Flavius Ardabur Aspar (c. 400 – 471) was an Eastern Roman patrician and magister militum ("master of soldiers") of Alanic-Gothic descent. As the general of a Germanic army in Roman service, Aspar exerted great influence on the Eastern Roman Emperors for half a century, from the 420s to his death in 471, over Theodosius II, Marcian and Leo I, who, in the end, had him killed. His death led to the ending of the Germanic domination of Eastern Roman policy.
Aspar was born the son of the magister Ardaburius, and was of Alanic-Gothic descent. The name Aspar (Avestan aspari) in Iranian languages means "Horse-rider". Aspar played a crucial role in his father's expedition in 424 to defeat the Western usurper Joannes of Ravenna and to install Galla Placidia and her son, Valentinian III, in his place. He also helped to negotiate a peace treaty with Geiseric after the Vandal invasion of Africa.
Aspar attained the consulship in 434 after campaigning in Africa. However, Aspar could not become emperor because of his Arian religion. Instead, he played the role of kingmaker with his subordinate Marcian, who became emperor by marrying Theodosius II's sister Pulcheria.
On 27 January 457 Marcian died, and the political and military establishment figures of the Eastern court took eleven days to choose a successor. Despite the presence of a strong candidate to the purple, the magister militum and Marcian's son-in-law Anthemius, the choice was quite different. Aspar, who in this occasion was probably offered the throne by the senate but refused, could have chosen his own son Ardabur, but instead selected an obscure tribune of one of his military units, Leo I.
In 470, in an episode of the struggle for power between Aspar and the Isaurian general Zeno, Aspar persuaded the emperor to appoint his second son, Patricius, as caesar and give him in marriage his daughter Leontia. However, since the clergy and people of Constantinople did not consider an Arian eligible to become emperor, at the news of the appointment riots broke out in the city hippodrome, led by the head of the Sleepless Monks, Marcellus: Aspar and Leo had to promise to the bishops that Patricius would convert to Orthodoxy before becoming emperor, and only after the conversion would he marry Leontia.
In 471 an imperial conspiracy organized by Leo I and the Isaurians caused the death of Aspar and of his elder son Ardabur: it is possible that Patricius died on this occasion, although some sources report that he recovered from his wounds. His death led to the ending of the Germanic domination of Eastern Roman policy.
Aspar was the teacher of Theodoric the Great, who later became King of the Ostrogoths. Aspar had another son, Ermanaric, with the sister of Theodoric Strabo and daughter of Triarius. Aspar's wife was an Ostrogoth, as the Ostrogoth King Theodoric was her nephew. A cistern attributed to him still exists today in Istanbul.
Imp. Caesar Flavius Theodosius Augustus XIV,
| Consul of the Roman Empire
with Flavius Areobindus
Imp. Caesar Flavius Theodosius Augustus XV,
Imp. Caesar Flavius Placidus Valentinianus Augustus IV
The 31st International 500-Mile Sweepstakes was held at Indianapolis Motor Speedway on Friday, May 30, 1947. The 1946 winner, George Robson, had been killed in the meantime.
Late in the race, Lou Moore teammates Bill Holland and Mauri Rose were running 1st and 2nd. The pit crew displayed a confusing chalkboard sign with the letters "EZY" to Holland, presumably meaning for him to take the final laps at a reduced pace to safely make it to the finish. Mauri Rose ignored the board, and charged to catch up to Holland. Holland believed he held a lap lead over Rose, and allowed him to catch up. The two drivers waved as Rose passed Holland, with Holland believing it was not more than a congratulatory gesture.
In reality, the pass Rose made was for the lead, and he led the final 8 laps to take the controversial victory. The race was marred by a 41st lap crash that claimed the life of Shorty Cantlon.Aleix Espargaró
Aleix Espargaró Villà (born 30 July 1989) is a Spanish motorcycle road racer. He competes in the MotoGP class of the Grand Prix Motorcycle World Championship, racing for Aprilia Racing Team Gresini.Aspar Nasrollah
Aspar Nasrollah (Persian: اسپرنصراله, also Romanized as Āspar Naşrollah) is a village in Firuzjah Rural District, Bandpey-ye Sharqi District, Babol County, Mazandaran Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its existence was noted, but its population was not reported.Aspur
Aspur (Persian: اسپور, also Romanized as Āspūr; also known as Aspār) is a village in Ayask Rural District, in the Central District of Sarayan County, South Khorasan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 19, in 7 families.Cistern of Aspar
The Cistern of Aspar (Greek: ἡ τοῦ Ἂσπαρος κινστέρνη) or Great Cistern (Greek: μεγίστη κινστέρνη), known in Turkish as Sultan Selim Çukurbostanı ("sunken garden of Sultan Selim"), was a Byzantine open-air water reservoir in the city of Constantinople.Darreh Esbar
Darreh Esbar (Persian: دره اسبر, also Romanized as Darreh Esbar, Dar Āspar, Darreh Espar, and Darreh-ye Aspar) is a village in Heshmatabad Rural District, in the Central District of Dorud County, Lorestan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 271, in 53 families.Esper, Iran
Aspar (Persian: اسپر) is a village in Boyer Ahmad-e Garmsiri Rural District, in the Central District of Gachsaran County, Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 218, in 50 families.Héctor Barberá
Héctor Barberá Vall (born November 2, 1986) is a Spanish Grand Prix motorcycle road racer. He currently competes in the Supersport World Championship, aboard a Kawasaki ZX-6R.Héctor Faubel
Héctor Faubel Rojí (born 10 August 1983, in Llíria, Valencia, Spain) is a former professional motorcycle road racer.
Faubel has been racing full-time since 2002, always on Aprilia bikes. After finishing 2006 strongly he was considered a favourite for the 2007 125cc title, during which he battled with eventual world champion Gábor Talmácsi. For 2008, he moved up to the 250cc class. However; his 2008 season was a disappointment, as Faubel could do no better than a fourteenth place overall, while teammate Álvaro Bautista was Championship runner-up.Jorge Martínez (motorcyclist)
Jorge Martínez Salvadores, nicknamed "Aspar", (born 29 August 1962 in Alzira, Valencia, Spain) is one of the most successful motorcycle racers in Grand Prix motorcycle racing history with 22 Grand Prix victories to his name in the 80 cc class and a further 15 wins in the 125 cc class.Karel Abraham
Karel Abraham (born 2 January 1990) is a Czech motorcycle racer. He races in the MotoGP World Championship for the Avintia Racing. In 2016, Abraham rode a BMW S1000RR in the Superbike World Championship for Milwaukee BMW.Prior to this, Abraham competed in Grand Prix motorcycle racing from 2005 to 2015, riding in the 125cc, 250cc, Moto2 and MotoGP classes. Despite criticism of Abraham "buying" his way into MotoGP having never been a front runner in the support classes, Abraham took his first podium at Twin Ring Motegi and then won his first Grand Prix at the 2010 season-ending Valencian Grand Prix.Marcian
Marcian (; Latin: Flavius Marcianus Augustus; Greek: Μαρκιανός; c. 392 – 26 January 457) was the Eastern Roman Emperor from 450 to 457. Very little of his life before becoming emperor is known, other than that he was a domesticus (personal assistant) who served under Ardabur and his son Aspar for fifteen years. After the death of Emperor Theodosius II on 28 July 450, Marcian was made a candidate to the throne by Aspar, who held much influence due to his military power. After a month of negotiations Pulcheria, the sister of Theodosius, agreed to marry Marcian, and Flavius Zeno, a military leader of similar influence to Aspar, agreed to help Marcian to become emperor in exchange for the rank of patrician. Marcian was elected and inaugurated on 25 August 450.
Marcian reversed many of the actions of his predecessor, Emperor Theodosius II, in religious matters and the Eastern Roman Empire's relationship with the Huns under Attila. Marcian almost immediately revoked all treaties with Attila, ending all subsidy payments to him. In 452, while Attila was raiding Italy, then a part of the Western Roman Empire, Marcian launched expeditions across the Danube into the Hungarian plain, defeating the Huns in their own heartland. This action, accompanied by the famine and plague that broke out in northern Italy, allowed Marcian to bribe Attila into retreating from the Italian peninsula.
After the death of Attila in 453, Marcian took advantage of the resulting fragmentation of the Hunnic confederation, settling numerous tribes within Eastern Roman lands as foederati (subject tribes which gave military service in exchange for various benefits). Marcian also convened the Council of Chalcedon, which reversed the outcome of the previous Second Council of Ephesus, and declared that Jesus had two natures, divine and human. Marcian died on 26 January 457, leaving the Eastern Roman Empire with a treasury surplus of seven million solidi. After his death, Aspar had Leo I elected as Eastern Roman Emperor.Nicky Hayden
Nicholas Patrick Hayden (July 30, 1981 – May 22, 2017), nicknamed "The Kentucky Kid", was an American professional motorcycle racer who won the MotoGP World Championship in 2006. Hayden began racing motorcycles at a young age. He began his road racing career in the CMRA before progressing to the AMA Supersport Championship and then to the AMA Superbike Championship. He won the AMA title in 2002 and was approached by the Repsol Honda team to race for them in MotoGP.
In his first season he performed well, finishing fifth in the championship and winning the Rookie-of-the-year award. However, this was followed by a difficult second season in which he could only manage eighth overall. Hayden then rallied in the 2005 season by scoring his first Grand Prix win at Laguna Seca, and finishing third in the standings at the end of the season. The next year, 2006, would be Hayden's greatest in motorcycle racing as he won the 2006 MotoGP world title, breaking Valentino Rossi's five year consecutive streak. He remained with Honda for two more seasons without a world title, before moving to Ducati for 2009. Hayden had five largely unsuccessful seasons at Ducati, with his highest finishing championship position a seventh place in 2010. He subsequently moved to the Honda Aspar team in 2014 where he raced for two seasons before making a move to the Superbike World Championship with the Ten Kate Racing Honda team.
Hayden finished fifth in his first season in the World Superbike Championship with the highlight of his season being a win in Malaysia. For 2017 Hayden continued with the Red Bull Honda team (formerly Ten Kate Racing team).
On May 17, 2017, Hayden was hit by a car while riding his bicycle in Italy. He suffered a traumatic brain injury and died five days later in a local hospital. Hayden was posthumously inducted into the AMA Motorcycle Hall of Fame in 2018.Posht-e Aspar Barani
Posht-e Aspar Barani (Persian: پشت اسپرباراني, also Romanized as Posht-e Aspar Bārānī; also known as Posht-e Aspar) is a village in Ozgoleh Rural District, Ozgoleh District, Salas-e Babajani County, Kermanshah Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 15, in 5 families.In recant years it has gone up.Qeshlaq-e Hajj Aspar Kandi
Qeshlaq-e Hajj Aspar Kandi (Persian: قشلاق حاج اسپركندي, also Romanized as Qeshlāq-e Ḩājj Āspar Kandī) is a village in Aslan Duz Rural District, Aslan Duz District, Parsabad County, Ardabil Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 109, in 15 families.Randy de Puniet
Randy de Puniet (born 14 February 1981) is a road racer of motorcycles from France. He competed in Grands Prix racing between 1998 and 2014, where he achieved five wins in the 250cc class. He also competed in the Superbike World Championship during the 2015 season with little success. He currently competes in the MotoE World Cup, aboard an Energica Ego Corsa.Yonny Hernández
Yonny Hernández Vega (born 25 July 1988) is a Colombian motorcycle racer. He is the older brother of Santiago Hernández.Álvaro Bautista
Álvaro Bautista Arce (born 21 November 1984) is a Spanish Grand Prix motorcycle road racer and former 125cc World Champion. He currently competes in the MotoGP class of the Grand Prix Motorcycle World Championship. Bautista competed for the Suzuki team in his first two years after moving into the class in 2010. He moved to the Honda-equipped Gresini Racing team starting in the 2012 season and continued with the team to race Aprilia machinery when the factory returned to MotoGP racing for the 2015 season. Bautista will compete on Ducati with the Aspar MotoGP Team in 2017.Ángel Nieto Team
Ángel Nieto Team (formerly Aspar Racing Team) is a Grand Prix motorcycle racing team from Spain, currently competing in the Moto2, Moto3 and MotoE World Championships.