mean chord

Aspect ratio (image), the proportional relationship between an image's width and its height

Display aspect ratio, the proportional relationship between a computer monitor's width and its height

Pixel aspect ratio, a mathematical ratio that describes how the width of a pixel in a digital image compares to the height of that pixel

Automotive engine aspect ratio, controlled by variable-geometry turbochargers


Cinemiracle was a widescreen cinema format competing with Cinerama developed in the 1950s. It was ultimately unsuccessful, with only a single film produced and released in the format. Like Cinerama it used 3 cameras to capture a 2.59:1 image. Cinemiracle used two mirrors to give the left and right cameras the same optical center as the middle camera. This made the joins between the projected images much less obvious than with Cinerama.

Film frame

In filmmaking, video production, animation, and related fields, a frame is one of the many still images which compose the complete moving picture. The term is derived from the fact that, from the beginning of modern filmmaking toward the end of the 20th century, and in many places still up to the present, the single images have been recorded on a strip of photographic film that quickly increased in length, historically; each image on such a strip looks rather like a framed picture when examined individually.

The term may also be used more generally as a noun or verb to refer to the edges of the image as seen in a camera viewfinder or projected on a screen. Thus, the camera operator can be said to keep a car in frame by panning with it as it speeds past.

Index of graphonomics-related articles

The following is an alphabetical index of articles related to graphonomics:

Allograph (handwriting)

Angular frequency


Aspect ratio (image)

Ballistic stroke


Connecting stroke

Cursive script



Delayed stroke




Direction (handwriting)

Domain (graphonomics)


Fluency (handwriting)


Fourier spectrum, Power-spectral density function


Function (mathematics)

Graph (handwriting)



Handwriting is not composition of text (See: Writing)

Horizontal progression

Ink trace



movement context in handwriting

Movement parameter


Pattern (handwriting)

Pen lift

Pen pressure → axial pen force

Pen tilt

Pen-tip velocity, velocity


Phase (waves)

Pitch (handwriting)

Polar distribution


Roundness (handwriting) (See: Phase (waves))

Running angle

Sample (signal processing)

Segment (handwriting)

Simulated Handwriting generation

Simulated Handwriting regeneration

Slant (handwriting)

Sloppiness space

Smoothing, Low-pass filter

Stroke (handwriting)


Upward stroke

x-Height or Body size or Corpus size

NGT São Paulo

NGT São Paulo is a Brazilian television broadcasting company based in Osasco, but headquartered in the city of São Paulo, both cities and capital of the homonymous state. It operates on channel 48 (47 UHF digital) and is a own station and head of network of the New Generation of Television. It was founded on October 8, 2013 and transmits its direct signal from the Cásper Líbero Tower.

Nokia N95

The Nokia N95 (N95-1, internally known as RM-159) is a smartphone that was produced by Nokia as part of their Nseries line of portable devices. Announced in September 2006, it was released to the market in March 2007. The N95 ran S60 3rd Edition, on Symbian OS v9.2. It has a two-way sliding mechanism, which can be used to access either media playback buttons or a numeric keypad. It was first released in silver and later on in black, with limited edition quantities in gold and purple. The launch price of the N95 was around €550 (about US$730, GB£370).

The N95 was a high-end model that was marketed as a "multimedia computer", much like other Nseries devices. It featured a then-high 5 megapixel resolution digital camera with Carl Zeiss optics and with a flash, as well as a then-large display measuring 2.6 inches. It was also Nokia's first device with a built-in Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, used for maps or turn-by-turn navigation, and their first with an accelerometer. It was also one of the earliest devices in the market supporting HSDPA (3.5G) signals.

After the introduction of the original model (technically named N95-1), several updated versions were released, most notably the N95 8GB with 8 gigabytes of internal storage, a larger display and improved battery. The 'classic' N95 and its upgraded variant N95 8GB are widely considered as breakthrough technologies of its time. It was well noted for its camera, GPS and mapping capabilities, and its innovative dual-slider, and some have hailed it as one of the best mobile devices to have been released.

Open matte

Open matte is a filming technique that involves matting out the top and bottom of the film frame in the movie projector (known as a soft matte) for the widescreen theatrical release and then scanning the film without a matte (at Academy ratio) for a full screen home video release.

Usually, non-anamorphic 4-perf films are filmed directly on the entire full frame silent aperture gate (1.33:1). When a married print is created, this frame is slightly re-cropped by the frame line and optical soundtrack down to Academy ratio (1.37:1). The movie projector then uses an aperture mask to soft matte the Academy frame to the intended aspect ratio (1.85:1 or 1.66:1). When the 4:3 full-screen video master is created, many filmmakers may prefer to use the full Academy frame ("open matte") instead of creating a pan and scan version from within the 1.85 framing. Because the framing is increased vertically in the open matte process, the decision to use it needs to be made prior to shooting, so that the camera operator can frame for 1.85:1 and "protect" for 4:3; otherwise unintended objects such as boom microphones, cables, and light stands may appear in the open matte frame, thus requiring some amount of pan and scan in some or all scenes. Additionally, the un-matted 4:3 version will often throw off an otherwise tightly-framed shot and add an inordinate amount of headroom above actors (particularly with 1.85:1).

Open-matte doesn't happen as often with films presented in 2.20:1 or 2.39:1. Instead those employ pan and scan. Many films over the years have used this technique, the most prominent of which include Schindler's List, Titanic, and Top Gun. Stanley Kubrick also used this technique for his last five films (A Clockwork Orange (1971), Barry Lyndon (1975), The Shining (1980), Full Metal Jacket (1987) and Eyes Wide Shut (1999).) James Cameron's Terminator 2: Judgment Day (1991) is also an example of open-matte.

Panasonic Lumix DC-G9

The Panasonic Lumix DC-G9 is a Micro Four Thirds mirrorless interchangeable lens camera body announced by Panasonic end of 2017.The Panasonic G9 is a more still-centric variant of the Panasonic Lumix DC-GH5: it can shoot up to 20 pictures per second in full resolution and with continuous focussing, interruption-free live view as well as raw recording. Furthermore, it shows a larger viewfinder image.

The G9 offers an 80-Megapixel high-resolution mode, where eight 20-Megapixel-shots are taken with shifted image sensor. The image stabiliser is used for shifting the image sensor in 1.7-micrometer-steps, which are equal to the half of the pixel pitch of about 3.3 micrometers. This mode is limited to use with stationary or nearly stationary subjects, unless artistic effects are desired.

The DC-G9 won the Camera Grand Prix 2018 Editors award.

Panasonic Lumix DC-GH5

The Panasonic Lumix DC-GH5 is a Micro Four Thirds mirrorless interchangeable lens camera body announced by Panasonic on 4 January 2017.It is the first mirrorless camera capable of shooting 4K resolution video with 10-bit color with 4:2:2 chroma subsampling, along with recording in 4K 60p or 50p (but only in 8 bit). It also captures both 4K and Full HD without time limits. On September 28, 2017, Panasonic released firmware update 2.0 which added support for Hybrid Log-Gamma (HLG) recording, along with a higher 400Mbit/s bit rate All-i recording mode.The later-released sister model Panasonic Lumix DC-GH5S is a more specialized filmmakers' camera that adds greater low-light sensitivity, a multi-aspect image sensor, and expanded DCI 4K options. It has 10 Megapixels, and is equipped without a stabilised image sensor.

The Panasonic GH5S is an even more video-centric variant of the GH5: it can shoot either DCI or UHD 4K footage natively (i.e. where one capture pixel = one output pixel) at up to 60p. As well as the ability to shoot DCI 4K at higher frame rates, Panasonic claim the GH5S's larger pixels and 'Dual Native ISO' sensor will shoot significantly better footage in low light.

Panasonic Lumix DMC-G3

The Panasonic Lumix DMC-G3 is a digital mirrorless interchangeable lens camera adhering to the joint Olympus and Panasonic Micro Four Thirds System (MFT) system design standard. The Panasonic Lumix DMC-G3 is the eighth Panasonic MFT camera introduced under the standard and the thirteenth model MFT camera introduced by either Olympus or Panasonic, as of the G3 product announcement date.

The G3 includes full HD video recording capability in AVCHD format in accordance with the MFT system design standard. The G3 is not the successor to the Panasonic Lumix DMC-G2 but is sold alongside it, placing the G2 in the entry-level position that the now-discontinued G10 once occupied. The G series cameras are designed primarily for users interested in still photography, with the more expensive GH series geared towards users who are interested in greater video functionality. Significantly, the G3 design departs from previous G-series designs with a smaller size, new sensor design and increased processing power.

Physically, the G3 approximates the size of the small Panasonic Lumix DMC-GF2, but includes an electronic viewfinder (EVF) and an articulated, touch control-enabled LCD panel. This made the G3, upon its introduction, the smallest available MFT camera with a built-in EVF, 25% smaller than the G2. The G3's smaller physical size limits the space available for manual control buttons and dials, with many functions now controllable through the articulated 3-inch (76 mm) LCD touch panel on the camera back.

The G3 has a 16.7 megapixel sensor derived from the one in the top-of-the-line Panasonic Lumix DMC-GH2. This is an improvement over the previous 12.1 megapixel four thirds sensors used by other Olympus and Panasonic MFT cameras, with the exception of the unique multi-aspect sensors used on the Panasonic Lumix DMC-GH1 and GH2 hybrid video/still MFT cameras.

The G3 has faster Auto focus speed than most previous Panasonic MFT cameras. Panasonic claims that it possesses a revised JPEG engine which reputedly renders more pleasing colours (e.g., skin tones), with higher image quality and lower noise at higher ISO than any of the previous Panasonic cameras, with the possible exception of the GH2. However, some reviewers have criticised the quality of the G3s JPEG files.At the center top of the G3 there are weak built-in pop up flash with GN10.5 at ISO160 (GN8.3 at ISO100), hot shoe and stereo microphone (G2 still monoaural). The G3 lacks the external microphone input that the older G2 does.

The G3 was announced in May 2011, and started shipping in June 2011. Available colors, depending on market, were black, chocolate brown, red and white. In the United States, the suggested MSRP for the camera and 14-42mm kit lens was USD 700.00 and GBP628.99 in the United Kingdom

Panasonic Lumix DMC-GH1

The Panasonic Lumix DMC-GH1 is a digital mirrorless interchangeable lens camera adhering to the Olympus and Panasonic developed Micro Four Thirds System (MFT) system design standard. Panasonic classified the GH1 as a hybrid stills/video camera and the GH1 was introduced and marketed as a higher end camera than Panasonic's first MFT camera, the stills only, non-video capable Lumix DMC-G1.

The Panasonic Lumix DMC-GH1 was the second MFT camera introduced under the MFT design standard and the first MFT camera to include HD video recording capability. The GH1 was announced at the April 2009 Photo Marketing Association Annual Convention and Trade Show.

As part of the marketing of this camera, Panasonic sponsored some professional filmmakers by allowing them to borrow the GH1 camera for their projects. One such GH1 model camera was used to film the pilot of the Swedish horror film Marianne.


Widescreen images are images that are displayed within a set of aspect ratios (relationship of image width to height) used in film, television and computer screens. In film, a widescreen film is any film image with a width-to-height aspect ratio greater than the standard 1.37:1 Academy aspect ratio provided by 35mm film.

For television, the original screen ratio for broadcasts was in fullscreen 4:3 (1.33:1). Largely between the 1990s and early 2000s, at varying paces in different nations, 16:9 (1.78:1) widescreen TV displays came into increasingly common use. They are typically used in conjunction with high-definition television (HDTV) receivers, or Standard-Definition (SD) DVD players and other digital television sources.

With computer displays, aspect ratios wider than 4:3 are also referred to as widescreen. Widescreen computer displays were previously of 16:10 aspect ratio, but now are usually 16:9.

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