The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is a regional development bank established on 19 December 1966, which is headquartered in the Ortigas Center located in the city of Mandaluyong, Metro Manila, Philippines. The company also maintains 31 field offices around the world to promote social and economic development in Asia. The bank admits the members of the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP, formerly the Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East or ECAFE) and non-regional developed countries. From 31 members at its establishment, ADB now has 68 members, of which 49 are from within Asia and the Pacific and 19 from outside. The ADB was modeled closely on the World Bank, and has a similar weighted voting system where votes are distributed in proportion with members' capital subscriptions. ADB releases an annual report that summarizes its operations, budget and other materials for review by the public. The ADB-Japan Scholarship Program (ADB-JSP) enrolls about 300 students annually in academic institutions located in 10 countries within the Region. Upon completion of their study programs, scholars are expected to contribute to the economic and social development of their home countries. ADB is an official United Nations Observer.
As of 31 December 2016, Japan and United States hold the largest proportion of shares at 15.607%. China holds 6.444%, India holds 6.331%, and Australia holds 5.786%.
|Asian Development Bank|
|Motto||Fighting Poverty in Asia and the Pacific|
|Formation||19 December 1966|
|Type||Multilateral Development Bank|
|Purpose||Social and Economic Development|
Mandaluyong, Metro Manila, Philippines
|Board of Governors|
The highest policy-making body of the bank is the Board of Governors, composed of one representative from each member state. The Board of Governors, in turn, elect among themselves the twelve members of the Board of Directors and their deputies. Eight of the twelve members come from regional (Asia-Pacific) members while the others come from non-regional members.
The Board of Governors also elect the bank's president, who is the chairperson of the Board of Directors and manages ADB. The president has a term of office lasting five years, and may be reelected. Traditionally, and because Japan is one of the largest shareholders of the bank, the president has always been Japanese.
The headquarters of the bank is at 6 ADB Avenue, Mandaluyong, Metro Manila, Philippines, and it has 31 field offices in Asia and the Pacific and representative offices in Washington, Frankfurt, Tokyo and Sydney. The bank employs about 3,000 people, representing 60 of its 67 members.
As early as 1956, Japan Finance Minister Hisato Ichimada had suggested to United States Secretary of State John Foster Dulles that development projects in Southeast Asia could be supported by a new financial institution for the region. A year later, Japanese Prime Minister Nobusuke Kishi announced that Japan intended to sponsor the establishment of a regional development fund with resources largely from Japan and other industrial countries. But the US did not warm to the plan and the concept was shelved. See full account in "Banking on the Future of Asia and the Pacific: 50 Years of the Asian Development Bank," July 2017.
The idea came up again late in 1962 when Kaoru Ohashi, an economist from a research institute in Tokyo, visited Takeshi Watanabe, then a private financial consultant in Tokyo, and proposed a study group to form a development bank for the Asian region. The group met regularly in 1963, examining various scenarios for setting up a new institution and drew on Watanabe's experiences with the World Bank. However, the idea received a cool reception from the World Bank itself and the study group became discouraged.
In parallel, the concept was formally proposed at a trade conference organized by the Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East (ECAFE) in 1963 by a young Thai economist, Paul Sithi-Amnuai. (ESCAP, United Nations Publication March 2007, "The first parliament of Asia" pp. 65). Despite an initial mixed reaction, support for the establishment of a new bank soon grew.
An expert group was convened to study the idea, with Japan invited to contribute to the group. When Watanabe was recommended, the two streams proposing a new bank—from ECAFE and Japan—came together. Initially, the US was on the fence, not opposing the idea but not ready to commit financial support. But a new bank for Asia was soon seen to fit in with a broader program of assistance to Asia planned by U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson in the wake of the escalating US military support for the government of South Vietnam.
As a key player in the concept, Japan hoped that the ADB offices would be in Tokyo. However, eight other cities had also expressed an interest—Bangkok, Colombo, Kabul, Kuala Lumpur, Manila, Phnom Penh, Singapore, and Tehran. To decide, the 18 prospective regional members of the new bank held three rounds of votes at a ministerial conference in Manila in November/December 1965. In the first round on 30 November, Tokyo failed to win a majority, so a second ballot was held the next day at noon. Although Japan was in the lead, it was still inconclusive, so a final vote was held after lunch. In the third poll, Tokyo gained eight votes to Manila's nine, with one abstention. Therefore, Manila was declared the host of the new development bank. The Japanese were mystified and deeply disappointed. Watanabe later wrote in his personal history of ADB: "I felt as if the child I had so carefully reared had been taken away to a distant country." (Asian Development Bank publication, "Towards a New Asia", 1977, p. 16)
As intensive work took place during 1966 to prepare for the opening of the new bank in Manila, high on the agenda was choice of president. Japanese Prime Minister Eisaku Sato asked Watanabe to be a candidate. Although he initially declined, pressure came from other countries and Watanabe agreed. In the absence of any other candidates, Watanabe was elected first President of the Asian Development Bank at its Inaugural Meeting on 24 November 1966.
By the end of 1972, Japan had contributed $173.7 million (22.6% of the total) to the ordinary capital resources and $122.6 million (59.6% of the total) to the special funds. In contrast, the United States contributed only $1.25 million to the special fund.
After its creation in the 1960s, ADB focused much of its assistance on food production and rural development. At the time, Asia was one of the poorest regions in the world.
Early loans went largely to Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, South Korea and the Philippines; these nations accounted for 78.48% of the total ADB loans between 1967 and 1972. Moreover, Japan received tangible benefits, 41.67% of the total procurements between 1967 and 1976. Japan tied its special funds contributions to its preferred sectors and regions and procurements of its goods and services, as reflected in its $100 million donation for the Agricultural Special Fund in April 1968.
In the 1970s, ADB's assistance to developing countries in Asia expanded into education and health, and then to infrastructure and industry. The gradual emergence of Asian economies in the latter part of the decade spurred demand for better infrastructure to support economic growth. ADB focused on improving roads and providing electricity. When the world suffered its first oil price shock, ADB shifted more of its assistance to support energy projects, especially those promoting the development of domestic energy sources in member countries.
Following considerable pressure from the Reagan Administration in the 1980s, ADB reluctantly began working with the private sector in an attempt to increase the impact of its development assistance to poor countries in Asia and the Pacific. In the wake of the second oil crisis, ADB expanded its assistance to energy projects. In 1982, ADB opened its first field office, in Bangladesh, and later in the decade it expanded its work with non-government organizations (NGOs).
Japanese presidents Inoue Shiro (1972–76) and Yoshida Taroichi (1976–81) took the spotlight in the 1970s. Fujioka Masao, the fourth president (1981–90), adopted an assertive leadership style, launching an ambitious plan to expand the ADB into a high-impact development agency.
In the 1990s, ADB began promoting regional cooperation by helping the countries on the Mekong River to trade and work together. The decade also saw an expansion of ADB's membership with the addition of several Central Asian countries following the end of the Cold War.
In mid-1997, ADB responded to the financial crisis that hit the region with projects designed to strengthen financial sectors and create social safety nets for the poor. During the crisis, ADB approved its largest single loan – a $4 billion emergency loan to the South Korea. In 1999, ADB adopted poverty reduction as its overarching goal.
The early years of 2000s saw a dramatic expansion of private sector finance. While the institution had such operations since the 1980s (under pressure from the Reagan Administration) the early attempts were highly unsuccessful with low lending volumes, considerable losses and financial scandals associated with an entity named AFIC. However, beginning in 2002, the ADB undertook a dramatic expansion of private sector lending under a new team. Over the course of the next six years, the Private Sector Operations Department (PSOD) grew by a factor of 41 times the 2001 levels of new financings and earnings for the ADB. This culminated with the Board's formal recognition if these achievements in March 2008, when the Board of Directors formally adopted the Long Term Strategic Framework (LTSF). That document formally stated that assistance to private sector development was the lead priority of the ADB and that it should constitute 50% of the bank's lending by 2020.
In 2003, the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic hit the region and ADB responded with programs to help the countries in the region work together to address infectious diseases, including avian influenza and HIV/AIDS. ADB also responded to a multitude of natural disasters in the region, committing more than $850 million for recovery in areas of India, Indonesia, Maldives, and Sri Lanka which were impacted by the December 2004 Asian tsunami. In addition, $1 billion in loans and grants was provided to the victims of the October 2005 earthquake in Pakistan.
In 2009, ADB's Board of Governors agreed to triple ADB's capital base from $55 billion to $165 billion, giving it much-needed resources to respond to the global economic crisis. The 200% increase is the largest in ADB's history, and was the first since 1994.
Asia moved beyond the economic crisis and by 2010 had emerged as a new engine of global economic growth though it remained home to two-thirds of the world's poor. In addition, the increasing prosperity of many people in the region created a widening income gap that left many people behind. ADB responded to this with loans and grants that encouraged economic growth.
In early 2012, the ADB began to re-engage with Myanmar in response to reforms initiated by the government. In April 2014, ADB opened an office in Myanmar and resumed making loans and grants to the country.
In 2017, ADB combined the lending operations of its Asian Development Fund (ADF) with its ordinary capital resources (OCR). The result was to expand the OCR balance sheet to permit increasing annual lending and grants to $20 billion by 2020 — 50% more than the previous level.
The ADB defines itself as a social development organization that is dedicated to reducing poverty in Asia and the Pacific through inclusive economic growth, environmentally sustainable growth, and regional integration. This is carried out through investments – in the form of loans, grants and information sharing – in infrastructure, health care services, financial and public administration systems, helping nations prepare for the impact of climate change or better manage their natural resources, as well as other areas.
Eighty percent of ADB's lending is concentrated public sector lending in five operational areas.
|$ million||%||$ million||%|
The ADB offers "hard" loans on commercial terms primarily to middle income countries in Asia and "soft" loans with lower interest rates to poorer countries in the region. Based on a new policy, both types of loans will be sourced starting January 2017 from the bank's ordinary capital resources (OCR), which functions as its general operational fund.
The ADB's Private Sector Department (PSOD) can and does offer a broader range of financings beyond commercial loans. They also have the capability to provide guarantees, equity and mezzanine finance (a combination of debt and equity).
In 2017, ADB lent $19.1 billion of which $3.2 billion went to private enterprises, as part of its "nonsovereign" operations. ADB's operations in 2017, including grants and cofinancing, totaled $28.9 billion.
ADB obtains its funding by issuing bonds on the world's capital markets. It also relies on the contributions of member countries, retained earnings from lending operations, and the repayment of loans.
ADB provides direct financial assistance, in the form of debt, equity and mezzanine finance to private sector companies, for projects that have clear social benefits beyond the financial rate of return. ADB's participation is usually limited but it leverages a large amount of funds from commercial sources to finance these projects by holding no more than 25% of any given transaction.
ADB partners with other development organizations on some projects to increase the amount of funding available. In 2014, $9.2 billion—or nearly half—of ADB's $22.9 billion in operations were financed by other organizations. According to Jason Rush, Principal Communication Specialist, the Bank communicates with many other multilateral organizations.
More than 50 financing partnership facilities, trust funds, and other funds – totalling several billion each year – are administered by ADB and put toward projects that promote social and economic development in Asia and the Pacific. ADB has raised Rs 5 billion or around Rs 500 crores from its issuance of 5-year offshore Indian rupee (INR) linked bonds. Also, plans to raise around $20 billion from the capital markets in 2016.
ADB has an information disclosure policy that presumes all information that is produced by the institution should be disclosed to the public unless there is a specific reason to keep it confidential. The police calls for accountability and transparency in operations and the timely response to requests for information and documents. ADB does not disclose information that jeopardizes personal privacy, safety and security, certain financial and commercial information, as well as other exceptions.
Since the ADB's early days, critics have charged that the two major donors, Japan and the United States, have had extensive influence over lending, policy and staffing decisions.
Oxfam Australia has criticized the Asian Development Bank for insensitivity to local communities. "Operating at a global and international level, these banks can undermine people's human rights through projects that have detrimental outcomes for poor and marginalized communities." The bank also received criticism from the United Nations Environmental Program, stating in a report that "much of the growth has bypassed more than 70 percent of its rural population, many of whom are directly dependent on natural resources for livelihoods and incomes."
There had been criticism that ADB's large scale projects cause social and environmental damage due to lack of oversight. One of the most controversial ADB-related projects is Thailand's Mae Moh coal-fired power station. Environmental and human rights activists say ADB's environmental safeguards policy as well as policies for indigenous peoples and involuntary resettlement, while usually up to international standards on paper, are often ignored in practice, are too vague or weak to be effective, or are simply not enforced by bank officials.
The bank has been criticized over its role and relevance in the food crisis. The ADB has been accused by civil society of ignoring warnings leading up the crisis and also contributing to it by pushing loan conditions that many say unfairly pressure governments to deregulate and privatize agriculture, leading to problems such as the rice supply shortage in Southeast Asia.
Indeed, whereas the Private Sector Operations Department (PSOD) closed out that year with financings of $2.4 billion, the ADB has significantly dropped below that level in the years since and is clearly not on the path to achieving its stated goal of 50% of financings to the private sector by 2020. Critics also point out that the PSOD is the only Department that actually makes money for the ADB. Hence, with the vast majority of loans going to concessionary (sub-market) loans to the public sector, the ADB is facing considerable financial difficulty and continuous operating losses.
The following table are amounts for 20 largest countries by subscribed capital and voting power at the Asian Development Bank as of December 2014.
(% of total)
(% of total)
ADB has 68 members (as of 23 March 2019): 49 members from the Asian and Pacific Region, 19 members from Other Regions. The year after a member's name indicates the year of membership. At the time a country ceases to be a member, the Bank shall arrange for the repurchase of such country's shares by the Bank as a part of the settlement of accounts with such country in accordance with the provisions of paragraphs 3 and 4 of Article 43.
Asian Development Bank Avenue, commonly referred to as simply ADB Avenue, is a short north-south thoroughfare in Ortigas Center, eastern Metro Manila, Philippines. It is an eight-lane divided road connecting Ortigas Avenue in the north to Julia Vargas Avenue in the south. It was formerly part of San Miguel Avenue, named after food and beverage giant San Miguel Corporation that is headquartered on the junction with Julia Vargas. This section of San Miguel Ave. from Julia Vargas to Ortigas Ave. was renamed in 1991 after the Asian Development Bank moved from its old building on Roxas Boulevard (now occupied by the Department of Foreign Affairs) to its present 6.5-hectare headquarters on the avenue's junction with Guadix Drive.ADB Avenue and San Miguel Avenue form the eastern city limit of Mandaluyong and the western city limit of Pasig. North of Guadix Drive, the road enters Ugong Norte, Quezon City. It is also home to the Robinsons Galleria and The Podium shopping complexes.Asian Development Bank Institute
The Asian Development Bank Institute (ADBI) is an Asian think tank focused on identifying effective development strategies for Asia and the Pacific, and on providing support to ADB member countries in managing development challenges. It was established in Tokyo in 1996 as a subsidiary of Asian Development Bank, with initial and subsequent financing from the Government of Japan. ADBI is located on the 8th floor of the Kasumigaseki Building in Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda, Tokyo. ADBI was ranked 5th in the world among government-affiliated think tanks in the 2013 Global Go To Think Tanks Index Report by the Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program of the University of Pennsylvania.Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank
The Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) is a multilateral development bank that aims to support the building of infrastructure in the Asia-Pacific region. The bank currently has 69 members as well as 24 prospective members from around the world. The bank started operation after the agreement entered into force on 25 December 2015, after ratifications were received from 10 member states holding a total number of 50% of the initial subscriptions of the Authorized Capital Stock.The United Nations has addressed the launch of AIIB as having potential for "scaling up financing for sustainable development" and to improve the global economic governance. The starting capital of the bank was $100 billion, equivalent to 2⁄3 of the capital of the Asian Development Bank and about half that of the World Bank.The bank was proposed by China in 2013 and the initiative was launched at a ceremony in Beijing in October 2014. It received the highest credit ratings from the three biggest rating agencies in the world, and is seen as a potential rival to the World Bank and IMF.Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation
The Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC) is an international organisation of seven nations of South Asia and South East Asia, housing 1.5 billion people and having a combined gross domestic product of $3.5 trillion (2018). The BIMSTEC member states—Bangladesh, India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Thailand , Nepal and Bhutan —are among the countries dependent on the Bay of Bengal.
Fourteen priority sectors of cooperation have been identified and several BIMSTEC centres have been established to focus on those sectors. A BIMSTEC free trade agreement is under negotiation (c. 2018).
Leadership is rotated in alphabetical order of country names. The permanent secretariat is in Dhaka.Haruhiko Kuroda
Haruhiko Kuroda (黒田 東彦, Kuroda Haruhiko, born 25 October 1944), is the 31st and current Governor of the Bank of Japan (BOJ). He was formerly the President of the Asian Development Bank from 1 February 2005 to 18 March 2013.Julia Vargas station
Julia Vargas station is a proposed station along the planned Manila Light Rail Transit System Line 4 (Line 4) in Quezon City, Metro Manila, Philippines. It will be located at the intersection of Doña Julia Vargas Avenue and ADB Avenue in Ugong Norte adjacent to the Podium.When completed, the station will serve the following destinations in Ortigas Center: Robinsons Galleria, the Asian Development Bank headquarters, the Philippine Overseas Employment Administration offices, The Podium retail center, Saint Pedro Poveda College, La Salle Greenhills, SM Megamall, and the gated community of Corinthian Gardens.Kasumigaseki
Kasumigaseki (霞が関, 霞ヶ関 or 霞ケ関) is a district in Chiyoda Ward in Tokyo, Japan. It is the location of most of Japan's cabinet ministry offices. The name is often used as a metonym for the Japanese government bureaucracy, as opposed to Nagatachō, which refers to the elected government or the legislative branch. Kasumigaseki Station was one of the stations affected during the Tokyo subway sarin attack.Khushhali Bank
Khushhali Bank Limited is the first microfinance bank which is based in Karachi, Pakistan. It was founded in 2000.It was a part of the Government of Pakistan's poverty reduction strategy and was developed with the facilitation of Asian Development Bank.Lahore Metro
Lahore Metro (Urdu: لاہور میٹرو) is an automated rapid transit system under construction in Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan. Three metro lines have been proposed, of which the Orange Line is under construction. When operational sometime in 2019, it will become Pakistan's first metro line.List of international banking institutions
This is a list of International banking institutions
African Development Bank
Asian Development Bank
Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank
Bank for International Settlements
Bank of World Residence Program (BWRP)
Caribbean Development Bank
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development
European Investment Bank
Islamic Development Bank
Preferential Trade Area Bank
World Bank Group
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)
International Development Association (IDA)
International Finance Corporation (IFC)
Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA)
International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID)Ortigas Center
Ortigas Center is a central business district located within the joint boundaries of Pasig, Mandaluyong and Quezon City, within the Metro Manila region in the Philippines. With an area of more than 100 hectares (250 acres), it is Metro Manila's second most important business district after the Makati CBD. It is governed by Ortigas Center Association, Inc.
Ortigas Center is home to many shopping malls, office and condominium skyscrapers, nightlife bars, restaurants and other building complexes. These include the St. Francis Square, the Asian Development Bank compound, the Oakwood Premier serviced apartments and a Shangri-La hotel. It is also the headquarters of San Miguel Corporation, Jollibee Foods Corporation, the Philippine branch of HSBC and Robinsons Galleria. Also present in the area are Philippine offices of prominent engineering firms such as Parsons Brinckerhoff, Sinclair Knight Merz, and WSP Group.
It also home to the Banco de Oro main office owned by mall tycoon Henry Sy, Sr., as is the SM Megamall he owns—one of the largest malls in the nation—along EDSA. Also located near the Ortigas Center is The Medical City, one of the three hospitals in the nation accredited by the Joint Commission on International Accreditation. Ortigas Center is surrounded by the streets of Ortigas Avenue to the north, EDSA to the west, Meralco Avenue to the east, and Shaw Boulevard to the south.San Miguel Avenue
San Miguel Avenue is a short north-south thoroughfare in Ortigas Center, Metro Manila, Philippines. It is an eight-lane divided avenue that runs for several hundred meters between Shaw Boulevard in the south and Julia Vargas Avenue in the north. It is named for the country's largest industrial conglomerate San Miguel Corporation that is headquartered on the avenue's junction with Julia Vargas since 1984.The avenue originally extended to Ortigas Avenue in the north. However, this section between Julia Vargas and Ortigas was renamed to ADB Avenue when the Asian Development Bank moved its headquarters there in 1991. San Miguel Avenue forms the border between Barangay San Antonio, Pasig to the east and Barangay Wack-Wack Greenhills, Mandaluyong to the west. It has a short extension into Greenfield District south of Shaw Boulevard as Sheridan Street.Satinder Bindra
Satinder Bindra is a Canadian television news reporter, most recently working as a Senior International Correspondent with CNN based in New Delhi. He left the network in May 2007. He is a Canadian citizen of Indian origin. Bindra joined CNN from CTV, where he was a senior reporter with Vancouver Television (VTV).
Satinder Bindra joined the United Nations Environment Program in Nairobi, Kenya as Director of the Division of Communications and Public Information in May 2008. He joined the Asian Development Bank as Principal Director of the Department of External Relations in December 2013.
Bindra now works in the Asian Development Bank alongside personalities such as Jason Rush.Syrdarya Power Plant
Syrdarya Power Plant is a natural gas-fired power plant located in Shirin, Uzbekistan. Its ten units were commissioned in 1972–1981. The installed capacity of the power plant is 3,000 MW.Modernization of the Syrdarya Power Plant a been financed by international donors. The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development in cooperation with the Asian Development Bank financed reconstruction of two generation units by Siemens. In 2000, the Syrdarya Energy Company, now part of Uzbekenergo, was created on the basis of the Syrdarya Power Plant.The power plant has 3 flue gas stacks, the tallest of which is 350 metres (1,150 ft).Thiruvengadam Lakshman Sankar
Thiruvengadam Lakshman Sankar is an Indian energy expert, civil servant, corporate executive and the former head of Asian Energy Survey of the Asian Development Bank. He is a former chairman of the Andhra Pradesh Gas Power Corporation Limited and Transmission Corporation of Andhra Pradesh. Securing his MSc degree in physical chemistry from the University of Madras and MA degree in development economics from Wilson College, he entered the Indian Administrative Service where he held positions such as the Secretary of the Fuel Policy Committee from 1970 to 1975 and the Principal Secretary of the Working Group on Energy Policy from 1978 to 1979. In 2007, he headed a government committee, popularly known as the T. L. Shankar Committee, which proposed ways of reforming Indian coal sector. He is a non-executive chairman of KSK Energy Ventures and a United Nations adviser on Energy to the governments of Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Jamaica, North Korea and Bangladesh. He is a former board member of Hindustan Petroleum Corporation and a former member of the Integrated Energy Policy Committee of the Planning Commission of India. The Government of India awarded him the third highest civilian honour of the Padma Bhushan, in 2004, for his contributions to society.Visakhapatnam–Chennai Industrial Corridor
Visakhapatnam–Chennai Industrial Corridor (VCIC), also Vizag–Chennai Industrial Corridor, is a key part of the East Coast Economic Corridor (ECEC), India's first coastal corridor. VCIC is aligned with the Golden Quadrilateral and is poised to play a critical role in driving India’s Act East Policy and Make in India campaign. The nearly 800-kilometer corridor links India with the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and East Asian economies that form the bedrock of global manufacturing economy. The corridor traverses nine districts of the state of Andhra Pradesh. VCIC intends to complement the ongoing efforts of the Government of Andhra Pradesh (GoAP) to enhance industrial growth and create high quality jobs.VCIC supports Government of India (GOI)'s strategy to develop industrial corridors of international standards for expanding its manufacturing and services sectors, and creating modern urban centers connected by state-of-the-art infrastructure. GOI has selected the Asian Development Bank (ADB) as the lead partner for developing the ECEC, which will run from Kolkata to Kanyakumari, encompassing the four states of Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Odisha, and West Bengal. Due to its vast scope, ECEC is being implemented in a phased manner, with VCIC as the first phase. The conceptualization and development of VCIC has received major support from ADB, which carried out analytical work determining the kind of infrastructure and institutional investments necessary to drive manufacturing-led growth in consultation with the Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion, GOI.Water supply and sanitation in Pakistan
Drinking water supply and sanitation in Pakistan is characterized by some achievements and many challenges. Despite high population growth the country has increased the share of the population with access to an improved water source from 85% in 1990 to 92% in 2010, although this does not necessarily mean that the water from these sources is safe to drink. The share with access to improved sanitation increased from 27% to 48% during the same period, according to the Joint Monitoring Program for Water Supply and Sanitation. There has also been considerable innovation at the grass-root level, in particular concerning sanitation. The Orangi Pilot Project in Karachi and community-led total sanitation in rural areas are two examples of such innovation.
However, the sector still faces major challenges. The quality of the services is poor, as evidenced by intermittent water supply in urban areas and limited wastewater treatment. Poor drinking water quality and sanitation lead to major outbreaks of waterborne diseases. major outbreaks of waterborne diseases swept the cities of Faisalabad, Karachi, Lahore and Peshawar in 2006. Estimates indicate that each year, more than three million Pakistanis become infected with waterborne diseases. In addition, many service providers do not even cover the costs of operation and maintenance due to low tariffs and poor efficiency. Consequently, the service providers strongly depend on government subsidies and external funding. A National Sanitation Policy and a National Drinking Water Policy have been approved in 2006 and 2009 respectively with the objective to improve water and sanitation coverage and quality. However, the level of annual investment (US$4/capita) still remains much below what would be necessary to achieve a significant increase in access and service quality.Water supply and sanitation in the Philippines
Water supply is the process of providing water in a systematic way through installed pumps and pipe lines. Before water is provided to a specific area, it undergoes a process called sanitation to ensure that the quality of water received is safe for human consumption. The Philippines’ water supply system dates back to 1946 after the country achieved its independence. Government agencies, local institutions, non-government organizations, and other corporations are primarily in charge in the operation and administration of water supply and sanitation in the country.Yakawlang District
Yakawlang District (Persian: یکاولنگ) is located in the northwestern part of Bamyan Province. Its population is 76,897 (2011) predominantly from the Hazara ethnic group. The capital city Yakawlang (altitude 2714m) formerly held 60,000 residents, and it was completely destroyed by Taliban forces in 2001. Massacres of civilians by the Taliban were reported by Human Rights groups.There is a gravel surfaced airport near the city.
The road between the provincial capital Bamiyan city and Yakawlang district was asphalted on October 2012, reducing the four-hour distance to 80 minutes. The 98-kilometre road cost $70 million (3.6 billion Afghanis), the Asian Development Bank and Japan jointly funded project, and was implemented by a Korean road construction company in a period of four years. Mr. Akbar Ahmadi prepare a new map for Yawkawlang district which separate it in two districts of Yakawlang1 and Yakawlang2.