Asian people

Asian people[1] or Asiatic people[2] are people who descend from a portion of Asia's population.

A variety of definitions and geographical data are presented by organizations and individuals for classifying the ethnic groups in Asia.

Definitions by country

Anglophone Africa and Caribbean

In parts of anglophone Africa, especially East Africa and in parts of the Caribbean, the term "Asian" is more commonly associated with people of South Asian origin, particularly Indians, Pakistanis, Bangladeshis and Sri Lankans.[3] In South Africa the term Asian is used in the pan-continental sense. Due to the high number of Indians in South Africa, in official documentation the designation "Indian" is used to refer to both South- and East-Asians. [4]

Australia

The Australian Census includes Central Asia. The Australian Census includes four regions of Asia in its official definition. Defined by the 2006–2011 Australian Census, three broad groups have the word Asian included in their name: Central and Southern Asian, South-East Asian and North-East Asian. Russians are classified as Southern and Eastern Europeans while Middle Easterners are classified as North African and Middle Easterners.[5]

Canada

The Canadian Census uses the term 'Asian' pan-continentally. In its presentation of the "ethnic origin" results of the 2016 census, Statistics Canada under the category "Asian origins" includes: West Central Asian and Middle Eastern (includes "Arab, not otherwise specified"), South Asian, East and Southeast Asian, and "other" Asian origins.[6]

New Zealand

New Zealand's census undertaken by Statistics New Zealand defines the Asian to include people of Chinese, Indian, Korean, Filipino, Japanese, Vietnamese, Sri Lankan, Cambodian and Thai ancestries.[7] In less formal contexts, the term Asian often does not include South Asian people.[8]

Norway

Statistics Norway uses the term 'Asian' pan-continentally and considers people of Asian background to be people from all Asian countries.[9][10]

Sweden

Statistics Sweden uses the term 'Asian' to refer to immigrants of Asian background from all Asian countries, including the Middle East.[11][12]

United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom, the term "Asian" is more commonly associated with people of South Asian origin, particularly Indians, Pakistanis, Bangladeshis and Sri Lankans.[3][13] The UK usage of the term "Asian" is reflected in the "ethnic group" section of UK census forms, which treat "Asian" and "Chinese" as separate (see British Asian).[14] Most respondents to the UK 2001 Census of non-Chinese East Asian and Southeast Asian descent chose to write-in their ethnicity in the "Other Ethnic Group" category rather than the "Other Asian" category, reflecting the association of the word Asian in the UK with South Asian.[15] Despite there being a strong presence of East Asians in the United Kingdom there are considerably more South Asians, for example the 2001 Census recorded 1.05 million people of Indian origin and 247,000 of Chinese origin in the UK.[16] Peter J. Aspinall of the Centre for Health Services Studies, University of Kent, recommends privileging the term "South Asian" over the term "Asian", since the term "Asian" is a "contested term".[13]

United States

RegionsofAsia-Census
Asian ancestries as defined by the 2000 U.S. Census.
DR- EUGENE TRINH
Eugene H. Trinh, a Vietnamese American biochemist who flew aboard NASA Space Shuttle mission STS-50 as a Payload Specialist

In 1968, an Asian activist conference decided on favoring the name "Asian American" over the competing terms—"yellow", "Mongoloid", "Asiatic", and "Oriental"—since the Filipinos at the meeting thought they were "brown" rather than "yellow" and the conference thought the term "Oriental" was Eurocentric, since they originate from lands "east" only from Europe's standpoint and, since the term "Oriental" suggested to them "passivity".[17]

Earlier Census forms from 1980 and prior listed particular Asian ancestries as separate groups along with White and Black or Negro.[18] Previously, Asian Americans were classified as "other".[19] But the 1980 Census marked the first general analyses of Asians as a group, combining several individual ancestry groups into "Asian or Pacific Islander." By the 1990 Census, Asian or Pacific Islander (API) was included as an explicit category, although respondents had to select one particular ancestry.[20][21][22]

The 2000 and 2010 U.S. Census Bureau definition of the Asian race is: "people having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent (for example, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippine Islands, Thailand, and Vietnam)".[23]

In 1930 and 1940, Indian Americans were identified as a separate race, Hindu, and in 1950 and 1960 they were racially classified as Other Race, and then in 1970 they were classified as White. Since 1980, Indians and all other South Asians have been classified as part of the Asian ethnic group.[24] Sociologist Madhulika Khandelwal described how "....as a result of activism, South Asians came to be included as 'Asians' in the census only in the 80's. Prior to that many South Asians had been checking 'Caucasian' or 'Other'."[25]

Respondents can also report their specific ancestry, e.g.: Okinawan, etc. Someone reporting these ancestries but no race would be classified as "Asian". Unlike South Asians, Jewish Americans, Israeli Americans, Arab Americans, Armenian Americans, Assyrian Americans, Kurdish Americans, Georgian Americans, Chechen Americans, Turkish Americans, Azerbaijani Americans, Iranian Americans and Central Asian Americans have not lobbied to be included as Asians by the U.S. Census Board.[26]

In normal American usage Asian does not refer to the people from the Pacific Islands who are usually called Pacific Islanders.[27] The term "Asians and Pacific Islanders" or "Asia/Pacific" was used on the 1990 US Census.[28] However, in the 2000 US Census, the Asian or Pacific Islander category was separated into two categories, "Asian" and "Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander".[29]

Arab States of the Persian Gulf

In the Arab states of the Persian Gulf, the term "Asian" generally refers to people of South Asian and Southeast Asian descent due to the large Indian, Pakistani and Filipino expatriate population in these countries.[30][31][32] However, there are instances where the term is used solely to refer to those of South Asian descent.[33]

Definition by non-government sources

The history and geography of human genes Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza map genetic
This is a genetic distance map of human populations made by geneticist Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza of Stanford University.[34] Cavalli-Sforza referred to both "Asian Caucasoids" and "Mongoloids" in Asia which he also called "other Asians" as encompassing "Asian populations".[34] Cavalli-Sforza also referred to "Amerinds" as being the "aboriginal Asian group" of the Americas.[34]
Asian race immigration region to America
Leonard Lieberman Professor of Anthropology at Central Michigan University said that the perception of there being a discrete Asian race in the mindset of the United States is due to immigration from the region circled in the picture, but Lieberman said the reality is that "not all Asians can be designated 'Mongoloid'".[35]
Uyghur girl in Turpan, Xinjiang, China - 20050712
Uyghur girl in Turpan, Xinjiang, China, a natural blond with Epicanthus

A 2009 book about forensic anthropology said that the "leading handbook in human osteology" has kept on using the "traditional terms"' of "caucasoid, mongoloid, negroid", but "one of the most popular recent forensic anthropology textbooks" has changed to the "more current, politically correct terminology of Asian, white, black, Native American".[36]

Eugénia Maria Guedes Pinto Antunes da Cunha of the Department of Anthropology, University of Coimbra, Portugal, said there has been a modern trend in "most of the forensic anthropology literature" to "rename" the term "Mongoloid", a term in which she includes the "North American Indian", with the term "Asian" or "Asiatic".[37] Antunes da Cunha said that, even though the "terminology" has changed, the "underlying assumptions are the same".[37]

Karen T. Taylor forensic art professor at the FBI Academy, Quantico, Virginia, said that the term "Asian-derived" is a modern-day euphemism for the "Mongoloid race" and it includes "Native Americans" and "various Asian groups".[38]

In 2007, Kyung-Ran Jung et al. (Korean:전경란) of the Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Ulsan, Seoul, South Korea used the term "Asian populations" for the group he also referred to as the "Asian-Mongoloid" in which he included Japanese, Korean, Chinese and Thai for a meta-analysis of alleles in relation to rheumatoid arthritis.[39]

Dr. Marta Mirazón Lahr of the Department of Biological Anthropology at Cambridge University said "all" "Asian populations" are "grouped under the name Mongoloid".[40]

Masniari Novita of the Biomedical Department of Jember University, Jember, Indonesia, said "Asiatics" are part of the "Mongoloid" race while "Asians from the Indian Subcontinent" are part of the "Caucasian" race.[41]

Matt Cartmill of the Department of Biological Anthropology and Anatomy, Duke University, United States, said "geography has little to do with the race concept in its actual application", since "Asian individuals [can be] born in the same geographical region" as other races.[42]

Michael Bamshad et al. of the Department of Human Genetics, University of Utah, found that "107 sub-Saharan African, 67 East Asian and 81 Western European" individuals genetically clustered with "ancestry from a single population" at levels of "almost 100%", but among "263 individuals from South India" the "proportion of ancestry shared with Europeans and Asians varies widely".[43]

Sandra Soo-Jin Lee (Korean:이수진) of the Department of Cultural and Social Anthropology at Stanford University, United States of America, said that the reasoning behind "Asian" being a "race" as defined by the US Census is "difficult to determine" because it includes "South Asians".[44]

Willett Enos Rotzell professor of Botany and Zoology at the Hahnemann Medical College used the term "Asian" "race" to refer to the race he alternatively called the "Yellow or Mongolian race".[45]

A writing style guide published in 2011 by two professors at universities in the United States of America recommends using the term "Asian" to refer to people living in Asian countries such as "China, Japan, Korea, Vietnam, etc." unless a given situation makes using a more specific nationality term more appropriate than using the broader term "Asian".[46]

In a 2014 article about Asian rhinoplasty, in an academic journal about plastic surgery, Clyde H. Ishii, the article's author, said, "Although many countries use the term 'Asian' referring to people living on that continent, in reality, Asian usually refers to peoples of East, Southeast, and South Asia. Inhabitants of Southwest Asia, such as Arabs and Iranians, are more commonly designated Middle Easterners.3 The term Asian as used in this article refers to people from Asia who have a Mongoloid background (Chinese, Japanese, Koreans, Vietnamese, Filipinos, Indonesians, and others)."[47]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Asian M-w.com." Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary.
  2. ^ United States National Library of Medicine. Medical Subject Headings. 2004. November 17, 2006.Nlm.nih.gov: Asian Continental Ancestry Group is also used for categorical purposes.
  3. ^ a b British Sociological Association. Equality and Diversity. Language and the BSA:Ethnicity & Race. 2005. October 26. Britsoc.co.uk Archived 2006-11-01 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ "Race, Ethnicity and Language in South Africa". World Elections. Retrieved 6 October 2017.
  5. ^ Australian Bureau of Statistics. Australian Standard Classification of Cultural and Ethnic Groups Second Edition. 2005. August 20, 2006. Ausstats.abs.gov.au
  6. ^ "Data Tables, 2016 Census". Statistics Canada. 2018-02-14. Retrieved March 17, 2019.
  7. ^ Statistics New Zealand. Asian people. 2006. December 4, 2006 Archived November 30, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ For example, "Asian and Indian people" are referred to in the New Zealand Heart Foundation's BMI calculator Archived 2009-05-31 at the Wayback Machine.
  9. ^ (in Norwegian) Immigration and emigration
  10. ^ (in Norwegian) SSB: Unge innvandrere i arbeid og utdanning – Er innvandrerungdom en marginalisert gruppe?
  11. ^ (in Norwegian) Scb.se
  12. ^ (in Norwegian) Scb.se
  13. ^ a b Aspinall, Peter J. Oxford Journals. Journal of Public Health. 2003. October 26, 2006. Jpubhealth.oxfordjournals.org
  14. ^ National Statistics. Ethnicity. 2005. August 27, 2006
  15. ^ Gardener, David; Connolly, Helen (October 2005). "Who are the 'Other' ethnic groups?" (PDF). Office for National Statistics. Archived (PDF) from the original on 30 May 2009. Retrieved 2009-06-06.
  16. ^ "Population size: 7.9% from a minority ethnic group". Office for National Statistics. 2003-02-13. Archived from the original on 27 May 2009. Retrieved 2009-06-06.
  17. ^ Yen Le Espiritu. (1992). Asian American Panethnicity: Bridging Institutions and Identities. Temple University Press, Philadelphia. ISBN 978-1-4399-0556-2
  18. ^ 1980 Census: Instructions to Respondents, republished by Integrated Public Use Microdata Series, Minnesota Population Center, University of Minnesota at www.ipums.org Accessed 19 Nov 2006.
  19. ^ Lee, Gordon. Hyphen Magazine. "The Forgotten Revolution." 2003. January 28, 2007.Hyphenmagazine.com Archived 2007-10-02 at the Wayback Machine
  20. ^ 1990 Census: Instructions to Respondents, republished by Integrated Public Use Microdata Series, Minnesota Population Center, University of Minnesota at www.ipums.org Accessed 19 Nov 2006.
  21. ^ Reeves, Terrance Claudett, Bennett. United States Census Bureau. Asian and Pacific Islander Population: March 2002. 2003. September 30, 2006.
  22. ^ U.S. Bureau of Statistics
  23. ^ Barnes, Jessica S. and Bennett, Claudett E. The Asian Population:2000. 2002. September 1, 2006. Census.gov
  24. ^ Campbell Gibson and Kay Jung. Historical Census Statistics On Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For Large Cities And Other Urban Places In The United States, Working Paper No. 76 (2005). See footnote 6 in paper
  25. ^ Chandy, Sunu P. What is a Valid South Asian Struggle? Archived December 5, 2006, at the Wayback Machine Report on the Annual SASA Conference. Accessed August 8, 2008.
  26. ^ Not Quite White: Race Classification and the Arab American Experience Archived September 27, 2006, at the Wayback Machine, Arab American Institute, 1997, September 29, 2006.
  27. ^ American Heritage Book of English Usage. Asian. 1996. September 29, 2006. Bartleby.com Archived February 16, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  28. ^ Census '90. Asian and Pacific Islanders in the United States. 1990. September 1, 2006. Census.gov
  29. ^ "Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity". Whitehouse.gov. Office of Management and Budget. 1997. The Native Hawaiians presented compelling arguments that the standards must facilitate the production of data to describe their social and economic situation and to monitor discrimination against Native Hawaiians in housing, education, employment, and other areas. Under the current standards for data on race and ethnicity, Native Hawaiians comprise about three percent of the Asian and Pacific Islander population. By creating separate categories, the data on the Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islander groups will no longer be overwhelmed by the aggregate data of the much larger Asian groups. Native Hawaiians will comprise about 60 percent of the new category. The Asian, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander population groups are well defined; moreover, there has been experience with reporting in separate categories for the Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander population groups. The 1990 census included "Hawaiian," "Samoan," and "Guamanian" as response categories to the race question. In addition, two of the major tests conducted as part of the current review (the NCS and the RAETT) used "Hawaiian" and/or "Native Hawaiian," "Samoan," "Guamanian," and "Guamanian or Chamorro" as response options to the race question. These factors facilitate breaking apart the current category.
  30. ^ The source discusses car accidents amongst Asians, Emiratis and other Arabs in the UAE.
  31. ^ "Kuwait Asians" is a community website for the Indian, Sri Lankan, Pakistani, Bangladeshi and Filipino expatriate population in Kuwait.
  32. ^ The source discusses the Asian Town complex in Qatar that was created for the Asian expatriate community from India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bangladesh and the Philippines.
  33. ^ Time Out Dubai is a book written by local experts on travel in the UAE and the authors use the words "Asian" and "Filipino" separately.
  34. ^ a b c Cavalli-Sforza, L.L., Menozzi, P. & Piazza, A. (1994). The History and Geography of Human Genes. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
  35. ^ Lieberman, Leonard. (1997). Race 1997 and 2001: A Race Odyssey. American Anthropological Association. pp. 7 & 19
  36. ^ Pickering, R. & Bachman, D. (2009). The Use of Forensic Anthropology (2nd ed.). USA: CRC Press. Pages 104 & 105.
  37. ^ a b Aurore Schmitt, Eugénia Maria Guedes Pinto Antunes da Cunha, and João Pinheiro. (2006). Forensic Anthropology and Medicine: Complementary Sciences from Recovery to Cause of Death. Humana Press. ISBN 1-59745-099-5
  38. ^ Taylor, K.T. (2001). Forensic Art and Illustration. CRC Press LLC. pp. 60 ISBN 0-8493-8118-5
  39. ^ Kyung Ran Jun, Sung-Eun Choi, Choong-Hwan Cha, Heung-Bum Oh, corresponding author Yong-Seok Heo, Hong-Yup Ahn, and Kwan-Jeh Lee. J Korean Med Sci. Meta-analysis of the Association between HLA-DRB1 Allele and Rheumatoid Arthritis Susceptibility in Asian Populations. 2007 December; 22(6): 973–980.
  40. ^ Lahr M. M. (1995). "Patterns of modern human diversification: Implications for Amerindian origins". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 38: 163–198. doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330380609.
  41. ^ Novita, Masniari. (2006). Facial, upper facial, and orbital index in Batak, Klaten, and Flores students of Jember University. Dent. J. (Maj. Ked. Gigi), Vol. 39. No. 3 116–119
  42. ^ Cartmill, M. (1999). The Status of the Race Concept in Physical Anthropology. American Anthropologist 100(3)651 -660.
  43. ^ Michael Bamshad, Stephen Wooding, Benjamin A. Salisbury and J. Claiborne Stephens. (2004). DECONSTRUCTING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GENETICS AND RACE. Nature Publishing Group. (5) pp. 598.
  44. ^ Lee, Sandra S. Mountain, Joanna. Barbara, Koening A. The Meanings of Race in the New Genomics: Implications for Health Disparities Research. Yale University. 2001. October 26, 2006. Yale.edu Archived 2006-11-01 at the Wayback Machine
  45. ^ Willett Enos Rotzell. (1905). Man: an introduction to anthropology. Philadelphia.
  46. ^ Blakesley, D. &, Hoogeveen, J. (2011). Writing: A Manual for the Digital Age, Brief (2nd ed.). Wadsworth Publishing. pp. 431. ISBN 978-0495833376
  47. ^ Ishii, Clyde H. (2014). "Current Update in Asian Rhinoplasty". Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open. 2 (4): e133. doi:10.1097/GOX.0000000000000081. PMC 4174207. PMID 25289326.
Arghons

The Arghons are a small community of descendants of immigrants from Yarkand and Kashmir that have intermingled with the local Ladakhi community, residing mainly in Leh and Kargil towns of Ladakh in the state of Jammu & Kashmir in India. They are Sunni Muslims.

They first arrived as traders and merchants from Central Asia and Kashmir in the 17th century and were among the first Muslims to settle in the Buddhist Kingdom. Most were traders but some included religious people. Most central Asian merchants returned home at the end of the caravan season. Those who remained and settled in Ladakh married ladakhis and are now known as Arghons.

Today they are merchants although some, a very few, have taken to agriculture. Most of them today speak the Ladakhi language but are also conversant in Turkic and Tibetan.

Asian

Asian may refer to:

Items from or related to the continent of Asia:

Asian people, people who descend from Asia

Asian culture, the culture of the people from Asia

Asian cuisine, food based on the style of food of the people from Asia

Asian (cat), a cat breed similar to the Burmese but in a range of different coat colors and patterns

Asii (also Asiani), a historic Central Asian ethnic group mentioned in Roman-era writings

Asian option, a type of option contract in finance

Asyan, a village in Iran

Asian Canadians

Asian Canadians are Canadians who can trace their ancestry back to the continent of Asia or Asian people. Canadians with Asian ancestry comprise the largest and fastest growing visible minority group in Canada, with roughly 17.7% of the Canadian population. Most Asian Canadians are concentrated in the urban areas of Southern Ontario, the Greater Vancouver area, Calgary, and other large Canadian cities.

Asian Canadians considered visible minorities may be classified as East Asian Canadian (e.g. Chinese Canadians, Korean Canadians, Japanese Canadians); South Asian Canadians (e.g. Bangladeshi Canadians, Indian Canadians, Pakistani Canadians, Sri Lankan Canadians); Southeast Asian Canadian (e.g. Filipino Canadians, Vietnamese Canadians); or West Asian Canadians (e.g. Iranian Canadians, Iraqi Canadians, Lebanese Canadians).

Asian fetish

An Asian fetish is an obsession with or objectification of Asian people, culture, or things of Asian origin by those of non-Asian descent, especially when it is related to stereotyping. It applies to the enthusiasms experienced by some non-Asian people for such things as Asian cinema, tattoos made up of Chinese characters or the adoption of Asian children, especially to the exclusion or diminishment of other cultures. More specifically it refers to a type of sexual obsession. Non-Asian men who predominantly or exclusively date Asian women are referred to as "men with an Asian fetish" by some Asian-American women.Asian fetish is a slang expression derived from sexual fetishism, which in medical terms is a sexual fixation on a nonliving object or nongenital body part. However, the word fetish is used in common discourse with a much broader scope than its psychiatric definition, including an obsession for objects or activities in non-sexual contexts.An Asian fetish is distinct from an interracial partnership. Interracial relationships may occur for reasons distinct from race. Asian fetishes have been criticized for treating the fetishized person as an object rather than an equal partner. The term Asiaphile is sometimes used to describe the same phenomenon, as is "yellow fever" for East Asians (not to be confused with the disease yellow fever).

Asian studies

Asian studies is the term used usually in North America and Australia for what in Europe is known as Oriental studies. The field is concerned with the Asian people, their cultures, languages, history and politics. Within the Asian sphere, Asian studies combines aspects of sociology, history, cultural anthropology and many other disciplines to study political, cultural and economic phenomena in Asian traditional and contemporary societies. Asian studies forms a field of post-graduate study in many universities.

It is a branch of area studies, and many Western universities combine Asian and African studies in a single faculty or institute, like SOAS in London. It is often combined with Islamic studies in a similar way. The history of the discipline in the West is covered under Oriental studies.

Creole peoples

Creole people are ethnic groups which originated during the colonial-era from racial mixing between Europeans and non-European peoples, known as creolisation. Creole peoples vary widely in ethnic background and mixture, and many have since developed distinct ethnic identities. The development of creole languages is sometimes mistakenly attributed to the emergence of creole ethnic identities; however, they are independent developments.

Demographics of Central Asia

Central Asia is a diverse land with many ethnic groups, languages, religions and tribes. The nations which make up Central Asia are five of the former Soviet republics: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, which have a total population of about 70 million. Afghanistan is not always considered part of the region, but when it is, Central Asia has a total population of about 122 million (2016). Additionally, Pakistan has a large population of central Asian peoples even though it is not categorized as a central Asian nation. Most central Asians belong to religions which were introduced to the area within the last 1,500 years, such as Sunni Islam, Shia Islam, Ismaili Islam, Tengriism, and Syriac Christianity. Buddhism, however, was introduced to Central Asia over 2,200 years ago, and Zoroastrianism, over 2,500 years ago.

Dragon Lady

A Dragon Lady is usually a stereotype of East Asian and occasionally South Asian and Southeast Asian women as strong, deceitful, domineering, or mysterious. The term's origin and usage is Western, not Chinese. Inspired by the characters played by actress Anna May Wong, the term comes from the female villain in the comic strip Terry and the Pirates. It has since been applied to powerful Asian women and to a number of racially Asian film actresses. The stereotype has generated a large quantity of sociological literature. "Dragon Lady" is sometimes applied to persons who lived before the term became part of American slang in the 1930s. It is also used to refer to any powerful but prickly woman, usually in a derogatory fashion.

East Asian people

East Asian people (East Asians, Northeast Asians, or Orientals) is a term used for ethnic groups and subgroups that are indigenous to East Asia, which consists of China, Hong Kong, Macau, Japan, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, and Taiwan. The major ethnic groups that form the core of East Asia are the Han, Korean, and Yamato. Other ethnic groups of East Asia include the Bai, Hui, Tibetans, Manchus, Ryukyuan, Ainu, Zhuang, and Mongols.

East Asians in the United Kingdom

East Asians in the United Kingdom are East and Southeast Asian British citizens. They have been present in the country since the 17th century and primarily originate from countries and territories such as Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, China, Taiwan, the Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia, Burma, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam.. They are called "East Asian" or "Oriental", although – dependent upon the context – the use of the term "Oriental" might be considered by some to be derogatory or offensive. In the 2001 British census, the term Chinese or Other is used.

Ethnic groups in Asia

The ancestral population of modern Asian people has its origins in the two primary prehistoric settlement centers - greater Southwest Asia and from the Mongolian plateau towards Northern China.

Migrations of distinct ethnolinguistic groups have probably occurred as early as 10,000 years ago. However, about 2.000 BCE early Iranian speaking people and Indo-Aryans have arrived in Iran and northern India. Pressed by the Mongols, Turkic peoples subsequently migrated to the western and northern regions of the Central Asian plains. Prehistoric migrants from South China and Southeast Asia seem to have populated East Asia, Korea and Japan in several waves, where they gradually replaced indigenous people, such as the Ainu, who are of uncertain origin. Austroasiatic and Austronesian people establish in Southeast Asia between 5.000 and 2.000 BCE, partly merging with, but eventually displacing the indigenous Australo-Melanesians.In terms of Asian people, there is an abundance of ethnic groups in Asia, with adaptations to the climate zones of the continent, which include Arctic, subarctic, temperate, subtropical or tropical, as well as extensive desert regions in Central and Western Asia. The ethnic groups have adapted to mountains, deserts, grasslands, and forests, while on the coasts of Asia, resident ethnic groups have adopted various methods of harvest and transport. The types of diversity in Asia are cultural, religious, economic and historical.

Some groups are primarily hunter-gatherers, whereas others practice transhumance (nomadic lifestyle), have been agrarian for millennia, or have adopted an industrial or urban lifestyle. Some groups or countries in Asia are completely urban (e.g., Qatar and Singapore); the largest countries in Asia with regard to population are the People's Republic of China, India, Indonesia, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Japan, Philippines, Vietnam, Iran, Thailand, Burma, and South Korea. Colonisation of Asian ethnic groups and states by European peoples began in the 16th century, reaching its peak in the late 19th and early 20th centuries (except in the former Soviet Union, which was dissolved in 1991).

Ethnic groups in the Middle East

The ethnic groups in the Middle East refers to the peoples that reside in West Asia and Egypt in North Africa. The region has historically been a crossroad of different cultures. Since the 1960s, the changes in political and economic factors (especially the enormous oil wealth in the region and conflicts) have significantly altered the ethnic composition of groups in the region. While some ethnic have been present in the region for millennia, others have arrived fairly recently through immigration. The five largest ethnic groups in the region are Arabs, Azerbaijanis, Kurds, Persians, and Turks but there are dozens of other ethnic groups which have hundreds of thousands, if not millions, of members.

Other Indigenous, native, or long-standing ethnic groups include: Arameans, Armenians, Assyrians, Balochs, Berbers, Copts, Druze, Gilaks, Greeks, Jews, Kawliya, Lurs, Mandeans, Mazanderanis Mhallami, Nawar, Samaritans, Shabaks, Talishis, Tats, Turcomans, Yazidis, and Zazas.

More recent migrant or diaspora populations include Albanians, Bengalis, British people, Bosniaks, Chinese, Circassians, Crimean Tatars, Filipinos, French people, Indians, Indonesians, Italians, Malays, Pashtuns, Punjabis, Romani, Sikhs, Sindhis, Somalis, Sri Lankans, and Sub-Saharan Africans.

Huna people

Hunas or Huna was the name given by the ancient Indians to a group of Central Asian tribes who, via the Khyber Pass, entered India at the end of the 5th or early 6th century. Huna Kingdom occupied areas as far as Eran and Kausambi, greatly weakening the Gupta Empire. The Hunas were ultimately defeated by the Indian Gupta Empire and the Indian king Yasodharman.The Hunas are thought to have included the Xionite and/or Hephthalite, the Kidarites, the Alchon Huns (also known as the Alxon, Alakhana, Walxon etc.) and the Nezak Huns. Such names, along with that of the Harahunas (also known as the Halahunas or Harahuras) mentioned in Hindu texts, have sometimes been used for the Hunas in general; while these groups appear to have been a component of the Hunas, such names were not necessarily synonymous. The relationship, if any, of the Hunas to the Huns, a Central Asian people who invaded Europe during the same period, is also unclear.

In its farthest geographical extent in India, the territories controlled by the Hunas covered the region up to Malwa in central India. Their repeated invasions and war losses were the main reason for the decline of the Gupta Empire.

List of Southeast Asian people by net worth

Forbes magazine annually lists the world's wealthiest individuals - The World's Richest People. What follows is the list of billionaires (in US dollars) in Southeast Asia, for 2012 issued. Despite their small population, the vast majority of Southeast Asian billionaires of them are of Chinese descent. To date, Malaysia has the most top number of billionaires in the list of richest Southeast Asian people and latest added was Najib Razak, former prime minister of Malaysia who was worth more than Malaysia.

Lists of British people by ethnic or national origin

List of European Britons

List of Cypriot Britons

List of Dutch Britons

List of German Britons

List of Greek Britons

List of Italian Britons

List of Spanish Britons

List of Black Britons

List of Barbadian Britons

List of Ghanaian Britons

List of Guyanese Britons

List of Jamaican Britons

List of Nigerian Britons

List of Trinidadian Britons

List of South Asian Britons

List of Bangladeshi Britons

List of Indian Britons

List of British Sikhs

List of Pakistani Britons

List of Sri Lankan Britons

List of Other Asian Britons

List of British Azerbaijanis

List of Chinese Britons

List of Filipino Britons

List of Iranian Britons

List of Iraqi Britons

List of Turkish Britons

List of British Vietnamese

List of Hispanic and Latin American Britons

List of Brazilian Britons

List of Mexican Britons

List of Spanish Britons

South Asian ethnic groups

South Asian ethnic groups are ethno-linguistic composition of the population of South Asia, that is the nations of India, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Maldives and Sri Lanka is highly diverse. The majority of the population fall within two large linguistic groups, Indo-Aryan and Dravidian. Indian society is traditionally divided into castes or clans, not ethnicities, and these categories have had no official status since independence in 1947, except for the scheduled castes and tribes which remain registered for the purpose of affirmative action. In today's India, the population is categorized in terms of the 1,652 mother tongues spoken.

These groups are further subdivided into numerous sub-groups, castes, and tribes. Indo-Aryans form the predominant ethno-linguistic group in India (North India, East India, West India, Central India), Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, Sri Lanka and the Maldives. Dravidians form the predominant ethno-linguistic group in southern India and the northern and eastern regions of Sri Lanka, and a small pocket in Pakistan. Certain Iranian speaking peoples also have a significant presence in South Asia, the large majority of whom are located in Afghanistan and Pakistan, with heavy concentrations in Balochistan, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa and Federally Administered Tribal Areas. Dardic peoples form a minority among the Indo-Aryans. They are classified as belonging to the Indo-Aryan language group, though sometimes they are also classified as external to the Indo-Aryan branch. They are found in northern Pakistan (Northern Areas and Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa) and in Jammu and Kashmir, India.

Minority groups not falling within either large group mostly speak languages belonging to the Austroasiatic and Tibeto-Burman language families, and mostly live around Ladakh and Northeast India, Nepal, Bhutan and the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh. The Andamanese (Sentinel, Onge, Jarawa, Great Andamanese) live on some of the Andaman Islands and speak a language isolate, as do the Kusunda in central Nepal, the Vedda in Sri Lanka, and the Nihali of central India, who number about 5000 people. The people of the Hunza valley in Pakistan are another distinct population. They speak Burushaski, a language isolate.

The traditions of different ethnic groups in South Asia have diverged, influenced by external cultures, especially in the northwestern parts of South Asia and in the border regions and busy ports, where there are greater levels of contact with external cultures. This is particularly true for many ethnic groups in the northeastern parts of South Asia who are ethnically related to peoples of the Far East. The largest ethno-linguistic group in South Asia are the Indo-Aryans, numbering around 1 billion, and the largest sub-group are the native speakers of Hindi languages, numbering more than 470 million.

These groups are based solely on a linguistic basis and not on a genetic basis.

South Asian people in Ireland

South Asian people in Ireland are residents or citizens of Ireland who are of South Asian background or ancestry. There has been an important and well-established community of people of South Asian descent in Ireland for many decades. Non-Chinese Asian people (the category which mainly includes South Asian people) were reported to be the fastest growing ethnic group in Ireland in the 2011 census. Some of these people self-identify as being fully Irish, while others prefer to identify with their original country of ancestry.

There is great variation in how much the South Asian people are integrated into Irish society. Many people of South Asian descent are well-integrated and embrace the culture of Ireland. Many children of South Asian descent are born in Ireland or have come to Ireland at a very young age, and therefore learn the Irish language in schools (which is compulsory to children who have been living in the country before the age of 7). There are South Asian people who are up to 2nd and 3rd generation Irish-born. However, many South Asian people still maintain their ancestral customs and languages, and therefore many religious festivals (such as Diwali) are well-known and accepted within Ireland.As the Irish government does not collect detailed data on ethnicity in Ireland, population estimates vary, and non-Chinese Asian people are generally grouped in one category rather than groups based on people from individual South Asian countries. Estimates say that people of South Asian ethnicity make up around 1 to 3% of Ireland's population. The Irish-India Council estimates that there are approximately 91,520 Indian-born people in Ireland.

Özmiş Khagan

Özmiş Khagan (Chinese: 乌苏米施可汗; pinyin: Wūsūmǐshī Kèhán) - was the last penultimate khagan of the Second Turkic Khaganate (Göktürks).

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