Asian carp

Several species of heavy-bodied cyprinid fishes are collectively known in the United States as Asian carp. Cyprinids from the Indian subcontinent—for example, catla (Catla catla) and mrigal (Cirrhinus cirrhosus)—are not included in this classification and are known collectively as "Indian carp".

Ten Asian carp have been substantially introduced outside their native ranges:


All the above, except largescale silver carp, have been cultivated in aquaculture in China for over 1,000 years. Largescale silver carp, a more southern species, is native to Vietnam and is cultivated there. Grass, silver, bighead, and black carp are known as the "Four Domesticated Fish" in China and are the most important freshwater fish species for food and traditional Chinese medicine. Bighead and silver carp are the most important fish, worldwide, in terms of total aquaculture production.[1] Common carp, Amur carp and crucian carp are also common foodfishes in China and elsewhere. Goldfish, though, are cultivated mainly as pet fish. Common carp are native to both Eastern Europe and Western Asia,[2] so they are sometimes called a "Eurasian" carp.

Carp and other types of fish in Fish Swimming Amid Falling Flowers, a Song dynasty painting attributed to Liu Cai (circa 1080–1120)
Carp and other types of fish in Fish Swimming Amid Falling Flowers, a Song dynasty painting attributed to Liu Cai (circa 1080–1120)
Grass.Carp2web
Grass carp
Asian carp
Carp (Chinese characters)
The original Chinese character for "carp" in seal script (top), Traditional (middle), and Simplified (bottom) characters
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese鯉魚
Simplified Chinese鲤鱼
Literal meaning"carp-fish"
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu Pinyinlǐyú
Wade–Gilesli3-yü2
IPA[lì.y̌]
Yue: Cantonese
Yale Romanizationléih-yùh
IPA[le̬i.jy̏ː]
Jyutpinglei5-jyu4
Japanese name
Kanji
Transcriptions
Romanizationkoi

In Chinese culture

A long tradition of Asian carp exists in Chinese culture and literature. A popular lyric circulating as early as 2000 years ago in the late Han period includes an anecdote which relates how a man far away from home sent back to his wife a pair of carp (Chinese: 鲤鱼; pinyin: Liyu), in which, when the wife opened the fish to cook, she found a silk strip that carried a love note of just two lines: “Eat well to keep fit,missing you and forget me not”.

At the Yellow River at Henan (Chinese: 河南; pinyin: Hénán; Wade–Giles: Ho-nan) is a waterfall called the Dragon Gate. It is said that if certain carp called yulong can climb the cataract, they will transform into dragons. Every year in the third month of spring, they swim up from the sea and gather in vast numbers in the pool at the foot of the falls. It used to be said that only 71 could make the climb in any year. When the first succeeded, then the rains would begin to fall. This Dragon Gate was said to have been created after the flood by the god-emperor Yu, who split a mountain blocking the path of the Yellow River. It was so famous that throughout China was a common saying, "a student facing his examinations is like a carp attempting to leap the Dragon Gate."

Henan is not the only place where this happens. Many other waterfalls in China also have the name Dragon Gate and much the same is said about them. Other famous Dragon Gates are on the Wei River where it passes through the Lung Sheu Mountains and at Tsin in Shanxi Province. The fish's jumping feature is set in such a proverbial idiom as "Liyu (Carp) jumps over the Dragon Gate (Chinese: 鲤跃龙门)," an idiom that conveys a vivid image symbolizing a sudden uplifting in one's social status, as when one ascends into the upper society or has found favor with the royal or a noble family, perhaps through marriage, but in particular through success in the imperial examination. It is therefore an idiom often used to encourage students or children to achieve success through hard work and perseverance. This symbolic image, as well as the image of carp itself, has been one of the most popular themes in Chinese paintings, especially those of popular styles. The fish is usually colored in gold or pink, shimmering with an unmistakably auspicious tone. Yuquan (玉泉 in Chinese), one of the well-known scenic spots in Hangzhou, has a large fish pond alive with hundreds of carp of various colors. A three-character inscription, Yu-Le-Guo (鱼乐国), meaning "fish’s paradise", is set above one end of the pond in the calligraphy of a famous gentry-scholar of the late Ming Dynasty named Dong Qichang (Chinese: 董其昌). Many tourists feed the fish with bread crumbs.

Among the various kinds of carp, the silver carp is least expensive in China. The grass carp is still a main delicacy in Hangzhou cuisine. Restaurants along the West Lake of the city keep the fish in cages submerged in the lake water right in front of the restaurant; on an order from a customer, they dash a live fish on the pavement to kill it before cooking. The fish is normally served with a vinegar-based sweet-and-sour sauce (Chinese: 西湖醋鱼).

Jumping ability

Silver carp have become notorious for being easily frightened by boats and personal watercraft, which cause them to leap high into the air. The fish can jump up to 2.5–3.0 metres (8–10 ft) into the air, and numerous boaters have been severely injured by collisions with the fish.[3] According to the EPA, "reported injuries include cuts from fins, black eyes, broken bones, back injuries, and concussions.".[4] Silver carp can grow to 45 kilograms (99 lb) in mass.[5] This behavior has sometimes also been attributed to the very similar bighead carp, but this is uncommon. Bighead carp do not normally jump when frightened.[1] Catching jumping carp in nets has become part of the Redneck Fishing Tournament, in Bath, Illinois.[6] Other parties, such as the Peoria Carp Hunters, have taken advantage of the jumping ability as a mechanism of hunting the carp, in some cases to purge the invasive species.[7]

As food

Asian carp have been a popular food fish in Asia for thousands of years. Some recipes are specifically for carp such as Tángcù Lǐyú (sweet-and-sour carp) and Koikoku (thick miso soup with carp). However, many people in North America do not distinguish the various Asian carp species and see them all as undesirable food fish due to their perceived bottom-feeding behavior, while, in fact, only some species are bottom-feeders, and even the bottom-feeding species such as the common carp, a highly bony species which was introduced to North America from Eurasia in the 1800s, are important food fish outside North America.[8]

The pearly white flesh—complicated by a series of bones—is said to taste like cod or described as tasting like a cross between scallops and crabmeat. They are low in mercury because they do not eat other fish. To make the fish more appealing to American consumers, the fish have been renamed silverfin or Kentucky tuna.[9] Volunteer efforts to increase the popularity further include making and selling carp-based dishes and using the entrails to make fertilizer.[10]

Some have thought to collect the carp eggs for caviar, since one bighead carp was found with over 2 million eggs. Two million eggs from one fish could fill two jars of caviar, which would be quite valuable. This is only true, however, in the case of a fish from which people would eat eggs. As of now, no market for carp eggs exists in America,[11] though there is a movement that is trying to increase the popularity of carp eggs in Europe.[12]

In April 2015, a company called BareItAll Petfoods, based in Chicago, created the first commercially available pet food featuring Asian carp as a means to reduce the populations in the waterways of the Midwest.

As an invasive species

Asian carp are an invasive species. Some species of Asian carp cause harm when they are introduced to new environments. The black carp feeds on native mussels and snails, some of which can be already endangered. Grass carp can alter the food webs of a new environment by altering the communities of plants, invertebrates, and fish. Silver carp feed on the plankton necessary for larval fish and native mussels.[13]

North America

Because of their prominence, and because they were imported to the United States much later than other carp native to Asia, the term "Asian carp" is often used with the intended meaning of only grass, black, silver, and bighead carp. In the US, Asian carp are considered to be invasive species. Of the Asian carp introduced to the United States, only two (crucian and black carp) are not known to be firmly established. Crucian carp is probably extirpated.[14] Since 2003, however, several adult, fertile black carp have been captured from the Atchafalaya and other rivers connected to the Mississippi River.[15] Dr. Leo Nico, in the book Black carp: Biological Synopsis and Risk Assessment of an Introduced Fish, reports that black carp are probably established in the United States. In South Florida, the local water management district actually stocks the canals with sterilized grass carp to control the hydrilla plant, which tends to block the locks and drainage valves used to control water flow from the Everglades.

The common carp was brought to the U.S. in 1831, and has been widespread for a long time. In the late 19th century, it was distributed widely throughout the United States by the United States Fish Commission as a foodfish.[16] However, common carp are not now normally prized as a foodfish in the United States. They are often known to uproot vegetation and muddy water through their habit of rooting in the mud for food. They are thought often to have detrimental effects on native species.[16] However, in Europe, common carp are prized as a sportfish, and angling for common carp is enjoying increased popularity in the United States.

In the 1970s, fish farmers in mostly Southern states began importing Asian carp from China to help clean their commercial ponds.[17][18] The rise in the populations of bighead and silver carp has been dramatic where they are established in the Mississippi River basin.[19] Although many sources cite the record floods of the 1990s as the means by which Asian carp escaped aquaculture ponds into the Mississippi River,[20] this is apocryphal. At least one known escape of bighead carp from aquaculture ponds occurred in 1995, but bighead and silver carp were established in the Mississippi River basin prior to 1990.[21][22] Grass carp have been reproducing in the Mississippi River since the 1970s.[23]

Bighead, silver, and grass carp are known to be well-established in the Mississippi River basin (including tributaries), where they at times reach extremely high numbers, especially in the case of the bighead and silver carp. Bighead, silver, and grass carp have been captured in that watershed from Louisiana to South Dakota, Minnesota, and Ohio. Grass carp are also established in at least one other watershed, in Texas, and may be established elsewhere.

Asian carp, Shedd Aquarium, Chicago

The Asian carp have recently been found in Lake Calumet in Illinois. Grass carp have been captured in every Great Lake except Lake Superior, but so far, no evidence indicates a reproducing population, although a juvenile grass carp was caught in a river leading to Lake Scugog. No silver carp or black carp have yet been found in any Great Lake. Common carp are abundant throughout the Great Lakes. Current records of where Asian carp have been captured may be found at the United States Geological Survey's Nonindigenous Aquatic Species website.[24]

These fish are thought to be highly detrimental to the environment in parts of the United States.[25] Because of these concerns, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service convened stakeholders to develop a national plan for the management and control of invasive Asian carp (referring to bighead, silver, black, and grass carp).[26] The plan was accepted by the National Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force in the fall of 2007.

In July, 2007, the U.S. Department of the Interior declared all silver carp and largescale silver carp to be injurious species under the Lacey Act.[4] In July 2012, Congress included the "Stop Invasive Species Act" as an amendment to a transportation bill it approved. The act requires the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to speed up implementation of strategies to protect the Great Lakes from Asian carp.[27]

Bighead and silver carp feed by filtering plankton from the water. The extremely high abundance of bighead and silver carp has caused great concern because of the potential for competition with native species for food and living space. Because of their filter-feeding habits, they are difficult to capture by normal angling methods.

In Canada, the federal Department of Fisheries and Oceans has evaluated the risk of Asian carp invading Canadian waters, particularly the Great Lakes, either by introduction from the Mississippi or through the market in live carp.[28] A few bighead and grass carp have been captured in Canada's portions of the Great Lakes, but no Asian carp (other than common carp, an originally Eurasian species) is known to be established in Canada at this time. Concerns exist that the silver carp may spread into Cypress Hills in Alberta and Saskatchewan through Battle Creek (Milk River), the Frenchman River, and other rivers flowing south out of the hills into the Milk River. In Mexico, grass carp have been established for many years in at least two river systems, where they are considered invasive, but no other Asian carp are known to have been introduced.

The United States Environmental Protection Agency is also concerned about the possibility of Asian carp migrating to the Great Lakes.[29] In 2002, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers completed an electric fish barrier in the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, the only navigable aquatic link between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River drainage basins. The initial fish barrier was used as a demonstration project to study the design's effectiveness. Following positive results, construction began on a second, permanent barrier in 2004.[30] In addition to the canal, the corps has identified 19 sites in five additional states, from Minnesota to New York, that could allow for movement of Mississippi basin carp into the Great Lakes.[31]

U.S. Representative Dave Camp from Michigan's 4th district and Senator Debbie Stabenow of Michigan introduced the Close All Routes and Prevent Asian Carp Today (CARPACT), which directs the Army Corps of Engineers to take action to prevent Asian carp from entering the Great Lakes, which is estimated to cost more than $30 million in 2010. The act will make sure the locks and sluice gates at the O’Brien Lock and Dam and the Chicago Controlling Works are closed and remain closed until a better strategy is developed. The act will also enhance existing barriers and monitoring systems by giving authority to the Army Corps of Engineers to obtain real estate necessary for the construction and maintenance of the barrier. The corps also has the authority to eliminate and prevent the spread of the carp using fish toxicants, commercial fishing and netting, and harvesting.[32] A new report issued in 2012 by the Great Lakes Commission concludes that physical separation of the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watersheds is the best long-term solution to prevent Asian carp and other invasive species from migrating between the waterbodies.[33]

In November, 2009, carp genetic material was detected beyond the two electric barriers, leaving only a single lock/dam on the Calumet River between the detected presence and Lake Michigan. "This is absolutely an emergency", Joel Brammeier, acting president of the Alliance for the Great Lakes, was quoted as saying, referring to the ecological threat, and also mentioning the threat to recreational boaters. "Mr. Brammeier and some others called for the immediate closing of the lock ... though others doubted it was feasible to stop shipping traffic [there]." "All options are on the table", said Jacqueline Y. Ashmon, a spokeswoman for the Corps of Engineers. "We don’t have any specifics."[34]

In the first week of December, 2009, the Army Corps made plans to shut down one of the electric barriers for maintenance, and the Illinois Department of Natural Resources responded by dumping 2,200 gallons of the toxin rotenone into the canal. Rotenone, the report said, is deadly for fish, but not harmful to humans, animals, or most other aquatic life. While "scores" of fish were killed, only one carp was found, near Lockport Lock and Dam and nearly six miles below the electronic barriers.[35] The fish kill cost $3 million and produced 90 tons of dead fish, reported one commentator, who also noted a parallel with an intentional fish kill in Chicago, in Lincoln Park's South Pond, by the IDNR in November, 2008.[36]

Other efforts to reduce the number of Asian carp have included encouraging the public to eat more carp and fisheries shipping the fish to other markets, such as Israel, and have included the participation of then Secretary of State Hillary Clinton.[37]

On June 22, 2010, a 19-pound Asian carp was found near the shore of Lake Michigan, in Lake Calumet, about six miles downstream from Lake Michigan, by a commercial fisherman hired by the state of Illinois to do routine fish sampling in the area.[38]. Southern Illinois University conducted an autopsy on the fish and, after examining its otolith chemistry, concluded the fish appeared through human introduction rather than swam past the existing electric barrier system.

Stopping these invasive carp from spreading into Lake Erie is another concern to many involved, as Lake Erie provides the ideal habitat for the carp to survive. This could lead to the fish choking out the other native fish that exist there. Ohio has a multimillion-dollar sport fishing and boating industry. Allowing these fish to choke out native species would cause a huge hit to this industry. This is especially true since catching these carp with traditional fishing methods is so difficult, which makes it harder for the industry to shift the sport fishing from one fish to another.[39]

On August 24, 2010, a carp reportedly knocked a kayaker out of competition in a Missouri River race at Lexington in western Missouri.[40]

On September 8, 2010, the Council on Environmental Quality announced the appointment of John Goss as the Asian Carp Director. Goss' role is primarily to serve as the principal advisor to the CEQ's chair, Nancy Sutley on Asian carp issues, and oversee federal, state, and local coordination on Asian carp control efforts. Goss was previously executive director of the Indiana Wildlife Federation (a state affiliate of the National Wildlife Federation), director of the Indiana Department of Natural Resources, and vice-chairman of the Great Lakes Commission.[41]

The Stop Asian Carp Act of 2011 was introduced to require the Secretary of the Army to study the feasibility of the hydrological separation, such as electric barriers, of the Great Lakes and Mississippi River basins.[42] The act provided 30 days for the Secretary of the Army to begin a study on the best means of implementing a hydrological separation of the Great Lakes to prevent the introduction of Asian carp. The study requirements included researching techniques that prevented the spread of carp from flooding, wastewater and storm water infrastructure, waterway safety operations, and barge and recreational traffic.

In 2012, the U.S. Senate and House introduced new bills aimed at combating the spread of Asian carp into the Great Lakes by expediting some items of the Stop Asian Carp Act of 2011.[43] The legislation provides direction to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to complete their study within 18 months on how to separate the Great Lakes from the Mississippi watersheds. The USGS collaborated with the University of Minnesota to prepare an extensive report on the use of environmental deoxyribonucleic acid (eDNA) to detect a species in a waterway. This report was put together after extensive field research resulting from positive findings of the eDNA of Asian carp in Minnesota waterways in 2011. Rivers being researched are the Mississippi and St. Croix Rivers. However, new research was unable to redetect the presence of Asian carp, although several have been caught in Minnesota over the past two years.[44] Possibilities of why Asian carp were not detected include a change in the method of sampling or a disappearance of the carp from Minnesota waterways.

The Upper Mississippi CARP Act was presented to Congress as recently as 2013. Presented by Congressmen Ellison of Minnesota, the Upper Mississippi CARP Act would empower the Secretary of the Army to enact strategies previously determined to prevent further spread of Asian carp and begin eliminating the species. Included in this legislation is the requirement for the Army Corp of Engineers to shut down the Upper St. Anthony Falls lock if Asian carp are detected in the portion of the Mississippi River near the Twin Cities. U.S. Senator Amy Klobuchar (DFL) told the Pierce County Herald, “Asian carp not only pose a serious threat to Minnesota’s environment, and they also threaten the recreation and fishing industries that play a key role in the state’s economy. We must do everything we can to stop the further spread of this invasive species into our lakes and rivers, and this legislation will help the state take action to protect Minnesota’s waterways”.[45]

In May 2013, a test for silver carp eDNA in the waters of Sturgeon Bay in Lake Michigan near Green Bay, Wisconsin was positive. The carp are active in May. The result was published in October and scientists will retest in May, 2014.[46]

In July 2015, two grass carp were found within days of each other in contained ponds near Toronto's Lake Ontario waterfront. This could mean a variety of things, but has yet to prove that widespread reproduction is taking place in Lake Ontario,[47] although both fish were male and fertile. The United States and Canadian authorities have been working together to determine where the fish originated and how to stop a potential invasion into the Great Lakes,[48] however in early September three more grass carp were found near the Toronto Islands.[49]

As of 2016, efforts were being made to reintroduce alligator gar between Tennessee and Illinois as part of an effort to control Asian carp.[50]

2009-2010 litigation

On December 21, 2009, Michigan Attorney General Mike Cox filed a lawsuit with the U.S. Supreme Court seeking the immediate closure of the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal to keep the Asian carp out of Lake Michigan. Neighboring Great Lakes states and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, which constructed the canal, are co-defendants in the lawsuit.[51]

In response to the Michigan lawsuit, on January 5, 2010, Illinois Attorney General Lisa Madigan filed a counter-suit with the Supreme Court, requesting it to reject Michigan's claims. The Illinois Chamber of Commerce and American Waterways Operators both sided with Illinois in the lawsuit, filing affidavits (amicus briefs) and arguing that closing the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal would upset the movement of millions of tons of vital shipments of iron ore, coal, grain, and other cargo, totaling more than $1.5 billion a year, and contribute to the loss of hundreds, perhaps thousands of jobs. In response, Michigan noted the value of the sport fishing and recreation industry, already heavily affected in other states with large carp populations, would drop by more than $3.0 billion and result in the loss of at least 4,000 jobs. President Obama and his administration supported Illinois's efforts to keep the canal open; with the support of USGS and USFWS, reports have consistently denied the Asian carp poses a threat.[52]

On January 19, 2010, the Supreme Court rejected the Michigan injunction request, but took no action on Michigan's separate request to reopen older cases regarding Chicago water withdrawal from Lake Michigan.[53] The litigation proceeds in lower courts.[54]

On January 1, 2010, the Ontario government also filed a lawsuit (alongside the American states) in an American court to stop the dumping of Asian carp into the Great Lakes, a potentially damaging act to the fishing industry (of Canada).[55]

References

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  2. ^ Balon, E. 1995. Origin and domestication of the wild carp, Cyprinus carpio: from Roman gourmets to the swimming flowers. Aquaculture 129(1-4):3-48
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  4. ^ a b Injurious Wildlife Species; Silver Carp and Largescale Silver Carp, Federal Register: July 10, 2007 (Volume 72, Number 131)
  5. ^ "Silver Carp Information - Silver Carp Fact Sheet". Fishing.about.com. Archived from the original on 29 June 2010. Retrieved 2010-07-29.
  6. ^ Crossett, Larry, "Redneck Fishing Tournament draws crowds", GateHouse News Service/Pekin Times, Aug 09, 2010 8:00 AM.
  7. ^ Kart, Jeff (May 3, 2011). "Sword-Swinging Ninjas On Skis Go After Asian Carp". Treehugger.com. Retrieved November 2, 2015.
  8. ^ Gallagher, Jim, "Let them eat carp: Illinois to feed pest fish to the poor", St. Louis Post-Dispatch, July 14, 2011 4:45 pm.
  9. ^ "Would you eat Kentucky tuna?", state-journal.com, April 18, 2010.
  10. ^ Roman, Joe, "Asian Carp", eattheinvaders.org
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  12. ^ December 19, 2011
  13. ^ Asian Carp USDA National Agricultural Library. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
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  15. ^ Fuller, Pam (2005-06-07). "Species FactSheet: Mylopharyngodon piceus". U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved 2007-06-19.
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  27. ^ "Congress Requires Faster Corps Action on Asian Carp". The National Law Review. Varnum LLP. 2012-07-08. Retrieved 2012-07-09.
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  31. ^ "Michigan v. Army Corp" (PDF). No. 10-3891, p. 42. USCA 7th Cir. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-10-29.
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  33. ^ Lundgren, Timothy; Varnum, LLP (6 February 2012). "Report Recommends Great Lakes Separation to Address Asian Carp". The National Law Review. Retrieved 2012-02-13.
  34. ^ "Voracious Invader May Be Nearing Lake Michigan" by Monica Davey, with additional reporting by Emma Graves Fitzsimmons, The New York Times, November 20, 2009 (2009-11-21 p. A13 NY ed.). Retrieved 2009-11-21.
  35. ^ "Asian carp: State's fish kill in Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal yields only 1 Asian carp: Meager catch heartens officials worried over invasive species' spread" by Joel Hood, Chicago Tribune, December 4, 2009. Retrieved 2009-12-11.
  36. ^ "How to Kill a Carp" Archived 2009-12-12 at the Wayback Machine by Martha Rosenberg, CounterPunch, December 9, 2009. Retrieved 2009-12-11.
  37. ^ Mogerman, Josh (February 27, 2010). "Gefilte Fish: The solution to world peace and Asian carp?". NRDC.org. Archived from the original on 2010-03-10. Retrieved 2010-03-04.
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  39. ^ Egan, D'Arcy, "U.S. Senate takes measures to battle Asian carp invasion: Northeast Ohio Outdoors Notebook", The Plain Dealer, November 29, 2012; updated November 30, 2012.
  40. ^ Article at Kansas City Star website no longer available on-line. September 19, 2010 letter about dynamite as way to eliminate carp may allude to the subject coverage.
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  42. ^ "Text of the Stop Asian Carp Act of 2011". GovTrack. March 3, 2011. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
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  45. ^ Davis, D. "Minnesota delegation members introduce legislation to fight Asian carp". Pierce County Herald. Archived from the original on 24 February 2013. Retrieved 7 May 2013.
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  48. ^ http://www.680news.com/2015/07/29/asian-carp-found-in-tommy-thompson-park/
  49. ^ Davidson, Sean (September 3, 2015). "3 more Asian grass carp found in waters near Toronto Island". CTV News Toronto. Retrieved September 3, 2015.
  50. ^ Webber, Tammy (29 July 2016). "Huge, once-hated fish now seen as weapon against Asian carp". Pantagraph. Associated Press. Retrieved 31 July 2016.
  51. ^ Hood, Joel; Janega, James (22 December 2009). "Fight to keep Asian carp out of Great Lakes reaches Supreme Court". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 25 December 2009. Retrieved 2010-01-07.
  52. ^ Merrion, Paul, "Illinois fights back as states seek carp-blocking canal closures", Crain's Chicago Business, 4 January 2010. Original access date 2010-01-07; link dead/conversion 2011-09-11.
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  54. ^ "IMPORTANT INVASIVE SPECIES/ASIAN CARP OPINION ISSUED IN TYPESCRIPT THIS AFTERNOON BY 7TH CIRCUIT (Link to Court opinion)". Indiana Law Blog. Retrieved 21 November 2011.
  55. ^ CTV News | Ontario takes Asian carp fight to U.S. Supreme Court Archived April 4, 2010, at the Wayback Machine

Further reading

External links

Asian carp in North America

Introduced Asian carp in North America pose a major threat to the ecology, environment, economy, and way of life in the Upper Midwest and Great Lakes region of the United States and Canada. Asian carp are a group of fish species, which include several known to be invasive, and represent the most urgent potential danger to the ecology of the Great Lakes. The United States Department of the Interior and United States Fish and Wildlife Service presented their first annual report to Congress on the issue in December 2014.

Black carp

The black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) or black Chinese roach is a species of cyprinid fish and the sole species of the genus Mylopharyngodon. It is native to lakes and rivers in East Asia, ranging from the Amur Basin, through China, to Vietnam. It is widely cultivated for food and Chinese medicine. The black carp can reach up to 1.8 m (5.9 ft) in length and 35 kg (77 lb) in weight. It generally feeds on snails and mussels. The average length is 60–120 cm (23.5–47 in). Black carp, together with bighead, silver, and grass carps, make up the culturally important "four famous domestic fishes" used in polyculture in China for over a thousand years, and known as "Asian carp" in the United States. Black carp are not as widely distributed worldwide as the other three.

In China, black carp are the most highly esteemed and expensive foodfish among the four domestic fishes, and partly because of its diet and limited food supply, is the most scarce and expensive in the marketplace.

Carp

Carp are various species of oily freshwater fish from the family Cyprinidae, a very large group of fish native to Europe and Asia.

Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge

The Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge is located on the Illinois River in Mason County northeast of Havana, Illinois. It is managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service as one of the four Illinois River National Wildlife and Fish Refuges.

The refuge consists of 4,388 acres (17.8 km²) of Illinois River bottomland, nearly all of it wetland. The parcel is the former Chautauqua Drainage and Levee District, a failed riverine polder. In the 1920s, workers with steam shovels surrounded the levee district with a large dike in an attempt to create a large new parcel of agricultural farmland. The levee district proved to be financially unable to maintain the dike, however, and the Illinois River reclaimed the polder. The complex alluvial topography that had existed before this intervention was replaced by the broad shallow pool of Chautauqua Lake.

In 1936, the federal government acquired the 4,388-acre (17.8 km2) Chautauqua Drainage and Levee District parcel, including the dikes that enclosed the pool, and began to manage it for wildlife-refuge and flood control purposes. The flood-control aspects of this management have grown more challenging in the years since, as continued agricultural runoff and siltation of the Illinois River has made much of Chautauqua Lake shallower. On some shoreline strips of the lake, the silt has built up to the level of the lake surface, and an alluvial topography of sloughs and floodplain woodlands may be slowly re-establishing itself. However, many of the plant and animal species inhabiting the current Chautauqua Lake and Wildlife Refuge and adjacent Illinois River are nonnative and invasive species such as the Asian carp.

As of 2005, of the 4,388 acres (17.8 km²) of the Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge, 3,200 acres (12.9 km²) were classified as an open pool, 800 acres (3.2 km²) were classified as "water and timbered bottomland", and the remaining 388 acres (1.6 km²) were classified as upland forest. The closest numbered highway is U.S. Highway 136 in Mason County.

A nesting pair of bald eagles was observed in the Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge in the winter of 2005-06.The Cameron/Billsbach Unit is a detached section of the refuge located further north, in Marshall County, near Henry, Illinois. It covers an additional 1,079 acres (4.37 km²).

Chicago Area Waterway System

The Chicago Area Waterway System (CAWS) is a complex of natural and artificial waterways extending through much of the Chicago metropolitan area,

covering approximately 87 miles altogether. It straddles the Chicago Portage and is the sole navigable inland link between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River and makes up the northern end of the Illinois Waterway.The CAWS includes various branches of the Chicago and Calumet Rivers, as well as other channels such as the North Shore Channel, Cal-Sag Channel, and Chicago Sanitary & Ship Canal. The CAWS ends near the Lockport Navigational Pool, the highest elevated of the eight pools of the Illinois Waterway. There are three major locks within the CAWS, operated by the Army Corps of Engineers: the Chicago Harbor Lock, the Lockport Lock & Dam, and the Thomas J. O'Brien Lock & Dam.Artificial waterways connecting the Mississippi and Great Lakes systems via the Chicago area, over the Chicago Portage, began with the I&M Canal in 1848. The CAWS as it exists today began to take shape in 1900, with the construction of the Chicago Sanitary & Ship Canal to reverse the flow of the Chicago and Calumet Rivers, which previously flowed into Lake Michigan, so as to instead flow toward the Mississippi River, thus carrying sewage away from the city of Chicago. Thereafter additional artificial waterways were built that became part of the CAWS, such as the North Shore Channel, which runs inland from Wilmette to the Chicago River and was constructed in 1910, and the Cal Sag Channel, which provides a direct path from the Calumet River to the Illinois Waterway and was finished in 1922.In the 21st century, a focus of concern around the CAWS has been its potential role as a corridor for Asian carp to enter Lake Michigan. Suits in district court and before the United States Supreme Court have been unable to obtain an injunction requiring the connection between the CAWS and the Mississippi drainage to be closed.

Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal

The Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, historically known as the Chicago Drainage Canal, is a 28-mile-long (45 km) canal system that connects the Chicago River to the Des Plaines River. It reverses the direction of the Main Stem and the South Branch of the Chicago River, which now flows out of Lake Michigan rather than into it. The related Calumet-Saganashkee Channel does the same for the Calumet River a short distance to the south, joining the Chicago canal about half way along its route to the Des Plaines. The two provide the only navigation for ships between the Great Lakes Waterway and the Mississippi River system.

The canal was primarily built as a sewage treatment scheme. Prior to its opening in 1900, sewage from the city of Chicago was dumped into the Chicago River and flowed into Lake Michigan. The city's drinking water supply was located offshore, and there were fears that the sewage could reach the intake and cause serious disease outbreaks. Since the sewer systems were already flowing into the river, the decision was made to dam the river and reverse its flow, thereby sending all the sewage inland where it could be treated before emptying it into the Des Plaines.

A secondary goal was to replace the shallow and narrow Illinois and Michigan Canal (I&M), which had originally connected Lake Michigan with the Mississippi starting in 1848. As part of the construction of the new canal, the entire route was built to allow much larger ships to navigate it. It is 202 feet (62 m) wide and 24 feet (7.3 m) deep, over three times the size of the I&M. The I&M became a secondary route with the new canal's opening, and was shut down entirely with the creation of the Illinois Waterway network in 1933.

The building of the Chicago canal served as intensive and practical training for engineers who later built the Panama Canal. The canal is operated by the Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago. In 1999, the system was named a Civil Engineering Monument of the Millennium by the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE). The Canal was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on December 20, 2011.

Common carp

The common carp or European carp (Cyprinus carpio) is a widespread freshwater fish of eutrophic waters in lakes and large rivers in Europe and Asia. The native wild populations are considered vulnerable to extinction by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), but the species has also been domesticated and introduced (see aquaculture) into environments worldwide, and is often considered a destructive invasive species, being included in the list of the world's 100 worst invasive species. It gives its name to the carp family Cyprinidae.

Cyprinus

Cyprinus is the genus of typical carps in family Cyprinidae. Most species in the genus are of East Asia origin with only the common carp (C. carpio) in Western Asia and Europe; this invasive species has also been introduced to many other regions around the world. Cyprinus are closely related to some more barb-like genera, such as Cyclocheilichthys and Barbonymus (tinfoils). The crucian carps (Carassius) of western Eurasia, which include the goldfish (C. auratus), are apparently not as closely related.This genus' most widespread and well-known member is the common carp (C. carpio) species complex. Although traditionally considered a single species, recent authorities have split the European and west Asian populations from the East Asian, with the latter named C. rubrofuscus (syn. C. carpio haematopterus). Members of the species complex are famed as a food fish and have been widely traded and introduced since antiquity, but in certain areas has multiplied inordinately and become a pest. In its long use it has been domesticated, and a number of breeds have been developed for food and other purposes. The koi (from Japanese nishikigoi, 錦鯉) are well-known carp breeds, selectively bred for being enjoyed by spectators from above. Strictly speaking, koi is simply the Japanese name of the East Asian carp.

The other species of typical carps are generally found in more restricted areas of eastern Asia, centered on the Yunnan region. In some cases, they are endemic to a single lake, most notably Lake Erhai, as well as Lake Dian, Fuxian Lake, Lake Jilu, Lake Qilihu, Lake Xingyun and Lake Yi-Lung, which are all in Yunnan proper. Several of these species are seriously threatened and five are possibly already extinct: C. yilongensis (Lake Yi-Lung), C. yunnanensis (Lake Qilihu), C. daliensis (Lake Erhai), C. megalophthalmus (Lake Erhai) and C. fuxianensis (Lake Fuxian).

Cyprinus rubrofuscus

Cyprinus rubrofuscus, the Amur carp, is a species of cyprinid fish. It is widespread in Eastern Asia where native to Laos, Vietnam and China from the Amur to Red River drainages. It has also been introduced outside its native range. It is the wild form of the well known koi. It is known for its muddy flavor and boniness, hence, it is not commonly eaten by locals except when stewed.In the past it was considered a subspecies of the common (or European) carp, often under the scientific name C. carpio haematopterus (a synonym), but the two differ in genetics and meristics, leading recent authorities to recognize them as separate species. Although earlier studies also have found minor differences between northern ("haematopterus") and southern ("viridiviolaceus") populations in Eastern Asia in both meristics and genetics, later studies have found that they are not monophyletic. However, any phylogenetic structure is difficult to establish because of widespread translocations of carps between different regions. The parent species of the domesticated koi carp is an East Asian carp, possibly C. rubrofuscus (not C. carpio).

Fish-shaped pastry

Fish-shaped pastry refers to the Japanese pastry Taiyaki, which is shaped to resemble a (bream or Asian carp) , and then is filled with red bean paste or other fillings like custard or chocolate. It is derived from the similar Japanese pastry called Imagawayaki. It is also popular in other East Asian countries such as: South Korea where it is known as bungeoppang.

Grass carp

The grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) is the species of fish with the largest reported production in aquaculture globally, over five million tonnes per year. It is a large herbivorous freshwater fish species of the family Cyprinidae native to eastern Asia, with a native range from northern Vietnam to the Amur River on the Siberia-China border. This Asian carp is the only species of the genus Ctenopharyngodon.

It is cultivated in China for food, but was introduced in Europe and the United States for aquatic weed control. It is a fish of large, turbid rivers and associated floodplain lakes, with a wide degree of temperature tolerance. Grass carp will enter reproductive condition and spawn at temperatures of 20 to 30 °C (68 to 86 °F).In the United States, the fish is also known as white amur, which is derived from the Amur River, where the species is probably native, but has never been abundant. This is not to be confused with the white Amur bream (Parabramis pekinensis), which is not a particularly close relative.

Illinois River

The Illinois River (Miami-Illinois language: Inoka Siipiiwi) is a principal tributary of the Mississippi River, approximately 273 miles (439 km) long, in the U.S. state of Illinois. The river drains a large section of central Illinois, with a drainage basin of 28,756.6 square miles (74,479 km2). The drainage basin extends into Wisconsin, Indiana, and a very small area of southwestern Michigan. This river was important among Native Americans and early French traders as the principal water route connecting the Great Lakes with the Mississippi. The French colonial settlements along the rivers formed the heart of the area known as the Illinois Country. After the construction of the Illinois and Michigan Canal and the Hennepin Canal in the 19th century, the role of the river as link between Lake Michigan and the Mississippi was extended into the era of modern industrial shipping. It now forms the basis for the Illinois Waterway.

Invasive species in the United States

Invasive species are a significant threat to many native habitats and species of the United States and a significant cost to agriculture, forestry, and recreation. The term "invasive species" can refer to introduced or naturalized species, feral species, or introduced diseases. There are many species that are invasive. Some species, such as the dandelion, while non-native, do not cause significant economic or ecologic damage and are not widely considered as invasive. Overall, it is estimated that 50,000 non-native species have been introduced to the United States, including livestock, crops, pets, and other non-invasive species. Economic damages associated with invasive species' effects and control costs are estimated at $120 billion per year.

John Goss

John Goss may refer to:

Sir John Goss (composer) (1800–1880), English organist and composer

John Goss (racing driver) (born 1943), Australian racing driver

John Goss Special, a version of the Ford Falcon built to celebrate his Bathurst win in 1974

John Goss (politician) (born 1943), Australian politician

John C. Goss (born 1958), artist and author, travel writer

John Goss, Asian carp czar during the presidency of Barack Obama

John Goss (badminton), played Badminton at the 1986 Commonwealth Games

Liyu

Liyu may refer to:

Asian carp, known as Liyu in Chinese

Liyu Lake, a lake in Hualien County, Taiwan named after the carp

Liyu Subdistrict (栗雨街道), a subdistrict of Tianyuan District, Zhuzhou, Hunan, China

Liyu, Fujian (峛屿), a town in Yunxiao County, Fujian, China

Liyu (monarch) , a king in the historic Ming dynasty tributary state of Caboloan, in what is now Philippines

Liyu police, a police unit established by the Somali regional government as a counter-terrorism force -See Oromo–Somali clashes

North Korea–Rwanda relations

North Korea–Rwanda relations (Korean: 르완다-조선민주주의인민공화국 관계) refers to the current and historical relationship between North Korea and Rwanda. Neither country maintains an embassy in their respective capitals.

During the Cold War, most Rwandan governments were deeply anti-communist. Despite this, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK, commonly known as North Korea) maintained friendly relations with the country, and provided developmental aid. One example of this is the deployment of a North Korean team in 1978 and 1979, to help start up Asian carp-based aquaculture in Rwanda.Some members of the Rwandan Patriotic Front may have received military training in North Korea in the 1980s while serving in the Ugandan military, according to Ugandan press reports cited by Ogenga Otunnu.Kagame, a long-time rebel leader, eventually came to power in 2000. Following the 2010 presidential election in Rwanda, which saw a victory for Kagame with 93.08% of the vote, the North Korean government issued a communique congratulating the President on his victory.Among the items featured in the International Friendship Exhibition, a museum hosting gifts presented by foreign dignitaries to Kim Il-sung and Kim Jong-il, are a large set of traditional Rwandan spears.

Redneck Fishing Tournament

The Redneck Fishing Tournament is an annual event held on a channel of the Illinois River near the community of Bath, Illinois.

The event is typically held during the first weekend in August and is specifically intended to decrease the population of silver carp, a species of Asian carp, in the river. The fish is an invasive species in the midwestern United States and has become a nuisance in various waterways over the last twenty years, competing for food with native fish. The fish can weigh around forty pounds (18 kg), and their flesh is typically more bony than those fish species that are usually consumed by the average American. Their size is of particular note, because the fish respond to vibrations from motors as boats move through water by jumping out of the water, potentially hitting and injuring boaters.

Siamese mud carp

The Siamese mud carp (Henicorhynchus siamensis) is a species of freshwater cyprinid fish, a variety of Asian carp native to the Mekong and Chao Phraya Rivers in Southeast Asia, especially in Cambodia, Laos and Thailand. It is very common in floodplains during the wet season and migrates upstream in the Mekong starting in Cambodia.

The Siamese mud carp has locally commercial use both as food and in the aquarium trade.

Local names:

Thai: Pla soi khao (ปลาสร้อยขาว, pronounced [plāː sɔ̂j kʰǎːw])

Laotian: ປາຊວຍ [paː swáːj]

Khmer: ~ Trey riel tob

Vietnamese: Cá linh thùy.

Silver carp

The silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) is a species of freshwater cyprinid fish, a variety of Asian carp native to China and eastern Siberia. Although a threatened species in its natural habitat, it has long been cultivated in China. By weight more silver carp are produced worldwide in aquaculture than any other species of fish except for the grass carp. Silver carp are usually farmed in polyculture with other Asian carp, or sometimes with catla or other fish species.

The species has also been introduced to, or spread by connected waterways, into at least 88 countries around the world. The reason for importation was generally for use in aquaculture, but enhancement of wild fisheries and water quality control have also been intended on occasion. In some of these places the species is considered an invasive species.The silver carp reaches an average length of 60–100 cm (24–39 in) with a maximum length of 140 cm (55 in) and weight of 50 kg (110 lb).

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