Asian Brazilians

Asian Brazilians (Portuguese: brasileiros asiáticos) are Brazilian citizens of full or predominantly South Asian, East Asian and Southeast Asian ancestry or an Asian-born person permanently residing in Brazil. The vast majority of the Asian community in Brazil is made of immigrants from South Asia and East Asia, although there have also been smaller numbers of Southeast Asians, including a small number of Asians from the Caribbean, Mozambique and Kenya. The 2011 estimate for Brazilian gypsies is about 800,000, but they are not counted as Asian, although they have distant ancestors coming from South Asia. People of West-Asian (including Jewish) origin generally do not self-identify as Asian in Brazil as their phenotype since Greco-Roman and Persian conquest has an overlapping with Greece and Iran. On the other hand in some states like Amapa, the Amerindian and East Asian population are put in one category.[6]

Asian Brazilians
Brasileiro Asiático
Brasileiro Oriental
Total population
2,084,288
1.2% of Brazilian population per 2010 Census[1][2]
Regions with significant populations
Mainly in São Paulo and Paraná
Languages
Predominantly Portuguese, Japanese, Chinese dialects, Macanese Patois, Korean, Vietnamese, Indonesian, Konkani, Gujarati, Marathi, Kannada, Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu) and Tamil
Religion
Majority Christian:[3] 61.2% Roman Catholicism, 13.3% Protestantism, 12.5% Non-religious, 0.8% other Christian beliefs[4]
Minority: Buddhism, Shintoism and Shinto-derived Japanese new religions, Taoism, Hinduism, Islam, Sikhism, Jainism and Zoroastrianism[5]
Asian Family in Brazil
A Japanese family in Brazil

History

Recent research has suggested that Asians from the early Portuguese Eastern Empire, known as Luso-Asians first came to Brazil during the sixteenth century as seamen known as Lascars, or as servants, slaves and concubines accompanying the governors, merchants and clergy who has served in Portuguese Asia.[7] This first presence of Asians was limited to Northeast Brazil, especially Bahia, but others were brought as cultivators, textile workers and miners to Para and other parts of the Northeast. These Asians intermarried people of African and European ancestry and left a legacy in the food, early art and boat-making traditions of the Northeast.

The first substantial Asian immigration to Brazil were a small number of Chinese people (3,000) during the colonial period as coolie slaves. However, significant immigration from Asia to Brazil started in the late 19th century, when immigration from Lebanon and Syria became important. In Brazil, most of definitions of an Asian Brazilian usually do not refer to the community of West Asian origins such as Arabs, Turks, and Armenians.

The vast majority of Asian Brazilians have origins in Japan. The first Japanese immigrants arrived in Brazil in 1908. Until the 1950s, more than 250 thousand Japanese immigrated to Brazil. Currently, the Japanese-Brazilian population is estimated at 1.6 million people. It is the largest ethnic Japanese population outside Japan, followed closely by the Japanese community in the United States. Other East Asian groups are also significant in Brazil. The Korean Brazilian population is estimated to be 50,000, and the Chinese Brazilian population around 160,000. Over 70% of Asian Brazilians are concentrated in the state of São Paulo. There are significant populations in Paraná, Pará, Mato Grosso do Sul, and other parts of Brazil.

Japanese immigration to Brazil

In 1907, the Government of the State of São Paulo authorized Japan's Imperial Immigration Company to transfer, annually, a certain amount of emigrants to Brazil. On June 18, 1908, arrived at Santos' harbor the Japanese vessel Kasato Maru with the first group of immigrants composed of 165 families, a total of 786 people. From the harbor they went to coffee farms, in the Mogiana region, State of São Paulo, to work as "colonists". There they started a new life in a foreign country with different climate, culture and language. Other quotas followed them and almost all of them went to live in coffee farms.

Affiche émigration JP au BR-déb. XXe s.
A poster used in Japan to attract immigrants to Brazil
Liberdade sao paulo
Little Tokyo in São Paulo City

Between 1910 and 1914, approximately 14,200 immigrants arrived from Japan, who, after ending their labor contract in the coffee farms, went to the interior of the State, to the coast near the Santos Juquiá railway or to the suburbs of São Paulo, in order to get their independence. During the 1910s, they established several immigration centers in the region of the North West railway as well as alongside the banks of Ribeira River in Iguape. From 1925 to 1935, these centers spread statewide and became localities. By this time approximately 140,000 immigrants had arrived in Brazil.

The immigration influx was interrupted for 10 years because of World War II. In 1959 it started again but the quotas were smaller, especially those that arrived from 1961 on, date of the beginning of Japan's economic recuperation. Up to the present, approximately 260,000 immigrants have arrived in Brazil.

The biggest concentration of immigrants are:

Japanese immigration
State Percentage
São Paulo 73%
Paraná 20%
Mato Grosso do Sul 2.5%
Pará 1.2%

The others are living countrywide.

Their labor force is employed as follows: Agriculture (50%); Commerce (35%), Industry (15%). The industry has grown quickly in view of the establishment in Brazil of Japanese enterprises during the 60's. We believe that 800,000 people compose the Japanese community in Brazil, which is already in its 4th generation. The descendants of the immigrants perform all kind of activity within the cultural and economic sectors. In the past two decades we have had two State Ministers in the Brazilian Government.

Following their 80-year-old path immigrants and their descendants who have already close ties with Brazil take part and contribute with love and dedication to the construction of a better and developed country. This year, on June 18, they will celebrate with great rejoicing the beginning of the Japanese immigration into Brazil, since this day symbolizes a landmark of a history started 80 years ago.

Brazilians in Japan

The migration continued through the 1970s, despite the interruption of World War II, with a total of 250,000 people crossing the seas. Not only farmers, but also politicians, engineers and entrepreneurs among Japanese Brazilians appeared one after another. A reversal of that flow, and a swift increase of migrant workers in Japan, was triggered by the 1990 revisions to the immigration control law. At the request of the business community, second- and third-generation Japanese from Brazil were granted residence status without employment restrictions.

These Japanese-Brazilians are now 210,032 strong, exceeding the number of Japanese who originally moved to Brazil.[8] While more of them have permanent residency, how to educate their children has become a particularly acute problem. There is no shortage of cases in which such children stop attending school due to the language barrier and descend into delinquency. Even when they stay in school, many can form no tangible ambitions for the future. While it is natural to expect parents to take responsibility for their children's education, the success of such efforts depends upon adequate support in the classroom.

This experience has been portrayed in the works of Japanese-Brazilian film director Tizuka Yamasaki. Yamasaki visited Japan in the late 1990s to film a sequel to her first work (Gaijin - Os Caminhos da Liberdade aka Gaijin, a Brazilian Odyssey) with the objective of exploring why recent immigrants, despite being accepted into Japan under a so-called national policy, were treated as gaijin (aliens). She focused on the lifestyles of the Japanese-Brazilians, tracking the plights of their fourth-generation children, many of whom dropped out of school after being unable to adapt to Japan's educational system.

Japanese immigration to Brazil
Source: (IBGE)[9]
Period
Ethnic group 1904-1913 1914-1923 1924-1933 1945-1949 1950-1954 1955-1959
Japanese 11,868 20,398 110,191 12 5,447 28,819

See also

References

  1. ^ Asian population climbed 173% in Brazil, according to 2010 Census (in Portuguese). O Globo. 2011. Retrieved 2011-05-30.
  2. ^ The Japan Times Online
  3. ^ Adital - Brasileiros no Japão Archived 2007-03-29 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ (in Portuguese) Study Panorama of religions. Fundação Getúlio Vargas, 2003.
  5. ^ Brazil
  6. ^ Síntese de Indicadores Sociais 2007 (PDF) (in Portuguese). Amapá, Brazil: IBGE. 2007. ISBN 85-240-3919-1. Retrieved 2007-07-18.
  7. ^ East in the West: Investigating the Asian presence and influence in Brazil from the 16th to 18th centuries. By Clifford Pereira, in Proceedings of the 2nd Asia-Pacific regional Conference on Underwater Cultural Heritage. Ed. Hans Van Tilberg, Sila Tripati, Veronica Walker, Brian Fahy and Jun Kimura. Honolulu, Hawai'i, USA. May 2014.
  8. ^ 平成23年末現在における外国人登録者統計について 法務省, Japan: Ministry of Justice, February 2012, retrieved 2012-02-22
  9. ^ "Estatísticas do Povoamento" [Population Statistics]. IBGE. Archived from the original on 9 August 2007.
Arab Brazilians

Arab Brazilians are Brazilian citizens of Arab ethnic, cultural, linguistic heritage and identity. The majority of Arab Brazilians trace their origin to the Levantine lands of the Arab World, known in Arabic as Bilad al-Sham, primarily from Lebanon and Syria, as well Palestine.

Asian Americans

Asian Americans are Americans of Asian ancestry. The term refers to a panethnic group that includes diverse populations, which have ancestral origins in East Asia, South Asia, or Southeast Asia, as defined by the U.S. Census Bureau. This includes people who indicate their race(s) on the census as "Asian" or reported entries such as "Chinese, Filipino, Indian, Korean, Japanese, Vietnamese, and Other Asian". Asian Americans with other ancestry comprise 5.6% of the U.S. population, while people who are Asian alone, and those combined with at least one other race, make up 6.9%.Although migrants from Asia have been in parts of the contemporary United States since the 17th century, large-scale immigration did not begin until the mid-18th century. Nativist immigration laws during the 1880s–1920s excluded various Asian groups, eventually prohibiting almost all Asian immigration to the continental United States. After immigration laws were reformed during the 1940s–60s, abolishing national origins quotas, Asian immigration increased rapidly. Analyses of the 2010 census have shown that Asian Americans are the fastest growing racial or ethnic minority in the United States.

Asian Australians

Asian Australians are Australians who trace their ancestry back to Asia.

For the purposes of aggregating data, the Australian Bureau of Statistics in its Australian Standard Classification of Cultural and Ethnic Groups (ASCCEG) has grouped certain ethnic groups into certain categories, including East Asian (e.g. Chinese Australians, Korean Australian), Southeast Asian (e.g. Vietnamese Australians, Filipino Australian) and South Asian (e.g. Indian Australians, Sri Lankan Australian). Notably, Western Asian ancestries are separately classified by the Australian Bureau of Statistics and 'Middle Eastern and North African' and are not included in statistics for Asian Australians. While for statistical purposes, 'Asian Australian' includes East Asians, Southeast Asians and South Asians, in general Australian English parlance, 'Asian' generally refers to persons of East Asian and Southeast Asian ancestry, with persons of South Asian ancestry generally referred to by their specific national ancestral origin, e.g. 'Indian' or 'Pakistani'.

Notably, Australia does not collect statistics on the racial origins of its residents, instead collecting data at each five-yearly census on ancestry (i.e. national ethnic rather than racial origin). At the 2016 census, there were 3,514,915 nominations of ancestries classified by the Australian Bureau of Statistics as falling within the geographical categories of East Asia, Southeast Asia and Central and Southern Asia. This represents 11.82% of the total of 29,613,856 ancestry responses, or 16.15% of persons who nominated their ancestry. 2,665,814 persons claimed one of the six most commonly nominated Asian ancestries, namely Chinese, Indian, Filipino, Vietnamese, Korean and Sri Lankan, at the 2016 census. Persons claiming one of these six ancestries alone represented 12.25% of the total population who nominated their ancestry.

Asian Canadians

Asian Canadians are Canadians who can trace their ancestry back to the continent of Asia or Asian people. Canadians with Asian ancestry comprise the largest and fastest growing visible minority group in Canada, with roughly 17.7% of the Canadian population. Most Asian Canadians are concentrated in the urban areas of Southern Ontario, the Greater Vancouver area, Calgary, and other large Canadian cities.

Asian Canadians considered visible minorities may be classified as East Asian Canadian (e.g. Chinese Canadians, Korean Canadians, Japanese Canadians); Southeast Asian Canadian (e.g. Vietnamese Canadians, Filipino Canadians); South Asian Canadians (e.g. Sri Lankan Canadians, Bangladeshi Canadians, Indian Canadians, Pakistani Canadians); or West Asian Canadians (e.g. Lebanese Canadians, Iranian Canadians, Iraqi Canadians).

Asian Latin Americans

Asian Latin Americans are Latin Americans of South Asian, East Asian or Southeast Asian descent. West Asians are typically considered to be white. Asian Latin Americans have a centuries-long history in the region, starting with Filipinos in the 16th century. The peak of Asian immigration occurred in the 19th and 20th centuries, however. There are currently more than four million Asian Latin Americans, nearly 1% of Latin America's population. Chinese and Japanese are the group's largest ancestries; other major ones include Indians, Koreans and Filipinos. Brazil is home to the largest population of Asian Latin Americans, at some 2.2 million. The highest ratio of any country in the region is 5%, in Peru. There has been notable emigration from these communities in recent decades, so that there are now hundreds of thousands of people of Asian Latin American origin in both Japan and the United States.

Asian New Zealanders

Asian New Zealanders are New Zealanders of Asian ancestry. In the New Zealand census, the term refers to a pan-ethnic group that includes diverse populations who have ancestral origins in East Asia (e.g. Chinese New Zealanders, Korean New Zealanders, Japanese New Zealanders), Southeast Asia (e.g. Filipino New Zealanders, Vietnamese New Zealanders) and South Asia (e.g. Indian New Zealanders, Pakistani New Zealanders).

Colloquial usage of Asian in New Zealand is often more specific than the Statistics New Zealand definition and excludes Indians and other peoples of South Asian descent.In the 1860s, Chinese workers migrated to New Zealand to work in the gold mines. The modern period of Asian immigration began in the 1970s when New Zealand relaxed its restrictive policies to attract migrants from Asia. At the 2013 census, 471,708 New Zealanders declared that they had an Asian ancestral background. This represents about 12% of all responses. Most Asian New Zealanders live in the Auckland Region.

Brazil socio-geographic division

The Brazil socio-geographic division is a slightly different division than the Brazilian Division by Regions. It separates the country into three different and distinctive regions:

Amazônia Legal

Centro-Sul

NordesteHistorically, the different regions of Brazil had their own migratory movements, which resulted in racial differences between these areas. The Southern region had a greater impact of the European immigration and has a large White majority, which contrasts with the Northern and Northeastern regions, which have a large Pardo (mixed-race) majority.In Northern Brazil, the main racial contribution was of the native Amerindians, with a smaller European and African influence. In Northeastern Brazil, the main contribution was of Africans, with a smaller European and Amerindian influence. In Southeastern Brazil, the main contribution was of Europeans, with a smaller African and Amerindian influence.

Brazilians

Brazilians (brasileiros in Portuguese, IPA: [bɾaziˈlejɾus]) are citizens of Brazil. A Brazilian can also be a person born abroad to a Brazilian parent or legal guardian as well as a persons who acquired Brazilian citizenship. Brazil is a multiethnic society, which means that it is home to people of many different ethnic origins. As a result, majority of Brazilians do not equate their nationality with their ethnicity, usually embracing and espousing both simultaneously.

In the period after the colonization of the Brazilian territory by Portugal, during much of the XVI century, the word "Brazilian" was given to the Portuguese merchants of Brazilwood, designating exclusively the name of such profession, since the inhabitants of the land were, in most of them, indigenous or Portuguese born in Portugal, or in the territory now called Brazil. However, long before the independence of Brazil, in 1822, both in Brazil and in Portugal, it was already common to attribute the Brazilian gentile to a person, usually of clear Portuguese descent, resident or whose family resided in the State of Brazil (1530-1815), belonging to the Portuguese Empire. During the lifetime of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves (1815-1822), however, there was confusion about the nomenclature.

Demographics of Brazil

Brazil's population is very diverse, comprising many races and ethnic groups. In general, Brazilians trace their origins from five sources: Europeans, Amerindians, Africans, Levantines, and East Asians.Brazil has conducted a periodical population census since 1872. Brazil is widely known to be one of the most diverse countries in the world. Since 1940, this census has been carried out decennially. Scanned versions of the forms for each census distributed in Brazil since 1960 are available on-line from IPUMS International.Historically, Brazil has experienced large degrees of ethnic and racial admixture, assimilation of cultures and syncretism.

Eurasian (mixed ancestry)

A Eurasian is a person of mixed Asian and European ancestry.

Immigration to Brazil

Immigration to Brazil is the movement to Brazil of foreign persons to reside permanently. It should not be confused with the colonisation of the country by the Portuguese, or with the forcible bringing of people from Africa as slaves.

Throughout its history, Brazil has always been a recipient of immigrants, but this began to gain importance in the late 19th century and throughout the 20th century when the country received massive immigration from Europe, the Middle East and East Asia, which left lasting marks on demography, culture, language and the economy of Brazil.

In general, it is considered that people who entered Brazil up to 1822, the year of independence, were colonizers. Since then, those who entered the independent nation were immigrants.

Before 1871, the number of immigrants rarely exceeded two or three thousand people a year. Immigration increased pressure from the first end of the international slave trade to Brazil, after the expansion of the economy, especially in the period of large coffee plantations in the state of São Paulo.

Immigration has been a very important demographic factor in the composition, structure and history of human population in Brazil, with all its attending factors and consequences in culture, economy, education, racial issues, etc. Brazil has received one of the largest numbers of immigrants in the Western Hemisphere, along with the United States, Argentina and Canada.Counting from 1872 (year of the first census) by the year 2000, Brazil received about 6 million immigrants.

Korean Brazilians

Korean Brazilians (Portuguese: Coreano-brasileiro) are Brazilians of full, partial, or predominantly Korean ancestry, or a Korean-born person residing in Brazil. The Korean population in Brazil, the largest in Latin America, is about 50,000.

Multiracial

Multiracial is defined as made up of or relating to people of many races. Many terms exist for people of various multiracial backgrounds. Preferred terms include mixed race (or simply mixed), multiracial, biracial, multiethnic, polyethnic, half, half-and-half, Métis, Creole, Dougla, mestizo, mulatto, Melungeon, Criollo, quadroon, zambo, Eurasian, hapa, hāfu, garifuna and pardo. Some of the terms are considered insulting and offensive.

Individuals of multiracial backgrounds make up a significant portion of the population in many parts of the world. In North America, studies have found that the multiracial population is continuing to grow. In many countries of Latin America and the Caribbean, people with multiracial backgrounds make up the majority of the population. Other countries where multiracial people make up a sizable portion of the population are the United Kingdom, Belgium, France, Germany, Spain, South Africa, Botswana, Australia, New Zealand, Mauritius, Philippines, and Fiji.

Sertãozinho

Sertãozinho is a Brazilian municipality in the state of São Paulo. The population in 2005 was about 120,152. Its area is 403 km². The municipality consists of Sertãozinho city and two districts: Cruz das Posses and Vila Garcia. Sertãozinho is 325 km from São Paulo and 702 km from Brasília.

Vietnamese Brazilians

Vietnamese Brazilians are a small community in Brazil consisting of approximately 150–200 permanent residents of Vietnamese ancestry. Many of these residents are the "boat people" who emigrated from Vietnam following the Fall of Saigon – the capture of the South Vietnamese capital by the North Vietnamese communist regime under Ho Chi Minh. Today, the community remains relatively obscure in Vietnam and among other Vietnamese communities abroad.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.