Asiento

The asiento was the license issued by the Spanish crown, by which a set of merchants received the monopoly on a trade route or product.[1] They were included in some peace treaties. An example of it was the payment of a fee, granting legal permission to sell a fixed number of enslaved Africans in the Spanish colonies. They were usually sold to foreigners, mainly Portuguese. They were also considered a tangible asset, comparable to tax farming, and a source of profit for the Spanish crown.[2] The original impetus to import enslaved Africans was to relieve the indigenous inhabitants of the colonies from the labor demands of the Spanish colonists.[3] Dutch merchants became involved in the slave trade. In 1713, the British were awarded the right to the asiento in the Treaty of Utrecht, which ended the War of the Spanish Succession. The British government passed its rights to the South Sea Company.[4] The British asiento ended with the 1750 Treaty of Madrid between Great Britain and Spain.

In Spain the asientos of the Genoveses (enemies of the Crown of Aragon) and later of the so-called Marranos or Portuguese Jews stand out.

In many cases, intra-nationally, a seat in the form of financing in the case of economies of scale resulted in a chartered company, which was a commercial company whose activities enjoyed the protection of the State by means of a special privilege, which, although it did not always constitute a total monopoly. Its existence dates back to 14th century in Italy, highlighting the British East India Company, the Dutch West India Company or the Casa de la Contratación de Indias in Seville.

Insula Gaditana
The island of Cádiz by Blaeu in 1662.

Spanish Asiento

San juan ulua1
San Juan de Ulúa, Spanish fort in Veracruz, Mexico (2008)

The general meaning of asiento (from the Spanish verb sentar, to sit, and this from Latin sedere) in Spanish is "consent" or "settlement, establishment". In a commercial context it means "contract, trading agreement." In the words of Georges Scelle, it was "a term in Spanish public law which designates every contract made for the purpose of public utility…between the Spanish government and private individuals."[5]

The asiento system was established following Spanish settlement in the Caribbean, when the indigenous population was undergoing demographic collapse and the Spanish needed another source of labor. Initially a few Christian Africans born in Iberia were transported to the Caribbean. But as the indigenous demographic collapse was ongoing and opponents of Spanish exploitation of indigenous labor grew, including that of Bartolomé de Las Casas, the young Hapsburg king Charles I of Spain allowed for the direct importation of slaves from Africa (bozales) to the Caribbean. The first asiento for selling slaves was drawn up in 1518, granting a Flemish favorite of Charles, Laurent de Gouvenot, a monopoly on importing enslaved Africans for eight years with a maximum of 4,000. Gouvenot promptly sold his license to Genoese merchants in Andalusia for 25,000 ducats.[6] The crown controlled both trade and immigration to the New World, excluding Jews, conversos, Muslims, and foreigners. African slaves were considered merchandise, and their import regulated by the crown.[7] Spain had neither direct access to the African sources of slaves nor the ability to transport them, so the asiento system was a way to ensure a legal supply of Africans to the New World, which brought revenue to the Spanish crown.[8]

For the Spanish crown, the asiento was a source of profit. "The asiento remained the settled policy of the Spanish government for controlling and profiting from the slave trade."[4] In Hapsburg Spain, asientos were a basic method of financing state expenditures: "Borrowing took two forms – long-term debt in the form of perpetual bonds (juros), and short-term loan contracts provided by bankers (asientos). Many asientos were eventually converted or refinanced through juros."[9]

Initially, since Portugal had unimpeded rights in West Africa via its 1494 treaty it dominated the European slave trade of Africans. Before the onset of the official asiento in 1595, when the Spanish monarch also ruled Portugal in the Iberian Union (1580-1640), the Spanish fiscal authorities gave individual asientos to merchants, primarily from Portugal, to bring slaves to the Americas. For the 1560s most of these slaves were obtained in the Upper Guinea regions, especially in the Sierra Leone region where there were many wars associated with the Mande invasions.

Cartagena - Fortaleza San Felipe de Barajas - 20050430bis
San Felipe, Spanish fort in Cartagena (Colombia).

Following the establishment of the Portuguese colony of Angola in 1575, and the gradual replacement of São Tomé by Brazil as the primary producers of sugar, Angolan interests came to dominate the trade, and it was Portuguese financiers and merchants who obtained the larger scale, comprehensive asiento that was established in 1595 during the period of the Iberian Union. The asiento was extended to importation of African slaves to Brazil, with those holding asientos for the Brazilian slave trade often also trading slaves in Spanish America. Spanish America was a major market for African slaves, including many of whom exceeded the quota of the asiento license and illegally sold. Most smuggled slaves were not brought by freelance traders.[10]

Angolan dominance of the trade was pronounced after 1615 when the governors of Angola, starting with Bento Banha Cardoso, made alliance with Imbangala mercenaries to wreak havoc on the local African powers. Many of these governors also held the contract of Angola as well as the asiento, thus insuring their interests. Shipping registers from Vera Cruz and Cartagena show that as many as 85% of the slaves arriving in Spanish ports were from Angola, brought by Portuguese ships. The earlier asiento period came to an end in 1640 when Portugal revolted against Spain, though even then the Portuguese continued to supply Spanish colonies.

1713 Asiento contract
Cover of the English translation of the Asiento contract signed by Britain and Spain in 1713 as part of the Utrecht treaty that ended the War of Spanish Succession. The contract granted exclusive rights to Britain to sell slaves in the Spanish Indies.

In the 1650s after Portugal achieved its independence from Spain, Spain denied the asiento to the Portuguese, whom they considered rebels.[11] Spain sought to enter the slave trade directly, sending ships to Angola to purchase slaves. It also toyed with the idea of a military alliance with Kongo, the powerful African kingdom north of Angola. But these ideas were abandoned and the Spanish returned to Portuguese and then Dutch interests to supply slaves. The Spanish awarded large contracts for the asiento to the Dutch West India Company in 1675 rather than Portuguese merchants in the 1670s and 1680s.[12] In 1700, with the death of the last Hapsburg monarch, Charles II of Spain, his will named the French House of Bourbon as the successor to the Spanish throne. The asiento was granted in 1702 to the French Guinea Company, for the importation of 48,000 African slaves over a decade. The Africans were transported to French Caribbean colonies of Martinique and Saint Domingue.

Britain disputed the Bourbon inheritance of the Spanish throne and fought in the War of the Spanish Succession. Although Britain did not prevail, it did receive the asiento as part of the Treaty of Utrecht. The asiento became a conduit for British contraband trade all kinds, which undermined Spain's attempts to keep a closed trading system with its colonies.[13] The asiento agreement with the British survived until 1750, when Spain was implementing a number of administrative and economic reforms. The crown bought out the South Sea Company's right to the asiento in 1750. The crown sought another way to supply African slaves, attempting to liberalize its traffic, trying to shift to a system of the free trade in slaves by Spaniards and foreigners in particular colonial locations. These were Cuba, Santo Domingo, Puerto Rico, and Caracas, all of which used African slaves in large numbers.[14]

Europeans' enslavement of Africans was not not challenged, but in 1688 Aphra Behn published Oroonoko, one of the first pieces of antislavery literature.[15]

British South Sea Company

At the conclusion of the War of the Spanish Succession, the Treaty of Utrecht gave to Great Britain a thirty-year asiento or contract, to send one merchant ship to the Spanish port of Portobelo, furnishing 4800 slaves to the Spanish colonies. This provided British traders and smugglers with inroads into the supposedly closed Spanish markets in America. Disputes connected with it led to the War of Jenkins' Ear (1739).[16] Britain gave up its rights to the asiento after the war, in the 1750 Treaty of Madrid.

Similar patents in the English system were the Virginia Company, the Levant Company and the Merchant Adventurers' patent of trade with the United Provinces (essentially concurrent with the modern day Netherlands). A detailed and well written overview of the English system is given by Robert Brenner in "Merchants and Revolution".

Holders of the Asiento

Frans Hals 1644 Portrait of Joseph Coymans
Joseph Coymans, with coat of arms, three oxheads, by Frans Hals in (1644). He and his brother, & two cousins named Balthasar and Joan were financing slave trade. Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford, Connecticut.
  • 1518-1527 - Laurent de Gouvenot (aka Lorenzo de Gorrevod or Garrebod), Governor of Bresse and majordomo of Charles I of Spain.[17][18]
  • 1528-1536 - The Welser family.[19]
  • 1536-1595 - Liberalization.[19]
  • 1595-1615 - Pedro Gomes Reinel (or Reynel).[20]
  • 1602-1610 - João Rodrigues Coutinho, succeeded by Gonçalo Vaz Coutinho.
  • November 5, 1611 - Juan Alfonso de Molina Cano for António Fernandes de Elvas.
  • January 24, 1615 - Melchor Maldonado.
  • 1615-1621 - António Fernandes de Elvas.
  • February 2, 1622 - Gaspar de Monteser for António Fernandes de Elvas.
  • 1623-1625 - Miguel Rodrigues Lamego.
  • 1631-1640? - Melchor Gómez Angel and Cristóvão Mendes de Sousa.
  • July 5, 1662 – 1669 Domingo Grillo and Ambrosio Lomelín will ship 24,000 slaves in seven years, assisted by the Dutch West India Company from Curaçao and the British Royal African Company from Jamaica.[21]
  • 1670-1675 António Garcia, a Portuguese (and Sebastian de Síliceo his guarantee).[24][25]
Retratodejosuavanbellers8
The Dutch merchant in Cadiz Joshua van Belle, involved with his brother Pedro in slave trade, by Murillo in 1670, National Gallery of Ireland, Dublin.
  • 1676-1679 Manuel Hierro de Castro, and Manuel José Cortizos, members of the Consulado de Sevilla. Spanish are no longer allowed to buy slaves on Curaçao.
    • [Señor. El Maestro Fray Juan de Castro, Religioso de la Orden de Santo Domingo, dize : Que por el año de 1678 hollandose en la Ciudad de Cádiz, le solicitaron D. Baltasar Coymans, y Pedro Bambelle de Nacion Olandeses, para la disposicion de un Asiento, que se auia de hazer para comerciar à Indias, haziendole grandes ofertas…y auian de ser Españoles los que le auian de hazer ; y reconociendo…que se trataua de adulterar el comercio…]
  • 1680 Juan Barroso del Pozo, a former assistant Coymans (?) [26] and Nicolas Porcio, his Venetian son-in-law, became asentistas.
  • 1682-1688 Juan Barroso del Pozo (-1683) and Nicolás Porcio succeeded in getting the asiento for 6.5 years. It was probably Porcio who encountered many financial difficulties in 1684 and was unable to make his payments to the crown, alleging that the local authorities in Cartagena were working against his interests.[27]
  • February 1685 – 1688 Balthasar Coymans (1652-1686).[24][28] Coymans made an immediate payment towards some frigates for the Spanish navy being built in Amsterdam and an advance on the dues he would be liable for on goods imported to Spanish America.[27]
    • Royal Order, signed 'El Rey', commanding Don Balthasar Coymans, Don Juan Barrosa & Don Nicolas Porzio to assemble ten Capuchin monks (Franciscan friars) from either Cadiz or Amsterdam for the purpose of sailing to the coast of Africa to buy slaves, to convert them to Christianity and sell them in the West Indies, 25 March 1685 Balthasar & Johan Coymans.[29]
    • Carta de Rodrigo Gómez a [Manuel Diego López de Zúñiga Mendoza Sotomayor, X] Duque de Béjar informando de la concesión de un asiento de negros en el Río de la Plata a favor de Baltasar Coymans y pide recomendaciones personales para que su hijo Pedro sea empleado en ese negocio. Menciona también a Gaspar de Rebolledo, Juan Pimentel como Gobernador de Buenos Aires y a [Carlos José Gutiérrez de los Ríos Roha, VI] Conde de Fernán-Núñez. Antwerp, 1685-04-17.[30]
    • July 1686. King Charles II of Spain starts an investigation into the legitimacy of the Asiento.[31] The asiento with B. Coymans is annulled.
    • October 1686 The Dutch refuse to accept the "Junta de Asiento de Negros", a commission of dubious authority.
    • There is a risk of war between France and Spain; Jamaica is becoming more important than Curaçao.[32]
Jean Baptiste du Casse
Jean Baptiste du Casse, 1700
  • 1687-1688 Jan Carçau, or Juan Carcán a former assistant of B. Coymans, takes over the asiento.
    • March 1688 Jan Carçao is put in prison in Cádiz, accused of fraud. In June 1688 the commission delivered an opinion the Dutch must recognize its authority before discussions could proceed.[33]
  • 1688-October 1691 Nicolás Porcio.
  • 1692-1695 Bernardo Francisco Marín de Guzmán
  • 1695-1701 Manuel Ferreira de Carvalho representing the Real Companhia de Cacheu or Real Companhia da Guiné do Reino de Portugal.
    • 1698 The British Royal African Company loses her monopoly.[34]
  • 1701-1713 Jean du Casse in name of the Compagnie de Guinée et de l'Assiente des Royaume de la France.[35]
  • 1713-1750 South Sea Company.[36]
  • 1750 Asiento ended with Britain in the Treaty of Madrid (5 October 1750)
  • 1765-1772 Miguel de Uriarte in name of Aguirre, Aristegui, J.M. Enrile y Compañía, or Compañía Gaditana.
  • 1773-1779 Aguirre, Aristegui y Compañía, or Compañía Gaditana.

See also

Sources

  • Blackburn, Robin, The Making of New World Slavery, London: Verso 1997,
  • Goslinga, C. Ch. (1985). The Dutch in the Caribbean and in the Guianas 1680–1791. Assen: Van Gorcum. ISBN 90-232-2060-9.
  • David Marley (ed.), Reales asientos y licencias para la introduccion de esclavos negros a la America Espagnola (1676–1789), ISBN 0-88653-009-1 (Windsor, Canada. 1985).
  • Postma, J. M. (2008). The Dutch in the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1600–1815. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-36585-7.

References

  1. ^ David Marley (ed. ), Reales asientos y licencias para la introducción de esclavos negros a la América Española (1676-1789), (Windsor 1985).
  2. ^ Blackburn, Robin, The Making of New World Slavery, London: Verso 1997, pp. 135, 141-2.
  3. ^ Haring, Clarence. The Spanish Empire in America, New York: Oxford University Press 1947, p. 219.
  4. ^ a b Haring, The Spanish Empire in America, p. 220.
  5. ^ Postma, Johannes, The Dutch in the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1600-1815 (Cambridge University Press, 1990), p. 29.
  6. ^ Haring, The Spanish Empire in America, p. 219.
  7. ^ Blackburn, The Making of New World Slavery, p. 135.
  8. ^ Shelly, Cara. "Asiento" in Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture, vol. 1, p. 218. New York: Charles Scribner's and Sons 1996, p. 218.
  9. ^ Mauricio Drelichman and Hans-Joachim Voth, "Lending to the Borrower from Hell: Debt and Default in the Age of Phillip II, 1566-1598", p. 6.
  10. ^ Blackburn, The Making of New World Slavery, p. 181.
  11. ^ Shelly, "Asiento", p. 218.
  12. ^ Blackburn, The Making of New World Slavery, p. 203.
  13. ^ Shelly, "Asiento", p. 218
  14. ^ Haring, The Spanish Empire in America, p. 220-21
  15. ^ Wills, J.E. (2001) 1688. A global history, p. 52.
  16. ^ Haring, The Spanish Empire in America, p. 333.
  17. ^ Thomas, Hugh (1997) The Slave Trade. Simon and Schuster, 908 pages
  18. ^ a b Dalla Corte, Gabriela (2006) Homogeneidad, Diferencia y Exclusión en América. Edicions Universitat Barcelona, 447 pages
  19. ^ a b Cortés López, José Luis (2004) Esclavo y Colono. Universidad de Salamanca, 339 pages
  20. ^ "Portada del Archivo Histórico Nacional". censoarchivos.mcu.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  21. ^ "2006.003.0002 a Documents". www.melfisher.org. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  22. ^ The slave trade: the story of the Atlantic slave trade, 1440-1870 Door Hugh Thomas, p. 213.
  23. ^ The Genoese in Spain: Gabriel Bocángel y Unzueta (1603-1658): a biography by Trevor J. Dadson [1]
  24. ^ a b http://www.danbyrnes.com.au/merchants/merchants7.htm
  25. ^ Klooster, W. (1997): Slavenvaart op Spaanse kusten. De Nederlandse slavenhandel met Spaans Amerika, 1648-1701 in Tijdschrift voor de Zeegeschiedenis p. 127.
  26. ^ Shaw, C.M. (199) The overseas Spanish Empire and the Dutch Republic before and after the Peace of Munster", In: De zeventiende Eeuw, 13 (1997), pp. 131-139.
  27. ^ a b Wills, J.E. (2001) 1688. A global history, p. 50.
  28. ^ Davies, Kenneth Gordon (1957). The Royal African Company. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9780415190770.
  29. ^ "Spanish Slavery.- [Charle S II, King of Spain, 1665-1700 Royal Order, signed 'El Rey', commanding Don Balthasar Coymans, Don Juan Barrosa & Don Nicolas Porzio to assemble 10 Capuchin monks (Franciscan friars) from either Cadiz or Amsterdam for the". invaluable.com. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  30. ^ "MINISTERIO DE EDUCACIÓN, CULTURA Y DEPORTE - Portal de Archivos Españoles". pares.mcu.es (in Spanish). Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  31. ^ The transatlantic slave trade: a history door James A. Rawley, Stephen D. Behrendt [2]
  32. ^ Négoce, ports et océans, XVIe-XXe siècles: mélanges offerts à Paul Butel Door Silvia Marzagalli, Paul Butel, Hubert Bonin [3]
  33. ^ Wills, J.E. (2001) 1688. A global history, p. 51.
  34. ^ The African slave trade and its suppression: a classified and annotated… By Peter C. Hogg [4]
  35. ^ "Africa Focus: Africans in bondage : studies in slavery and the slave trade : essays in honor of Philip D. Curtin on the occasion of the twenty-fifth anniversary of African Studies at the University of Wisconsin: Chapter 2: The company trade and the numerical distribution of slaves to Spanish America, 1703-1739". digicoll.library.wisc.edu. Retrieved 2017-07-13.
  36. ^ Wikisource Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Asiento" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 2 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 761.
CRKSV Jong Colombia

CRKSV Jong Colombia is a football club in Curaçao, playing in the country's first division Curaçao League. Located In Boka Sami Municipality Sint Michiel It was founded on 23 July 1951. Its name and its crest is a reference to Colombia, located 1045.8 km from the island.

CRKSV Jong Holland

CRKSV Jong Holland is a Netherlands Antilles football team based in Willemstad and playing in the First Division of Curaçao liga MCB.

Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748)

On 24 April 1748 a congress assembled at the Imperial Free City of Aachen, in the west of the Holy Roman Empire. This Congress of Aachen is often referred to as Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle using the French name of Aachen. It was the purpose of the congress to bring to a conclusion the struggle known as the War of Austrian Succession.

Between 30 April and 21 May the preliminaries were agreed to between Great Britain, France and the Dutch Republic, and to these Maria Theresa, queen of Bohemia and Hungary, the kings of Sardinia and Spain, the duke of Modena, and the republic of Genoa successively gave their adhesion. The definitive treaty was signed on 18 October, Sardinia alone refusing to accede, because the Treaty of Worms (1743) was not guaranteed.

Of the provisions of the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle the most important were those stipulating for:

a general restitution of conquests, including Cape Breton Island to France, Madras to England and the barrier towns to the Dutch

the assignment to Don Philip of the duchies of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla

the restoration of the duke of Modena and the republic of Genoa to their former positions

the renewal in favour of Great Britain of the Asiento contract of 16 March 1713, and of the right to send an annual vessel to the Spanish colonies

the renewal of the article of the treaty of 1718 recognizing the Protestant succession in the English throne

the recognition of the emperor Francis and the confirmation of the pragmatic sanction, i.e. of the right of Maria Theresa to the Habsburg succession

the guarantee to Prussia of the duchy of Silesia and the county of Glatz.Spain having raised objections to the Asiento clauses, the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle was supplemented by the Treaty of Madrid (5 October 1750), by which Great Britain surrendered her claims under those clauses in return for a sum of 100,000.

See A. J. H. de Clercq, Recueil des traites de la France; F. A. Wenk, Corpus juris gentium recentissimi, 1735–1772, vol. ii. (Leipzig, 1786), p. 337; Comte G. de Garden, Hist. des traites de paix, 1848–1887, iii. p. 373.

Convention of Pardo

The Convention of Pardo was a 1739 treaty between Great Britain and Spain designed to find a solution to the issues of smuggling, the Asiento and freedom of the seas, which had strained relations between the two states for the past few decades. The treaty was agreed to try to prevent war breaking out and also known as the Treaty of Pardo or the Convention of El Pardo.

Cordillera Quimsa Cruz

The Cordillera Quimsa Cruz is a mountain range in the La Paz Department in Bolivia situated south east of Lake Titicaca and north of Lake Uru Uru, measuring about 35-40 km in length and 12 km at its widest point. It is the continuation of the Cordillera Real of Bolivia extending in a north to south-eastern direction from Asiento pass south of Illimani to Tres Cruces pass.Kimsa Cruz or Quimsa Cruz in hispanicized spelling is a partly Aymara (kimsa three), partly Spanish (cruz cross) expression meaning "three crosses".

Curaçao Promé Divishon

The Promé Divishon (Papiamento: "First division") is the top association football league and only semi-professional league in Curaçao, constituent country of the Netherlands. Up to 2010 the top two teams in this competition got to compete in the Kopa Antiano, the Netherlands Antilles Championship. After the dissolution of the country, Curaçao became the successor of the Netherlands Antilles in CONCACAF and the teams competing can qualify for the CONCACAF Champions League, by placing in the top final three positions of the CFU Club Championship. The teams who finish at the bottom of the league table, have to compete with the top two teams of the Sekshon Amatùr, the 2nd tier of football in Curaçao for placement in Sekshon Pagá the following season.

General Guido Partido

General Guido Partido is a partido in the eastern part of Buenos Aires Province in Argentina.The provincial subdivision has a population of about 3,000 inhabitants in an area of 2,340 km2 (903 sq mi), and its capital city is General Guido.

RKSV Scherpenheuvel

Rooms Katholieke Sport Vereniging Scherpenheuvel is a Curaçaoan football team located in Scherpenheuvel, and playing in the Sekshon Pagá since the 2015 season. The club has previously played at the topflight of the Netherlands Antilles, having won the Curaçao League First Division twice, in both the 1964–65 and 1968–69 seasons, and the Netherlands Antilles Championship once in 1967. Participating in the 1968 CONCACAF Champions' Cup. They were eliminated by SV Transvaal from Suriname 4–2 on aggregate.

RKV FC Sithoc

RKVFC Sithoc is a Curaçao football team playing In the first division of Curaçao League. The team is based in Willemstad, Curaçao. It was founded in March 7, 1942.

Racing Club Curaçao

S.V. Racing Club Curaçao is a Curaçaoan tennis club located in Willemstad. The club is a multi purpose sports club with its association football team having won the Curaçao League First Division in the 1936–37 season.

Real Asiento de Inglaterra

Real Asiento de Inglaterra was the name in Spanish of the subsidiary in Buenos Aires of the South Sea Company. In 1713, the British Crown established the Asiento in the current Plaza San Martín, neighborhood of Retiro.

Santería

Santería, also known as Regla de Ocha, La Regla de Ifá, or Lucumí, is an Afro-American religion of Caribbean origin that developed in the Spanish Empire among West African descendants. Santería is a Spanish word that means the "worship of saints". Santería is influenced by and syncretized with Roman Catholicism. Its sacred language is the Lucumí language, a variety of Yoruba.

Slavery in the British and French Caribbean

Slavery in the British and French Caribbean refers to slavery in the parts of the Caribbean dominated by France or the British Empire.

Slavery in the Spanish New World colonies

Slavery in the Spanish American colonies was an economic and social institution central to the operation of the Spanish Empire – it bound Africans and indigenous people to a relationship of colonial exploitation. Spanish colonists provided the Americas with a colonial precedent for slavery; however, early on opposition from the enslaved Indians and influential Spaniards moved the Crown to limit the bondage of indigenous people, and initiated debates that challenged the idea of slavery based on race. Spaniards regarded some indigenous people as tribute under the encomienda system during the late 1400s and part of the 1500s.Spanish slavery in the Americas did not diverge drastically from that in other European colonies. It reshuffled the Atlantic World's populations through forced migrations, helped transfer American wealth to Europe, and promoted racial and social hierarchies (castas) throughout the empire. Spanish enslavers justified their wealth and status earned at the work of the mines at the expense of captive workers by considering them inferior beings with limited capacities and holding them as personal property (chattel slavery), often under barbarous conditions. In fact, Spanish colonization set some egregious records in the field of slavery. The Asiento, the official contract for trading in slaves in the vast Spanish territories was a major engine of the Atlantic slave trade. When Spain first enslaved Native Americans on Hispaniola, and then replaced them with captive Africans, it established unfree labor as the basis for colonial mass-production. Subsequently, in the mid-nineteenth century when most countries in the hemisphere reformed to disallow chattel slavery, Cuba and Puerto Rico – the last two remaining Spanish American colonies – maintained slavery the longest.Enslaved people challenged their captivity in ways that ranged from introducing non-European elements into Christianity (syncretism) to mounting alternative societies outside the plantation system (Maroons). The first open black rebellion occurred in Spanish plantations in 1521. Resistance, particularly to the enslavement of indigenous people, also came from Spanish religious and legal ranks. The first speech in the Americas for the universality of human rights and against the abuses of slavery was also given on Hispaniola, a mere nineteen years after the first contact. Resistance to Amerindian captivity in the Spanish colonies produced the first modern debates over race and the legitimacy of slavery. And uniquely in the Spanish American colonies, laws like the New Laws of 1542, were enacted early in the colonial period to protect natives from bondage. To complicate matters further, Spain's haphazard grip on its extensive American dominions and its erratic economy acted to impede the broad and systematic spread of plantations similar to those of the French in Saint Domingue or of the British in Jamaica. Altogether, the struggle against slavery in the Spanish American colonies left a notable tradition of opposition that set the stage for current conversations about human rights.

South Sea Company

The South Sea Company (officially The Governor and Company of the merchants of Great Britain, trading to the South Seas and other parts of America, and for the encouragement of fishing) was a British joint-stock company founded in 1711, created as a public-private partnership to consolidate and reduce the cost of national debt. The company was also granted a monopoly to trade with South America and nearby islands, hence its name (the modern use of the term "South Seas" to refer to the entire South Pacific was unknown in England at the time). When the company was created, Britain was involved in the War of the Spanish Succession and Spain controlled South America. There was no realistic prospect that trade would take place, and the company never realised any significant profit from its monopoly. Company stock rose greatly in value as it expanded its operations dealing in government debt, peaking in 1720 before collapsing to little above its original flotation price; the economic bubble became known as the South Sea Bubble.

The Bubble Act 1720 (6 Geo I, c 18), which forbade the creation of joint-stock companies without royal charter, was promoted by the South Sea company itself before its collapse.

In Great Britain, a considerable number of people were ruined by the share collapse, and the national economy greatly reduced as a result. The founders of the scheme engaged in insider trading, using their advance knowledge of when national debt was to be consolidated to make large profits from purchasing debt in advance. Huge bribes were given to politicians to support the Acts of Parliament necessary for the scheme. Company money was used to deal in its own shares, and selected individuals purchasing shares were given loans backed by those same shares to spend on purchasing more shares. The expectation of profits from trade with South America was used to encourage the public to purchase shares, but the bubble prices reached far beyond the profits of the slave trade.A parliamentary inquiry was held after the crash to discover its causes. A number of politicians were disgraced, and people found to have profited unlawfully from the company had assets confiscated proportionate to their gains (most had already been rich men and remained so). The company was restructured and continued to operate for more than a century after the Bubble. The headquarters were in Threadneedle Street at the centre of the financial district in London. At the time of these events the Bank of England also was a private company dealing in national debt, and the crash of its rival consolidated its position as banker to the British government..

Sport Unie Brion Trappers

Sport Unie Brion-Trappers is a Curaçao football club, based in Willemstad, their home stadium being Stadion dr. Antoine Maduro. It plays in the first division of Curaçao League.

Tlayuda

Tlayuda (Spanish pronunciation: [tɬaˈʝuða]), sometimes spelled clayuda, is a handmade dish in traditional Oaxacan cuisine, consisting of a large, thin, crunchy, partially fried or toasted tortilla covered with a spread of refried beans, asiento (unrefined pork lard), lettuce or cabbage, avocado, meat (usually shredded chicken, beef tenderloin or pork), Oaxaca cheese, and salsa.A popular antojito, the tlayuda is native to the state of Oaxaca. It is regarded as iconic in the local cuisine, and can be found particularly around Oaxaca City. Tlayudas are also available in the center-south region of Mexico, such as Mexico City, Puebla, or Guadalajara.

The dinner plate-sized tortilla is either seared (usually on a comal) or charred on a grill. Refried beans are then applied, along with lard and vegetables, to serve as a base for the main ingredients. The rules for topping a tlayuda are not strict, and restaurants and street vendors often offer a variety of toppings, including tasajo (cuts of meat typical of Central Valley of Oaxaca), chorizo, and cecina enchilada (thin strips of chili powder-encrusted pork). They may be prepared open-faced or folded in half.

Treaty of Madrid (5 October 1750)

The Treaty of Madrid was a commercial treaty signed between Britain and Spain on 5 October 1750. It followed the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, which had brought a close to the War of the Austrian Succession in 1748, and resolved lingering Spanish concerns about the Asiento contract.

War of Jenkins' Ear

The War of Jenkins' Ear (known as Guerra del Asiento in Spain) was a conflict between Britain and Spain lasting from 1739 to 1748, with major operations largely ended by 1742. Its unusual name, coined by Thomas Carlyle in 1858, refers to an ear severed from Robert Jenkins, a captain of a British merchant ship. There is no evidence that supports the stories that the severed ear was exhibited before the British Parliament.

The seeds of conflict began with the separation of an ear from Jenkins following the boarding of his vessel by Spanish coast guards in 1731, eight years before the war began. Popular response to the incident was tepid until several years later when opposition politicians and the British South Sea Company hoped to spur outrage against Spain, believing that a victorious war would improve Britain’s trading opportunities in the Caribbean. Also ostensibly providing the impetus to war against the Spanish Empire was a desire to pressure the Spanish not to renege on the lucrative asiento contract, which gave British slavers permission to sell slaves in Spanish America.The war resulted in heavy British casualties in North America. After 1742, the war was subsumed by the wider War of the Austrian Succession, which involved most of the powers of Europe. Peace arrived with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748. From the British perspective, the war was notable because it was the first time that a regiment of colonial American troops (Oglethorpe's Regiment) was raised and placed "on the Establishment" – made a part of the regular British Army – and sent to fight outside North America.

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