Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation

Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) is an inter-governmental forum for 21 Pacific Rim member economies[2] that promotes free trade throughout the Asia-Pacific region. Inspired from the success of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)’s series of post-ministerial conferences launched in the mid-1980s, the APEC was established in 1989 in response to the growing interdependence of Asia-Pacific economies and the advent of regional trade blocs in other parts of the world; and to establish new markets for agricultural products and raw materials beyond Europe.[3][4][5] Headquartered in Singapore, the APEC is recognised as one of the oldest forums and highest-level multilateral blocs in the Asia-Pacific region, and exerts a significant global influence.[6][7][8][9][10][11]

An annual APEC Economic Leaders' Meeting is attended by the heads of government of all APEC members except Republic of China (which is represented by a ministerial-level official under the name Taiwan as economic leader).[12] The location of the meeting rotates annually among the member economies, and a famous tradition, followed for most (but not all) summits, involves the attending leaders dressing in a national costume of the host country. APEC has three official observers: the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Secretariat, the Pacific Economic Cooperation Council and the Pacific Islands Forum Secretariat.[13] APEC's Host Economy of the Year is considered to be invited in the first place for geographical representation to attend G20 meetings following G20 guidelines.[14][15]

Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)
Logo of Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)
APEC member economies shown in green.
APEC member economies shown in green.
Headquarters Singapore
TypeEconomic meeting
Membership21 members
• Chairperson
Chile Sebastián Piñera
• Executive Director
Rebecca Fatima Santa Maria


ABC news report of the first APEC meeting in Canberra, November 1989, featuring delegates watching the Melbourne Cup.

The APEC was initially inspired when ASEAN’s series of post-ministerial conferences, launched in the mid-1980s, had demonstrated the feasibility and value of regular conferences among ministerial-level representatives of both developed and developing economies. By 1989, the post ministerial conferences had expanded to embrace 12 members (the then six members of ASEAN and its six dialogue partners). The developments led Australian Prime Minister Bob Hawke to believe the necessity of region-wide co-operation on economic matters. In January 1989, Bob Hawke called for more effective economic co-operation across the Pacific Rim region. This led to the first meeting of APEC in the Australian capital of Canberra in November, chaired by Australian Foreign Affairs Minister Gareth Evans. Attended by ministers from twelve countries, the meeting concluded with commitments for future annual meetings in Singapore and South Korea. Ten months later, 12 Asia-Pacific economies met in Canberra, Australia, to establish APEC. The APEC Secretariat, based in Singapore, was established to co-ordinate the activities of the organisation.[16][17]

During the meeting in 1994 in Bogor, Indonesia, APEC leaders adopted the Bogor Goals that aim for free and open trade and investment in the Asia-Pacific by 2010 for industrialised economies and by 2020 for developing economies. In 1995, APEC established a business advisory body named the APEC Business Advisory Council (ABAC), composed of three business executives from each member economy.

In April 2001, the APEC, in collaboration with five other international organisations (Eurostat, IEA, OLADE, OPEC and the UNSD) launched the Joint Oil Data Exercise, which in 2005 became the Joint Organisations Data Initiative (JODI).

Meeting locations

The location of the meeting is rotated annually among the members.

Year # Dates Country City Host Leader
1989 1st 6–7 November  Australia Canberra Prime Minister Bob Hawke
1990 2nd 29–31 July  Singapore Singapore Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew
1991 3rd 12–14 November  South Korea Seoul President Roh Tae-woo
1992 4th 10–11 September  Thailand Bangkok Prime Minister Anand Panyarachun
1993 5th 19–20 November  United States Blake Island President Bill Clinton
1994 6th 15–16 November  Indonesia Bogor President Suharto
1995 7th 18–19 November  Japan Osaka Prime Minister Tomiichi Murayama
1996 8th 24–25 November  Philippines Subic President Fidel Ramos
1997 9th 24–25 November  Canada Vancouver Prime Minister Jean Chrétien
1998 10th 17–18 November  Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad
1999 11th 12–13 September  New Zealand Auckland Prime Minister Jenny Shipley
2000 12th 15–16 November  Brunei Bandar Seri Begawan Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah
2001 13th 20–21 October  China Shanghai President Jiang Zemin
2002 14th 26–27 October  Mexico Los Cabos President Vicente Fox
2003 15th 20–21 October  Thailand Bangkok Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra
2004 16th 20–21 November  Chile Santiago President Ricardo Lagos
2005 17th 18–19 November  South Korea Busan President Roh Moo-hyun
2006 18th 18–19 November  Vietnam Hanoi President Nguyễn Minh Triết
2007 19th 8–9 September  Australia Sydney Prime Minister John Howard
2008 20th 22–23 November  Peru Lima President Alan Garcia Perez
2009 21st 14–15 November  Singapore Singapore Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong
2010 22nd 13–14 November  Japan Yokohama Prime Minister Naoto Kan
2011 23rd 12–13 November  United States Honolulu President Barack Obama
2012 24th 9–10 September  Russia Vladivostok President Vladimir Putin
2013 25th 5–7 October  Indonesia Bali President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono
2014 26th 10–11 November  China Beijing President Xi Jinping
2015 27th 18–19 November  Philippines Pasay President Benigno Aquino III
2016 28th 19–20 November  Peru Lima President Pedro Pablo Kuczynski
2017 29th 10–11 November  Vietnam Da Nang President Trần Đại Quang
2018 30th 17–18 November  Papua New Guinea Port Moresby Prime Minister Peter O'Neill
2019 31st 16–17 November  Chile Santiago President Sebastián Piñera
2020 32nd TBA  Malaysia TBA Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad
2021 33rd TBA  New Zealand TBA
2022 34th TBA  Thailand TBA
2023 35th TBA TBA TBA TBA
2024 36th TBA TBA TBA TBA
2025 37th TBA  South Korea TBA

Member economies

APEC2006 Roh Bush Abe
Former South Korean President Roh Moo-hyun with Japanese Prime Minister Shinzō Abe and Former U.S. President George W. Bush at APEC 2006 in Hanoi, Vietnam.

APEC currently has 21 members. However, the criterion for membership is that the member is a separate economy, rather than a state. As a result, APEC uses the term member economies rather than member countries to refer to its members. One result of this criterion is that membership of the forum includes Taiwan (officially the Republic of China, participating under the name "Chinese Taipei") alongside People's Republic of China (see Cross-Strait relations), as well as Hong Kong, which entered APEC as a British colony but it is now a Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China. APEC also includes three official observers: ASEAN, the Pacific Islands Forum and the Pacific Economic Cooperation Council.[2]

Member economie(s) Name as used in APEC Date of accession GDP (PPP) in 2017
(Millions of Int$)
 Australia Australia November 1989 1,235,297
 Brunei Brunei Darussalam November 1989 32,958
 Canada Canada November 1989 1,763,785
 Indonesia Indonesia November 1989 3,242,966
 Japan Japan November 1989 5,405,072
 South Korea Republic of Korea November 1989 2,026,651
 Malaysia Malaysia November 1989 926,081
 New Zealand New Zealand November 1989 185,748
 Philippines The Philippines November 1989 874,518
 Singapore Singapore November 1989 513,744
 Thailand Thailand November 1989 1,228,941
 United States The United States November 1989 19,362,129
 Taiwan Chinese Taipei[a] November 1991 1,175,308
 Hong Kong Hong Kong, China[18] November 1991 453,019
 China People's Republic of China November 1991 13,457,000
 Mexico Mexico November 1993 2,406,087
 Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea November 1993 30,839
 Chile Chile November 1994 452,095
 Peru Peru November 1998 424,639
 Russia Russia November 1998 4,000,096
 Vietnam Viet Nam November 1998 643,902


Member Leader position State leader
 Australia Prime Minister Scott Morrison
 Brunei Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah
 Canada Prime Minister Justin Trudeau
 Chile President Sebastián Piñera
 China President [note 1] Xi Jinping
 Hong Kong Chief Executive Carrie Lam
 Indonesia President Joko Widodo
 Japan Prime Minister Shinzō Abe
 South Korea President Moon Jae-in
 Malaysia Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad
 Mexico President Andrés Manuel López Obrador
 New Zealand Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern
 Papua New Guinea Prime Minister James Marape
 Peru President Martín Vizcarra
 Philippines President Rodrigo Duterte
 Russia President Vladimir Putin
 Singapore Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong
 Taiwan President/Presidential Envoy Tsai Ing-Wen (represented by Morris Chang)[a]
 Thailand Prime Minister Prayut Chan-o-cha
 United States President Donald Trump
 Vietnam President [note 2] Nguyễn Phú Trọng

Possible enlargement

APEC enlargement
  Current members
  Announced interest in membership

India has requested membership in APEC, and received initial support from the United States, Japan,[19] Australia and Papua New Guinea.[20] Officials have decided not to allow India to join for various reasons, considering that India does not border the Pacific Ocean, which all current members do.[21] However, India was invited to be an observer for the first time in November 2011.[22]

Bangladesh,[23] Pakistan,[23] Sri Lanka,[23] Macau,[23] Mongolia,[23] Laos,[23] Cambodia,[24] Costa Rica,[25] Colombia,[25][26] Panama,[25] and Ecuador,[27] are among a dozen other economies that have applied for membership in APEC. Colombia applied for APEC's membership as early as in 1995, but its bid was halted as the organisation stopped accepting new members from 1993 to 1996,[28] and the moratorium was further prolonged to 2007 due to the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis. Guam has also been actively seeking a separate membership, citing the example of Hong Kong, but the request is opposed by the United States, which currently represents Guam.

Business facilitation

APEC has long been at the forefront of reform efforts in the area of business facilitation. Between 2002 and 2006 the costs of business transactions across the region was reduced by 6%, thanks to the APEC Trade Facilitation Action Plan (TFAPI). Between 2007 and 2010, APEC hopes to achieve an additional 5% reduction in business transaction costs. To this end, a new Trade Facilitation Action Plan has been endorsed. According to a 2008 research brief published by the World Bank as part of its Trade Costs and Facilitation Project, increasing transparency in the region's trading system is critical if APEC is to meet its Bogor Goal targets.[29] The APEC Business Travel Card, a travel document for visa-free business travel within the region is one of the concrete measures to facilitate business. In May 2010 Russia joined the scheme, thus completing the circle.[30]

Proposed FTAAP

APEC first formally started discussing the concept of a Free Trade Area of the Asia-Pacific (FTAAP) at its summit in 2006 in Hanoi. However, the proposal for such an area has been around since at least 1966 and Japanese economist Kiyoshi Kojima's proposal for a Pacific Free Trade agreement proposal. While it gained little traction, the idea led to the formation of Pacific Trade and Development Conference and then the Pacific Economic Cooperation Council in 1980 and then APEC in 1989.

In the wake of the 2006 summit, economist C. Fred Bergsten advocated a Free Trade Agreement of Asia-Pacific, including the United States amongst the proposed parties to any agreement at that time.[31] His ideas convinced the APEC Business Advisory Council to support this concept. Relatedly, ASEAN and existing free trade agreement (FTA) partners are negotiating as Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), not officially including Russia.[32] The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) without China or Russia involved has become the US-promoted trade negotiation in the region. At the APEC summit in Beijing in 2014, the three plans were all in discussion.[33] President Obama hosted a TPP meeting at the US Embassy in Beijing in advance of the APEC gathering.[34]

The proposal for a FTAAP arose due to the lack of progress in the Doha round of World Trade Organization negotiations, and as a way to overcome the "noodle bowl" effect created by overlapping and conflicting elements of the copious free trade agreements – there were approximately 60 free trade agreements in 2007, with an additional 117 in the process of negotiation in Southeast Asia and the Asia-Pacific region.[35] In 2012, ASEAN+6 countries alone had 339 free trade agreements – many of which were bilateral.[b]

The FTAAP is more ambitious in scope than the Doha round, which limits itself to reducing trade restrictions. The FTAAP would create a free trade zone that would considerably expand commerce and economic growth in the region.[35][37] The economic expansion and growth in trade could exceed the expectations of other regional free trade areas such as the ASEAN Plus Three (ASEAN + China, South Korea and Japan).[38] Some criticisms include that the diversion of trade within APEC members would create trade imbalances, market conflicts and complications with nations of other regions.[37] The development of the FTAAP is expected to take many years, involving essential studies, evaluations and negotiations between member economies.[35] It is also affected by the absence of political will and popular agitations and lobbying against free trade in domestic politics.[35][39]

At the 2014 APEC summit in Beijing, APEC leaders agreed to launch "a collective strategic study" on the FTAAP and instruct officials to undertake the study, consult stakeholders and report the result by the end of 2016.[40] APEC Executive Director Alan Bollard revealed in the Elite Talk show that FTAAP will be APEC's big goal out into the future.[41]

The Trans-Pacific Partnership includes 12 of the 21 APEC members and has provisions for the accession of other APEC members, five of which have expressed interest in membership.

APEC Study Centre Consortium

In 1993, APEC Leaders decided to establish a network of APEC Study Centres among universities and research institutions in member economies.[42]

Notable centers include:

APEC Business Advisory Council

The APEC Business Advisory Council (ABAC) was created by the APEC Economic Leaders in November 1995 with the aim of providing advice to the APEC Economic Leaders on ways to achieve the Bogor Goals and other specific business sector priorities, and to provide the business perspective on specific areas of co-operation.[51][52]

Each economy nominates up to three members from the private sector to ABAC. These business leaders represent a wide range of industry sectors. ABAC provides an annual report to APEC Economic Leaders containing recommendations to improve the business and investment environment in the Asia-Pacific region, and outlining business views about priority regional issues. ABAC is also the only non-governmental organisation that is on the official agenda of the APEC Economic Leader's Meeting.[53]

Annual APEC economic leaders' meetings

Since its formation in 1989, APEC has held annual meetings with representatives from all member economies. The first four annual meetings were attended by ministerial-level officials. Beginning in 1993, the annual meetings are named APEC Economic Leaders' Meetings and are attended by the heads of government from all member economies except Taiwan, which is represented by a ministerial-level official. The annual Leaders' Meetings are not called summits.

Meeting developments

In 1997, the APEC meeting was held in Vancouver. Controversy arose after officers of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police used pepper spray against protesters. The protesters objected to the presence of autocratic leaders such as Indonesian president Suharto.[54][55][56][57][58][59]

At the 2001 Leaders' Meeting in Shanghai, APEC leaders pushed for a new round of trade negotiations and support for a program of trade capacity-building assistance, leading to the launch of the Doha Development Agenda a few weeks later. The meeting also endorsed the Shanghai Accord proposed by the United States, emphasising the implementation of open markets, structural reform, and capacity building. As part of the accord, the meeting committed to develop and implement APEC transparency standards, reduce trade transaction costs in the Asia-Pacific region by 5 percent over 5 years, and pursue trade liberalisation policies relating to information technology goods and services.

In 2003, Jemaah Islamiah leader Riduan Isamuddin had planned to attack the APEC Leaders Meeting to be held in Bangkok in October. He was captured in the city of Ayutthaya, Thailand by Thai police on 11 August 2003, before he could finish planning the attack. Chile became the first South American nation to host the Leaders' Meeting in 2004. The agenda of that year was focused on terrorism and commerce, small and medium enterprise development, and contemplation of free agreements and regional trade agreements.

The 2005 Leaders' Meeting was held in Busan, South Korea. The meeting focused on the Doha round of World Trade Organization (WTO) negotiations, leading up to the WTO Ministerial Conference of 2005 held in Hong Kong in December. Weeks earlier, trade negotiations in Paris were held between several WTO members, including the United States and the European Union, centred on reducing agricultural trade barriers. APEC leaders at the summit urged the European Union to agree to reducing farm subsidies. In a continuation of the climate information sharing initiative established by APEC Climate Network working group, it was decided by the leaders to install the APEC Climate Center in Busan. Peaceful protests against APEC were staged in Busan, but the meeting schedule was not affected.

At the Leaders' Meeting held on 19 November 2006 in Hanoi, APEC leaders called for a new start to global free-trade negotiations while condemning terrorism and other threats to security. APEC also criticised North Korea for conducting a nuclear test and a missile test launch that year, urging the country to take "concrete and effective" steps toward nuclear disarmament. Concerns about nuclear proliferation in the region was discussed in addition to economic topics. The United States and Russia signed an agreement as part of Russia's bid to join the World Trade Organization.

The APEC Australia 2007 Leaders' Meeting was held in Sydney from 2–9 September 2007. The political leaders agreed to an "aspirational goal" of a 25% reduction of energy intensity correlative with economic development.[60] Extreme security measures including airborne sharpshooters and extensive steel-and-concrete barricades were deployed against anticipated protesters and potential terrorists. However, protest activities were peaceful and the security envelope was penetrated with ease by a spoof diplomatic motorcade manned by members of the Australian television program The Chaser, one of whom was dressed to resemble the Al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden.

The APEC USA 2011 Leaders' Meeting was held on Honolulu, Hawaii 8–13 November 2011.[61]

APEC leaders' group photo

At the end of the APEC Economic Leaders' Meeting the leaders gather for the official APEC Leaders' Family Photo. A tradition has the leaders dressing to reflect the culture of the host member. The tradition dates to the first such meeting in 1993 when then-U.S. President Bill Clinton insisted on informal attire and gave the leaders leather bomber jackets. At the 2010 meeting Japan had the leaders dress in smart casual rather than the traditional kimono.[62] Similarly, when Honolulu was selected in 2009 as the site for the 2011 APEC meeting, U.S. President Barack Obama joked that he looked forward to seeing the leaders dressed in "flowered shirts and grass skirts". After viewing previous photos, and concerned that having the leaders dress in aloha shirts might give the wrong impression during a period of economic austerity, Obama instead decided it might be time to end the tradition. Leaders were given a specially designed aloha shirt as a gift but were not expected to wear it for the photo.[63] Leaders in Bali, Indonesia at the 2013 conference wore a batik outfit; in China 2014 Tang suit jackets; in Peru 2016 vicuna wool shawls; in 2017 Vietnamese silk shirts.[64]

Vladimir Putin at APEC Summit in Brunei 15-16 November-9

APEC Brunei 2000

Vladimir Putin at APEC Summit in Thailand 19-21 October 2003-16

APEC Thailand 2003

Vladimir Putin at APEC Summit in Chile 20-21 November 2004-3

APEC Chile 2004

Vladimir Putin at APEC Summit in South Korea 18-19 November 2005-8

APEC South Korea 2005

Vladimir Putin at APEC Summit in Vietnam 18-19 November 2006-11

APEC Vietnam 2006

Vladimir Putin at APEC Summit in Australia 7-9 September 2007-3

APEC Australia 2007

Dmitry Medvedev at APEC Summit in Peru 22-23 November 2008-2

APEC Peru 2008

Singapore APEC 2009 leaders

APEC Singapore 2009

13.11.2010 Gira a Asia

APEC Japan 2010

APEC Hawaii

APEC United States 2011

APEC Russia 2012

APEC Russia 2012

Apec 2013

APEC Indonesia 2013

APEC Summit China 2014

APEC China 2014

APEC Philippines 2015 delegates

APEC Philippines 2015

Foto Oficial APEC 2016 (LIMA PERU)

APEC Peru 2016

2017 APEC Vietnam Leaders Group Photo

APEC Vietnam 2017

APEC Leaders Photo - Papua New Guinea 2018

APEC Papua New Guinea 2018


APEC has been criticised for promoting free trade agreements that would impose restrictions on national and local laws, which regulate and ensure labour rights, environmental protection and safe and affordable access to medicine.[65] According to the organisation, it is "the premier forum for facilitating economic growth, cooperation, trade and investment in the Asia-Pacific region" established to "further enhance economic growth and prosperity for the region and to strengthen the Asia-Pacific community".[66] The effectiveness and fairness of its role has been questioned, especially from the viewpoints of European countries that cannot take part in APEC[67] and Pacific Island nations that cannot participate but stand to be affected by its decisions.

See also

Other organisations of coastal states


  1. ^ a b Due to the complexities of the relations between it and the People's Republic of China, the Republic of China (ROC or "Taiwan") is not represented under its official name "Republic of China" or as "Taiwan". Instead, it participates in APEC under the name "Chinese Taipei". The President of the Republic of China cannot attend the annual APEC Economic Leaders' Meeting in person. Instead, it is generally represented by a ministerial-level official responsible for economic affairs or someone designated by the president. See List of Chinese Taipei Representatives to APEC.
  2. ^ "As of January 2012 ASEAN countries have 186 FTAs implemented, signed, under negotiation or under proposal/study, which is substantial progress since… 1992. The ASEAN+6 countries have a total of 339 FTAs, including between ASEAN countries and the '+6' countries."[36]
  1. ^ The de jure head of government of China is the Premier, whose current holder is Li Keqiang. The President of China is legally a ceremonial office, but the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China (de facto leader in one-party communist state) has always held this office since 1993 except for the months of transition, and the current general secretary is President Xi Jinping.
  2. ^ The de jure head of government of Vietnam is the Prime Minister, whose current holder is Nguyễn Xuân Phúc. The President of Vietnam is legally a ceremonial office, but the General Secretary of the Communist Party of Vietnam (de facto leader in one-party communist state) has held this office since 2018, and the current general secretary is President Nguyễn Phú Trọng.


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Further reading

External links

APEC Business Travel Card

The APEC Business Travel Card is a travel document issued to business travellers who are citizens of APEC participating economies. Valid for five years, the card eliminates the need for its holder to possess a visa when visiting other APEC participating economies as long as pre-clearance has been obtained during the application process.

APEC Chile 2004

APEC Chile 2004 was a series of political meetings held around Chile between the 21 member economies of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation during 2004. Various meetings were held across Chile in 2004. Leaders from all the member countries met from 20-21 November 2004 in Santiago. The topic that Chile established was "A Community, Our Future".The Chile 2004 theme/vision: "One Community, Our Future".Ambassador Artaza claimed the Chile 2004 APEC will significantly portray the important of social activities during the process of APEC's free trade and investment goals.

APEC Chile 2019

APEC Chile 2019 is the year-long hosting of Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) meetings in Santiago, Chile. The meetings will focus on the digital economy, regional connectivity, and women's role in economic growth.Chile previously hosted an APEC meeting in 2004.

APEC Climate Center

The APEC Climate Center (APCC) is a governmental institution that conducts research in climate prediction, analysis and climate change application areas. It also provides climate information services and capacity building programs with the aim of strengthening scientific and technological cooperation across the APEC region. APCC was established in the APEC Senior Officials' Meeting held in November 2005. It was formally launched at the APEC Economic Leaders' Meeting in the same year. It is currently located in Busan, South Korea.

APEC Japan 2010

APEC Japan 2010 was a series of political meetings held around Japan between the 21 member economies of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation during 2010. It culminated in the 18th APEC Economic Leaders' Meeting held in Yokohama from November 13–14, 2010. Japan last hosted an APEC summit in 1995 in Osaka.A major focus of the meetings were the so-called Bogor Goals, as 2010 was the target year for developed members of the Pacific Rim to achieve free trade and investment.

APEC Mexico 2002

APEC Mexico 2002 was a series of political meetings held around Mexico between the 21 member economies of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation during 2002. Various meetings were held across Mexico in 2002. Leaders from all the member countries met from 26-27 October 2002 in Los Cabos. Counter-terrorism efforts were expected to be major issues

of APEC Mexico 2002. APEC Mexico 2002 summit in Los Cabos presented a new opportunity for Asian investors and commercial agents to discover Mexico as a profitable frontier.2002 APEC Ministerial Meeting

2002 Mexico economies updates and Free trade with other countries of Mexico

APEC Papua New Guinea 2018

APEC Papua New Guinea 2018 was the year-long hosting of Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) meetings in Papua New Guinea.It was the first time Papua New Guinea is hosting the APEC meetings. Australia provided a quarter to a third of the cost to host the meetings and also helped with logistics and security (G4S). Three Cruise ships were chartered through an Australian company to cater to the some 10,000 delegates and guests.Many of the attendees and delegations had previously attended the 2018 East Asia Summit held from 11 November to 15 November in Singapore, hosted by the Chairperson Lee Hsien Loong, the Prime Minister of Singapore. Thereafter, many of the state leaders, including Prime Minister Lee of Singapore, flew from Singapore to Papua New Guinea.

APEC Sculpture Garden

The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Sculpture Garden is a sculpture park located in the right, left and front lawns of the Philippine International Convention Center, CCP Complex, Pasay City, Philippines.The sculpture garden was opened and dedicated on 22 November 1996. It was jointly organized by the Department of Foreign Affairs and the National Commission for Culture and the Arts, the curator of the garden, in commemoration of the APEC Philippines 1996. The garden is composed of 20 unique sculptures made by artists from their respective APEC countries. Each sculpture embodies the collective ideals of the 20 APEC member economies.The countries that donated their sculptures to the garden include Australia, Brunei Darussalam, Canada, Chile, Chinese Taipei, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Philippines, Papua New Guinea, People's Republic of China, Republic of Korea, Russian Federation, Singapore, Thailand, United States and Vietnam. As of 2017, only Peru has yet to donate a sculpture to the garden. The exact location of the layout of each sculpture was studied individually and presented in the best space where it would harmonize or be enhanced by the surrounding landscape. The angles of each sculpture were likewise studied in relation to the PICC’s minimalist architectural design, with the objective of bringing out the most unusual point of each sculpture’s design.

APEC Singapore 2009

APEC Singapore 2009 was a series of political meetings held around Singapore between the 21 member economies of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation during 2009. It culminated in the 17th APEC Economic Leaders' Meeting (AELM) held in Singapore from 14 to 15 November 2009.

APEC South Korea 2005

APEC South Korea 2005 was a series of political meetings held around South Korea between the 21 member economies of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation during 2005. Various meetings were held across Vietnam in 2005. Leaders from all the member countries met from 18 to 19 November 2005 in Busan.

APEC Youth Science Festival

APEC Youth Science Festival is a science fair run by the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC). It is for 15–18-year-olds with an interest in science–technology, and seeks to break down cultural barriers for learning. It began in 1998 in Seoul. The president of the Republic of Korea proposed to host the APEC Youth Science Festival at the 2nd APEC Science and Technology Ministers' Conference on November 13, 1996.


Asia-Pacific or Asia Pacific (abbreviated as APAC, Asia-Pac, AsPac, APJ, JAPA or JAPAC) is the part of the world in or near the Western Pacific Ocean. The region varies in area depending on which context, but it typically includes much of East Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, and Oceania.

The term may also include Russia (on the North Pacific) and countries in the Americas which are on the coast of the Eastern Pacific Ocean; the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, for example, includes Canada, Chile, Russia, Mexico, Peru, and the United States. Alternatively, the term sometimes comprises all of Asia and Australasia as well as Pacific island nations (Asia Pacific and Australian continent)—for example when dividing the world into large regions for commercial purposes (e.g. into the Americas, EMEA and Asia Pacific). Western Asia is almost never included.

On the whole there appears to be no clear cut definition of "Asia Pacific" and the regions included change as per the context. Though imprecise, the term has become popular since the late 1980s in commerce, finance and politics. In fact, despite the heterogeneity of the regions' economies, most individual nations within the zone are emerging markets experiencing rapid growth. (Compare the concept/acronym APEJ or APeJ—Asia-Pacific excluding Japan.)

Canada–Peru relations

Canada–Peru relations refer to the bilateral relations between Canada and Peru. Both countries established full diplomatic relations in 1940. Canada has an embassy in Lima. Peru has an embassy in Ottawa and three consulates-general in Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver.

Both countries are full members of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, of the Cairns Group and of the Organization of American States. The Canadian government announced in February 2009 that it was adding Peru to its list of preferred countries to receive foreign aid. This list includes 18 countries and the West Bank and Caribbean.

Canada–Thailand relations

Canada established diplomatic ties with the Kingdom of Thailand in 1961. Canada has an embassy in Bangkok and Thailand has an embassy in Ottawa, as well as consulates genera in Toronto, Edmonton, Vancouver and Montreal. Ties between the two countries have consistently been friendly. Both countries are members of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, and Canada sits on the ASEAN Regional Forum.

List of ambassadors of Australia for Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation

The Ambassador of Australia for Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation is an officer of the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade and the head of the delegation of the Commonwealth of Australia to the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), based with its secretariat in Singapore. The position has the rank and status of an Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary and has been sent since March 1996, when Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Trade Tim Fischer appointed Peter Grey as the first Ambassador, although APEC has existed since 1989.

List of regional organizations by population

The following is a list of regional organizations by population in 2018.

Mexico–Taiwan relations

Mexico–Taiwan relations refers to the diplomatic relations between Mexico and the Republic of China (Taiwan). Both nations are members of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation.

New Zealand–Thailand relations

New Zealand–Thailand relations refers to bilateral relations between New Zealand and Thailand. New Zealand has an embassy in Bangkok whilst Thailand has an embassy in Wellington. Both countries are members of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation.

Peru–Vietnam relations

Peruvian–Vietnamese relations refers to relations between Peru and Vietnam. Both nations are members of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation and the United Nations.

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