Asiatic–Pacific Campaign Medal

The Asiatic–Pacific Campaign Medal[1] is a United States military award of the Second World War, which was awarded to any member of the United States Armed Forces who served in the Asiatic-Pacific Theater from 1941 to 1945. The medal was created on November 6, 1942 by Executive Order 9265[2] issued by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The medal was designed by Thomas Hudson Jones; the reverse side was designed by Adolph Alexander Weinman which is the same design as used on the reverse of the American Campaign Medal and European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal.

There were 21 Army and 48 Navy-Marine Corps official campaigns of the Pacific Theater, denoted on the suspension and service ribbon of the medal by service stars which also were called "battle stars"; some Navy construction battalion units issued the medal with Arabic numerals. The Arrowhead device is authorized for those campaigns which involved participation in amphibious assault landings. The Fleet Marine Force Combat Operation Insignia is also authorized for wear on the medal for Navy service members who participated in combat while assigned to a Marine Corps unit. The flag colors of the United States and Japan are visible in the ribbon.

The Asiatic–Pacific Campaign Medal was first issued as a service ribbon in 1942. A full medal was authorized in 1947, the first of which was presented to General of the Army Douglas MacArthur. The European Theater equivalent of the medal was known as the European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal.

Boundaries of Asiatic-Pacific Theater. (1) The eastern boundary is coincident with the western boundary of the American Theater. (2) The western boundary is from the North Pole south along the 60th meridian east longitude to its intersection with the east boundary of Iran, then south along the Iran boundary to the Gulf of Oman and the intersection of the 60th meridian east longitude, then south along the 60th meridian east longitude to the South Pole.[3]

Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal
ASPCFCM
Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal
Awarded by Department of War and Department of the Navy
TypeService medal
EligibilityServed in the U.S. armed forces for at least 30 days in the Asiatic-Pacific Theater between December 7, 1941 and March 2, 1946.
StatusInactive
Statistics
First awardedDecember 7, 1941
Last awardedMarch 2, 1946
Precedence
EquivalentAmerican Campaign Medal
European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal

Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal ribbon and streamer


Streamer for Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal

Service ribbon and campaign streamer.

U.S. Army campaigns

Authorized Army military campaigns for the Pacific Theater are as follows:[4]

U.S. Navy campaigns

Authorized Navy military campaigns for the Pacific Theater are as follows:[5]

  • Pearl Harbor December 7, 1941
  • Wake Island (Johnston Island December 15–22, 1941) December 8–23, 1941
  • Philippine Islands Operation December 8, 1941 – May 6, 1942
  • Netherlands East Indies engagements January 23 – February 27, 1942
  • Pacific Specified Raids—1942 February 1, 1942March 10, 1942
  • Coral Sea May 4–8, 1942
  • Midway June 3–6, 1942
  • Guadalcanal-Tulagi landings (including First Savo) August 7–9, 1942
  • Capture and defense of Guadalcanal August 10, 1942 – February 8, 1943
  • Makin Raid August 17–18, 1942
  • Eastern Solomons (Stewart Island) August 23–25, 1942
  • Buin-Faisi-Tonolai raid October 5, 1942
  • Cape Esperance (Second Savo) October 11–12, 1942
  • Santa Cruz Islands October 26, 1942
  • Guadalcanal (Third Savo) November 12–15, 1942
  • Tassafaronga (Fourth Savo) November 30 – December 1, 1942
  • Eastern New Guinea operation December 17, 1942 – July 24, 1944
  • Rennel Island January 29–30, 1943
  • Consolidation of Solomon Islands February 8, 1943 – March 15, 1945
  • Aleutians operation March 26 – June 2, 1943
  • New Georgia Group operation June 20 – October 16, 1943
  • Bismarck Archipelago operation June 25, 1943 – May 1, 1944
  • Pacific Specified Raids—1943 August 31, 1943 – October 6, 1943
  • Treasury-Bougainville operation October 27 – December 15, 1943
  • Gilbert Islands operation November 13 – December 8, 1943
  • Marshall Islands operation November 26, 1943 – March 2, 1944
  • Asiatic-Pacific Specified Raids—1944 February 16, 1944 – October 9, 1944
  • Western New Guinea operations April 21, 1944 – January 9, 1945
  • Marianas operation June 10 – August 27, 1944
  • Western Caroline Islands operation August 31 – October 14, 1944
  • Leyte operation October 10 – November 29, 1944
  • Luzon operation December 12, 1944April 1, 1945
  • Iwo Jima operation February 15 – March 16, 1945
  • Okinawa Gunto operation March 17 – June 30, 1945
  • 3d Fleet operations against Japan July 10 – August 15, 1945
  • Kurile Islands operation February 1, 1944 – August 11, 1945
  • Borneo operations April 27 – July 20, 1945
  • Tinian capture and occupation July 24 – August 1, 1944
  • Consolidation and capture of Southern Philippines February 28 – July 20, 1945
  • Hollandia operation (Aitape Humboldt Bay-Tanahmerah Bay) April 21 – June 1, 1944
  • Manila Bay-Bicol operations January 29 – April 16, 1945
  • U.S.S. Navajo—Salvage operations August 8, 1942 – February 3, 1943
  • Action off Vanikoro July 17–21, 1943
  • Naval Group China (6 months duty required) February 19, 1943 – May 4, 1945
  • Task Group 30.4 May 22 – June 15, 1944
  • Task Group 12.2 July 5 – August 9, 1944
  • Specified Minesweeping Operations Pacific June 23, 1945 – March 2, 1946
  • Submarine War Patrols (Pacific – 1 star for participation in each war patrol) December 7, 1941 – September 2, 1945

Other campaigns

For members of the U.S. military who did not receive campaign credit, but still served on active duty in the Pacific Theater, the following “blanket” campaigns are authorized for which the Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal is awarded without service stars.

  • Antisubmarine December 7, 1941 – September 2, 1945
  • Ground Combat: December 7, 1941 – September 2, 1945
  • Air Combat: December 7, 1941 – September 2, 1945

See also

References

  1. ^ 578.49 Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal
  2. ^ *Federal Register for Executive Order 9265
  3. ^ [1] Army Regulation 600–8–22
  4. ^ Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal description, Clothing and Insignia PSID, US Army TACOM
  5. ^ Navy and Marine Corps Awards Manual, NAVPERS 15,790 (REV.1953), Part III. - List of Authorized Operations and Engagements, ASIATIC-PACIFIC AREA

External links

Alexander Bonnyman Jr.

Alexander "Sandy" Bonnyman Jr. (May 2, 1910 – November 22, 1943) was a United States Marine Corps officer who was killed in action at Betio, Tarawa during World War II. A combat engineer, he received the Medal of Honor, Purple Heart, Presidential Unit Citation, Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal with three Bronze Stars and the World War II Victory Medal posthumously for his actions during the strategically important assault on a Japanese bombproof shelter during the Battle of Tarawa.

Arrowhead device

The Arrowhead device is a miniature bronze arrowhead that may be worn on campaign, expedition, and service medals and ribbons to denote participation in an amphibious assault landing, combat parachute jump, helicopter assault landing, or combat glider landing by a service member of the United States Army or United States Air Force.

Award numerals

An arabic numeral device or numeral device sometimes called an "award numeral", is a United States Armed Forces service device that may be authorized for wear on specific service ribbons and suspension ribbons of medals. Arabic numeral devices are bronze or gold in color and are ​3⁄16 inch in height.

Arabic numerals are worn to denote award of a second or subsequent award for which a member has already received the initial decoration or award. The ribbon denotes the first award and numerals starting with the numeral 2 denote the total number of awards. The ​3⁄16 inch numerals are similar to the ​5⁄16 inch Strike/Flight numerals worn by the United States Navy and Marine Corps.U.S. military decorations and awards that may be authorized an Arabic Numeral device are as follows:

Air Medal

Armed Forces Reserve Medal (only in conjunction with the "M" device)

NCO Professional Development Ribbon (numerals indicate the level of the course graduated, not multiple decorations)

Army Overseas Service Ribbon

Army Reserve Components Overseas Training Ribbon

Navy Recruiting Service RibbonWith the exception of the Air Medal and Armed Forces Reserve Medal service ribbons and suspension ribbons, the United States Army is the only service branch to currently use numerals on other service ribbons. During World War II, some Naval Construction Battalions (Seabees) were issued the Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal with numerals instead of service stars.

Carson Abel Roberts

Carson Abel Roberts (September 4, 1905 – December 19, 1983) was a lieutenant general in the United States Marine Corps.

Charles S. Lawrence

Charles S. Lawrence (December 22, 1892 - June 12, 1970) was a United States Army colonel who would survive the Bataan Death March to later become the first Executive Vice President of the Institute of Food Technologists (IFT).

David William Hutchison

David William Hutchison (May 21, 1908 – September 24, 1982) was a major general in the United States Air Force.

Hutchison was born on May 21, 1908 in Mineral Point, Wisconsin. His father, Charles W. Hutchison, was a member of the Wisconsin State Senate.

Hutchison graduated from the United States Military Academy in 1931. During World War II, Hutchison served with the Fifth Air Force and later commanded the 308th Bombardment Wing. While in command, he participated in the Battle of Biak, the Battle of Leyte, and the Battle of Luzon. Following the war, he was given command of the 314th Air Division, the 97th Bombardment Wing, the 21st Air Division, and the 5th Air Division, before being selected as the first commander of the Seventeenth Air Force. During his time in command of the 21st Division, which at the time was based at Forbes Air Force Base in Shawnee County, Kansas, he received a letter of commendation from Governor Edward F. Arn for relief efforts during flooding from the Kansas River in 1951. In 1954, he was named Deputy for Operations of Tactical Air Command and in 1958 was given command of the Ninth Air Force.

Awards he received include the Distinguished Service Medal, the Silver Star, the Distinguished Flying Cross with oak leaf cluster, the Air Medal with oak leaf cluster, the Purple Heart, the Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal, the Philippine Liberation Medal, the World War II Victory Medal, the Army of Occupation Medal, the National Defense Service Medal, the Air Force Longevity Service Award with silver oak leaf cluster and bronze oak leaf cluster, and the Distinguished Service Order of the United Kingdom.

He died on September 24, 1982.

Frederic H. Smith Jr.

Frederic Harrison Smith Jr. (June 30, 1908 – May 28, 1980) was a United States Air Force four-star general who served as Commander in Chief, U.S. Air Forces in Europe (CINCUSAFE) from 1959 to 1961; and Vice Chief of Staff, U.S. Air Force (VCSAF) from 1961 to 1962.

Smith was born at Fort Monroe, Virginia, in 1908. He attended the United States Military Academy at West Point and graduated a second lieutenant of Field Artillery, June 13, 1929.

Smith's first assignment was that of student officer at the Air Corps Primary and Advanced Flying Schools at Brooks and Kelly Fields, Texas. After receiving his wings, he was transferred to the Army Air Corps in December 1930.

His first Air Corps assignment was at France Field, Panama Canal Zone, where he served with the 63rd Service Squadron and the 24th Pursuit Squadron until December 1932. Smith then returned to the U.S. for assignment to the 41st School Squadron at Kelly Field, Texas, in January 1933.

From 1936 to 1939, following three years as flying instructor at Kelly Field, Captain Smith served as senior aeronautical inspector for the Panama Canal, Balboa Heights, Canal Zone. He also acted as advisor on aviation matters to the Governor of the Panama Canal.

In late 1939, Captain Smith returned to the States as operations officer of the 36th Pursuit Squadron. A few months later he became its commander at Langley Field, Virginia.

Within a year after Captain Smith assumed his first command, he was appointed commanding officer of the Eighth Pursuit Group, Seventh Pursuit Wing, at Mitchel Field, New York.

In January 1942, Lieutenant Colonel Smith took his Eighth Pursuit Group to the Southwest Pacific. Later in the year he left the pursuit group to become chief of staff of the advanced echelon of the newly activated Fifth Air Force.

Following two years of combat service in the Pacific, Brigadier General Smith was transferred to the European Theater of Operations, where he served as deputy senior Air Staff officer and chief of operations of the Allied Expeditionary Air Forces, based in England.

During the fall of 1944, Brigadier General Smith returned to the U.S to become deputy chief of Air Staff at Headquarters, Army Air Force, Washington, D.C. He returned to the Southwest Pacific in February 1945 to direct the Fifth Fighter Command.

At the end of the war Smith was ordered to Washington for duty in the Office of the Assistant Chief of Air Staff, Plans, at Army Air Force Headquarters. He served there in the Special Organizational Planning Group until March 1946.

In April 1946, he was appointed chief of staff of the Strategic Air Command at Andrews Field, Maryland, and in February 1947 became national commander of the Civil Air Patrol.

On October 10, 1947, following establishment of United States Air Force Headquarters, General Smith was appointed chief of the Requirements Division under the director of Training and Requirements Division in the Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations.

Major General Smith was appointed assistant for programming in that office in February 1948, a position he held until August 14, 1950. He was then named commanding general of the Eastern Air Defense Force, Stewart Air Force Base, New York.

Smith became vice commander of the Air Defense Command, Ent Air Force Base, Colorado Springs, Colorado on March 1, 1952. He served there until June 20, 1956, when he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant general and again joined the Fifth Air Force, this time as its commander.

On July 1, 1957, concurrently with a reorganization of the United States Forces in the Pacific Area, General Smith, as commander of the Fifth Air Force, was also appointed commander of the United States Forces, Japan.

In September 1958, General Smith returned to the U.S. to assume command of the Air Training Command, with headquarters at Randolph Air Force Base, Texas. He arrived in Germany in August 1959 to take command of the 4th Allied Tactical Air Force and the United States Air Forces in Europe.

On July 1, 1961 Smith assumed duties as vice chief of staff, United States Air Force, Washington, D.C. He retired from the Air Force on September 1, 1962 and died on May 28, 1980.

His awards and decorations included the Air Force Distinguished Service Medal with oak leaf cluster, Navy Distinguished Service Medal, Legion of Merit, Air Medal with oak leaf cluster, Army Commendation Ribbon, Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire, American Defense Service Medal, Asiatic Pacific Campaign Medal, European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal, World War II Victory Medal, Philippine Liberation Ribbon, National Defense Service Medal, Air Force Longevity Service Award with six oak leaf clusters, American Campaign Medal.

Air Force Distinguished Service Medal

Navy Distinguished Service Medal

Legion of Merit

Air Medal with oak leaf cluster

Army Commendation Medal

National Defense Service Medal

Air Force Longevity Service Award with six oak leaf clusters

American Defense Service Medal

American Campaign Medal

Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal

European-African-Middle Eastern Theater Medal

World War II Victory Medal

Philippine Liberation RibbonGeneral Smith's father-in-law was Fleet Admiral Ernest J. King.

Geno Morosi

Geno Morosi (July 7, 1920 – September 20, 2016) was, prior to his death, among the last living sets of brothers to serve in the United States Navy and survive the attack on Pearl Harbor aboard the same ship.

Geno and Albert Morosi were aboard the USS Maryland (BB-46), moored along Battleship Row, on the morning of December 7, 1941. Geno was watching other sailors play a card game when the Japanese attack began. Geno was initially assigned to a gun that did not have antiaircraft capabilities, so he was ordered to man a different gun on a higher deck. Geno was 21 at the time; Albert (born February 13, 1922) was 19.

Geno Morosi received a Purple Heart for hearing loss sustained during the attack on Pearl Harbor. Born in Royalton, Illinois, to immigrants from the Province of Perugia, Umbria, Italy, Geno and Albert also had an older brother, August, who served in the European theater as a member of the United States Army. August died in 2008 in Springfield, Illinois.

Geno Morosi served a total of six years, two months, and six days in the U.S. Navy. In addition to his Pearl Harbor service, he piloted landing craft for the USS Alpine (APA-92) at Guam, Leyte Gulf, Lingayen Gulf, and Okinawa. He was honorably discharged on November 15, 1946, as a Boatswain's mate (United States Navy), first class. In addition to the Purple Heart, he received the American Campaign Medal, American Defense Service Medal and One Star, Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal and Six Stars, Philippine Liberation Medal and Two Stars, World War II Victory Medal, and Navy Good Conduct Medal.

Geno Morosi settled in Detroit, Michigan, after the war. He attended Lawrence Technological University on the G.I. Bill, and had a long career at Carboloy, a division of General Electric. He began at Carboloy with a low-level job as a metal mixer but retired as a unit manager in 1984.

Henry G. Munson

Henry Glass Munson (1909–1975) was an officer in the United States Navy during the Second World War and Korean War. He served with distinction during wartime and played a critical role in the development of submarine warfare.

Munson enlisted in the Navy in 1927. He was accepted into the US Naval Academy the next year, from where he graduated in 1932. He served on surface ships until entering submarine school in 1936. During World War II, Munson commanded several submarines, including the USS Crevalle (SS-291), the USS S-38 (SS-143), and the USS Rasher (SS-269). In the course of a single day under his command, the lattermost submarine sank Japanese ships totaling an estimated 55,723 tons. The cruise sank the tenth most enemy ships of any submarine mission in the war.Following the war, he became a leader in submarine warfare research and development. According to Naval documents, in November, 1946, "he supervised the first actual guided missile firings from submarines" as the commander of Submarine Division 71. He headed the group that developed the Mark 45 torpedo, planned and oversaw Operation Sandblast, the first submerged circumnavigation of the world, and directed the investigation into the loss of the USS Thresher (SSN-593).

In addition to the Navy Cross with two Gold Stars in lieu of additional awards, the Commendation Ribbon with two stars and Combat "V," the Presidential Unit Citation Ribbon and the Navy Commendation Ribbon, Captain Munson has the American Defense Service Medal with star; Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal with two operation stars; American Campaign Medal; World War II Victory Medal China Service Medal (extended); National Defense Service Medal; Korean Service Medal; and United Nations Service Medal.

Captain Munson married the former Anna M. Olsen of Waukegan, Illinois in Honolulu in 1939. Munson retired from the Navy in 1959, after which he served as senior research associate for the David Sarnoff Research Center. A third and last career found him teaching advanced physics at Princeton High School. Following his death on July 16, 1975, Captain Munson and Anna’s remains were interned in the Pacific Ocean west of Kauai on February 6th, 2002.[4]

Howard W. Penney

Lieutenant General Howard W. Penney (December 5, 1918 – June 25, 2004) of United States army, was first director of Defense Mapping Agency from July 1972 to August 1974. Under Penney’s leadership, the new agency focused its assets into a decentralized structure with a lean staff to respond to the rising demands for geographic information by a variety of military users.

Most decorated US ships of World War II

This list catalogs the most honored US ships of the Second World War. It is placed in descending order of earned Battle Stars; descending accorded unit recognitions; descending ship size by type; and ascending hull number. It contains only vessels that earned fifteen or more Battle Stars for World War II service.

Honors awarded that are not listed may include:Honors awarded by countries other than the United States (e.g., Philippine Presidential Unit Citation, British Admiralty Pennant)

Honors awarded to all units for serving active duty during World War II; including active duty before US entry in the war (e.g., American Defense Service Medal, American Campaign Medal, Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal, World War II Victory Medal)

Honors awarded to vessels for campaigns other than World War II service (e.g. Korean War service, Vietnam War service).

Navy Occupation Service Medal

The Navy Occupation Service Medal is a military award of the United States Navy which was "Awarded to commemorate the services of Navy, Marine Corps and Coast Guard personnel in the occupation of certain territories of the enemies of the U.S. during World War II" and recognized those personnel who participated in the European and Asian occupation forces during, and following World War II. The medal was also bestowed to personnel who performed duty in West Berlin between 1945 and 1990.

No more than one Navy Occupation Service Medal may be awarded to an individual. The Army of Occupation Medal is the equivalent of the Navy Occupation Service Medal. No person could receive both the Army and Navy occupation medals.

Paul J. Register

Paul J. Register (November 5, 1899 – December 7, 1941) was a United States Navy officer killed in action during the attack on Pearl Harbor for whom two U.S. Navy ships were named.

USCGC Papaw (WLB-308)

USCGC Papaw (WLB-308) was a sea-going buoy tender whose design is based on the pre-World War II United States Lighthouse Service Tenders. The original design was modified to provide an armored cutter capable of wartime missions in addition to her primary mission of Aids to Navigation. Papaw was built in 1943 by the Marine Iron and Shipbuilding Company of Duluth, Minnesota. Commissioned 12 October 1943, she was assigned the home port of San Francisco, California.

Papaw saw extensive duty during World War II establishing aids to navigation systems for the newly captured islands in the Pacific. After the war Papaw's home port was moved to Astoria, Oregon. In June 1949, Papaw was shifted to the warm waters of Miami, Florida where she assumed responsibility for the aids to navigation in the Florida Keys and the Caribbean. In 1954, Papaw was moved, this time to Charleston, South Carolina. There she maintained buoys, shore stations, and towers. In October 1989 Papaw entered the Service Life Extension Program (SLEP) at the Coast Guard Yard in Curtis Bay, Maryland. She arrived at her new home port of Galveston, Texas on June 18, 1991.

Papaw services approximately 150 aids to navigation from Brownsville, Texas to Calcasieu, Louisiana. The ship carried out many missions throughout the Gulf of Mexico including: Search and Rescue, Drug and Contraband Interdiction, Environmental Protection, Military Readiness Exercises, and Buoy Deployment Operations with the National Oceanic and Atmosphere Administration.

Papaw's main propulsion system was diesel electric. Two 700 hp General Motors E.M.D. diesel engines each drove a DC generator which provided electricity to the 550 volt Westinghouse main motor. At 1200 hp the main motor turned a single shaft to a maximum speed of 13.5 knots (25 km/h). Electric power was supplied by two 200 kW generators each driven by a Detroit Diesel engine. A bow thruster was fitted during the 1989 Service Life Extension Program giving the Papaw greater maneuverability. The Papaw's main boom was hydraulically operated and had a maximum working load of 20 tons.

Buoys serviced by the Papaw ranged from tiny 6-foot (2 m) nun buoys to the 35-foot (11 m) tall 18,000 lb Galveston Entrance Channel Buoy. Most buoys are equipped with electrical lights powered by batteries and solar cells. Some have sound signals, radar beacons, and elaborate power systems. All buoys are pulled from the water at least once a year for painting, maintenance, and position checks.

The Papaw has received many awards during its history. Her wartime honors include: the World War II Victory Medal, the American Campaign Medal, the Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal, and two National Defense Service Medals. Papaw has also received many peacetime commendations, these include: two Coast guard Meritorious Unit Commendations, a Humanitarian Service Medal, and a Coast Guard Special Operations Ribbon.

Papaw was decommissioned on 23 July 1999 at Group Galveston, Texas. She was donated to Canvasback Missions of Benicia, California, a nonprofit organization. She is currently operating as the F/V Mersea, an emergency relief ship as part of the Friend Ships fleet. Her sister ship, the USCGC Conifer, is also part of the Friend Ships fleet as the F/V Hope.

USS LST-18

USS LST-18 was a United States Navy LST-1-class tank landing ship used exclusively in the Asiatic-Pacific Theater during World War II and manned by a United States Coast Guard crew. Like many of her class, she was not named and is properly referred to by her hull designation.

USS LST-494

USS LST-494 was a U.S. Navy amphibious tank landing ship that saw combat during World War II in both the European and Pacific Theaters of War. LST stands for Landing Ship, Tank.

USS LST-928

USS LST-928/Cameron (APB-50) was an LST-542-class tank landing ship in the United States Navy. Like many of her class, she was not named and is properly referred to by her hull designation.

USS Sotoyomo (YTM-9)

USS Sotoyomo (YTM-9/YT-9/Harbor Tug No.9) was a harbor tug built at the turn of the twentieth century. She saw service in both World War I and World War II and was heavily damaged by the Attack on Pearl Harbor. Sotoyomo was the oldest vessel at Pearl Harbor in service at the time of the attack.

Verne J. McCaul

Verne James McCaul (August 18, 1903—March 2, 1968) was a lieutenant general in the United States Marine Corps who served as the 7th Assistant Commandant of the Marine Corps.

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