Ashura

Yom Ashura or Ashura (Arabic: عاشوراء‎, romanizedʻĀshūrā’ [ʕaːʃuːˈraːʔ]) is the tenth day of Muharram, the first month in the Islamic calendar.[4] It marks the day that Husayn ibn Ali, the grandson of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, was martyred in the Battle of Karbala.[5] Ashura is a major holiday and occasion for pilgrimage and fasting in Shia Islam,[6] as well as a recommended but non-obligatory day of fasting in Sunni Islam.[7][8][9] Ashura has origins in Yom Kippur from Judaism.[10]

Ashura marks the climax of the Remembrance of Muharram,[4] the annual commemoration of the death of Husayn and his family and supporters at the Battle of Karbala on 10 Muharram in the year 61 AH (in AHt: October 10, 680 CE).[11] Mourning for the incident began almost immediately after the battle. Popular elegies were written by poets to commemorate the Battle of Karbala during the Umayyad and Abbasid era, and the earliest public mourning rituals occurred in 963 CE during the Buyid dynasty.[12] In Afghanistan,[13] Iran,[14] Iraq,[15] Lebanon,[16] Bahrain[17] and Pakistan[18] Ashura has become a national holiday, and many ethnic and religious communities participate in it.[19][20]

For Sunni Muslims, Ashura also marks the day that Moses and the Israelites were saved from Pharaoh by God creating a path in the Sea[8][9][21][22] or Noah leaving the Ark.[23]

Ashura
Ashura 2016 mourning in Imam Hossein Square, Tehran 02
Ashura mourning in Imam Hossein Square, Tehran, 2016
Official nameعاشوراء ʻĀshūrā’  (in Arabic)
Also calledHosay, Tabuik, Tabot, The Day of Atonement
Observed byMuslims
TypeIslamic and national (In some countries such as Afghanistan, Republic of Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Iran, Lebanon, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Iraq, India, and Indonesia)
SignificanceMarks the martyrdom of Husayn ibn Ali; the day that Moses fasted as gratitude for the liberation of the Israelites according to Sunni Islam
ObservancesMourn and derive messages from Husayn's sacrifice (Shia Islam); fasting (Sunni Islam)
Date10 Muharram
2018 dateSeptember 20[1]
2019 dateSeptember 10[2]
2020 dateAugust 29[1]
2021 dateAugust 18[1]
FrequencyOnce every Islamic year

Etymology

The root of the word Ashura has the meaning of tenth in Semitic languages; hence the name of the remembrance, literally translated, means "the tenth day". According to the orientalist A. J. Wensinck, the name is derived from the Hebrew ʿāsōr, with the Aramaic determinative ending.[24] The day is indeed the tenth day of the month, although some Islamic scholars offer up different etymologies. In his book Ghuniyatut Talibin, Sheikh Abdul Qadir Jilani writes that Islamic scholars differ as to why this day is known as Ashura, some of them suggesting that it is the tenth most important day with which God has blessed Muslims.[25]

Historical background

The Battle of Karbala took place within the crisis environment resulting from the succession of Yazid I.[26][27] Immediately after succession, Yazid instructed the governor of Medina to compel Husayn and a few other prominent figures to pledge their allegiance (Bay'ah).[11] Husayn, however, refrained from making such a pledge, believing that Yazid was openly going against the teachings of Islam and changing the sunnah of Muhammad.[28][29] He, therefore, accompanied by his household, his sons, brothers, and the sons of Hasan left Medina to seek asylum in Mecca.[11]

On the other hand, the people in Kufa, when informed of Muawiyah's death, sent letters urging Husayn to join them and pledging to support him against the Umayyads. Husayn wrote back to them saying that he would send his cousin Muslim ibn Aqeel to report to him on the situation and that if he found them supportive as their letters indicated, he would speedily join them because an Imam should act in accordance with the Quran and uphold justice, proclaim the truth, and dedicate himself to the cause of God. The mission of Muslim was initially successful and according to reports, 18,000 men pledged their allegiance. But the situation changed radically when Yazid appointed Ubayd Allah ibn Ziyad as the new governor of Kufa, ordering him to deal severely with Ibn Aqeel.

In Mecca, Husayn learned assassins had been sent by Yazid to kill him in the holy city in the midst of Hajj. Husayn, to preserve the sanctity of the city and specifically that of the Kaaba, abandoned his Hajj and encouraged others around him to follow him to Kufa without knowing the situation there had taken an adverse turn.[11]

On the way, Husayn found that his messenger, Muslim ibn Aqeel, had been killed in Kufa. Husayn encountered the vanguard of the army of Ubaydullah ibn Ziyad along the route towards Kufa. Husayn addressed the Kufan army, reminding them that they had invited him to come because they were without an Imam. He told them that he intended to proceed to Kufa with their support, but if they were now opposed to his coming, he would return to where he had come from. In response, the army urged him to proceed by another route. Thus, he turned to the left and reached Karbala, where the army forced him not to go further and stop at a location that had limited access to water.[11]

20131203 Istanbul 012
Name of the Karbala martyr Husayn with Islamic calligraphy in Hagia Sophia

Ubaydullah ibn Ziyad, the governor instructed Umar ibn Sa'ad, the head of the Kufan army, to offer Ḥusayn and his supporters the opportunity to swear allegiance to Yazid. He also ordered Umar ibn Sa'ad to cut off Husayn and his followers from access to the water of the Euphrates.[11] On the next morning, Umar ibn Sa'ad arranged the Kufan army in battle order.[11]

The Battle of Karbala lasted from morning to sunset on October 10, 680 (Muharram 10, 61 AH). Husayn's small group of companions and family members (in total around 72 men and the women and children)[note 1][31][32] fought against a large army under the command of Umar ibn Sa'ad and were killed near the river (Euphrates), from which they were not allowed to get water. The renowned historian Abū Rayḥān al-Bīrūnī states:

… [T]hen fire was set to their camp and the bodies were trampled by the hoofs of the horses; nobody in the history of the human kind has seen such atrocities.[33]

Once the Umayyad troops had murdered Husayn and his male followers, they looted the tents, stripped the women of their jewelry, and took the skin upon which Zain al-Abidin was prostrate. Husayn's sister Zaynab was taken along with the enslaved women to the caliph in Damascus when she was imprisoned and after a year eventually was allowed to return to Medina.[34][35]

Commemoration of the death of Husayn ibn Ali

Kerbela Hussein Moschee
Millions of Shia Muslims gather around the Husayn Mosque in Karbala after making the pilgrimage on foot during Arba'een, which is a Shia religious observation that occurs 40 days after the Day of Ashura.

History of the commemoration by Shia

According to Ignác Goldziher,

[E]ver since the black day of Karbala, the history of this family … has been a continuous series of sufferings and persecutions. These are narrated in poetry and prose, in a richly cultivated literature of martyrologies … 'More touching than the tears of the Shi'is' has even become an Arabic proverb.[36]

The first assembly (majlis) of the Commemoration of Husayn ibn Ali is said to have been held by Zaynab in prison. In Damascus, too, she is reported to have delivered a poignant oration. The prison sentence ended when Husayn's three-year-old daughter, Ruqaiyah bint Hussain, died in captivity. She would often cry in prison to be allowed to see her father. She is believed to have died when she saw her father's mutilated head. Her death caused an uproar in the city, and Yazid, fearing a potential uprising, freed the captives.[37]

Imam Zayn Al Abidin said the following:

It is said that for forty years whenever food was placed before him, he would weep. One day a servant said to him, 'O son of Allah's Messenger! Is it not time for your sorrow to come to an end?' He replied, 'Woe upon you! Jacob the prophet had twelve sons, and Allah made one of them disappear. His eyes turned white from constant weeping, his head turned grey out of sorrow, and his back became bent in gloom,[note 2] though his son was alive in this world. But I watched while my father, my brother, my uncle, and seventeen members of my family were slaughtered all around me. How should my sorrow come to an end?'[note 3][38][39]

Husayn's grave became a pilgrimage site among Shia Muslims only a few years after his death. A tradition quickly developed of pilgrimage to the Imam Husayn Shrine and the other Karbala martyrs, known as Ziarat ashura.[40] The Umayyad and Abbasid caliphs tried to prevent construction of the shrines and discouraged pilgrimage to the sites.[41] The tomb and its annexes were destroyed by the Abbasid caliph Al-Mutawakkil in 850–851 and Shia pilgrimage was prohibited, but shrines in Karbala and Najaf were built by the Buwayhid emir 'Adud al-Daula in 979–80.[42]

Public rites of remembrance for Husayn's martyrdom developed from the early pilgrimages.[43] Under the Buyid dynasty, Mu'izz ad-Dawla officiated at public commemoration of Ashura in Baghdad.[44] These commemorations were also encouraged in Egypt by the Fatimid caliph al-'Aziz.[45] With the recognition of Twelvers as the official religion by the Safavids, Mourning of Muharram extended throughout the first ten days of Muharram.[40]

Azadari (mourning) rituals

The words Azadari (Persian: عزاداری) which mean mourning and lamentation; and Majalis-e Aza have been exclusively used in connection with the remembrance ceremonies for the martyrdom of Imam Hussain. Majalis-e Aza, also known as Aza-e Husayn, includes mourning congregations, lamentations, matam and all such actions which express the emotions of grief and above all, repulsion against what Yazid stood for.[46]

Gesel voor Ashura ritueel - Stichting Nationaal Museum van Wereldculturen - TM-4182-17
Ritual scourge for use in the Ashura procession. Syria, before 1974

These religious customs show solidarity with Husayn and his family. Through them, people mourn Husayn's death and express regret for the fact that they were not present at the battle to fight and save Husayn and his family.[47][48]

Popular customs

Muharram (Ta'ziya) procession Barabanki India (Jan 2009)
Indian Shia Muslims carry out a Ta'ziya procession on day of Ashura in Barabanki, India, January 2009.

After almost 12 centuries, five types of major rituals were developed around the battle of Karbala. These rituals include the memorial services (majalis al-ta'ziya), the visitation of Husayn's tomb in Karbala particularly on the occasion of the tenth day of Ashura and the fortieth day after the battle (Ziyarat Ashura and ziyarat al-Arba'in), the public mourning processions (al-mawakib al-husayniyya) or the representation of the battle of Karbala in the form of a play (the shabih), and the flagellation (tatbir).[49] Some Shia Muslims believe that taking part in Ashura washes away their sins.[50] A popular Shia saying has it that "a single tear shed for Husayn washes away a hundred sins".[51]

For Shia Muslims, the commemoration of Ashura is not a festival but rather a sad event, while Sunni Muslims view it as a victory God gave to Moses. For Shia Muslims, it is a period of intense grief and mourning. Mourners congregate at a mosque for sorrowful, poetic recitations such as marsiya, noha, latmiya, and soaz performed in memory of the martyrdom of Husayn, lamenting and grieving to the tune of beating drums and chants of "Ya Hussain". Also, Ulamas give sermons with themes of Husayn's personality and position in Islam, and the history of his uprising. The Sheikh of the mosque retells the Battle of Karbala to allow his listeners to relive the pain and sorrow endured by Husayn and his family and they read Maqtal Al-Husayn.[49][52] In some places, such as Iran, Iraq, and the Arab states of the Persian Gulf, passion plays known as Ta'zieh[53] are performed, reenacting the Battle of Karbala and the suffering and martyrdom of Husayn at the hands of Yazid. In the Caribbean islands of Trinidad and Tobago and Jamaica Ahsura, known locally as 'Hussay' or Hosay is commemorated for the grandson of Muhammad, but its celebration has adopted influence from other religions including Roman Catholic, Hindu, and Baptists, making it a mixture of different cultures and religion. The event is attended by both Muslims and non-Muslims depicting an environment of mutual respect and tolerance.[54][55] For the duration of the remembrance, it is customary for mosques and some people to provide free meals (nazri) on certain nights of the month to all people.[56]

Hussay Celebration in Jamaica
A historic Ashura celebration in Jamaica, which is known locally as Hussay or Hosay
Muharram (Al'am) procession Barabanki India (Jan 2009)
Shia Muslims carry out an Al'am procession on the day of Ashura in Barabanki, India, January 2009.
Tabuik festival
Tabuiks being lowered into the sea in Pariaman, Indonesia, by Shia Muslims
Mourning of Muharram in cities and villages of Iran-342 16 (66)
Nakhl gardani in cities and villages of Iran

Certain traditional flagellation rituals such as Talwar zani (talwar ka matam or sometimes tatbir) use a sword. Other rituals such as zanjeer zani or zanjeer matam involve the use of a zanjeer (a chain with blades).[57] This is not without controversy however as some Shia clerics have denounced the practice saying "it creates a backward and negative image of their community." Believers are instead encouraged to donate blood to those in need.[58] On Ashura, very few Shia Muslims observe mourning with a blood donation, which is called "Qame Zani", and flailing. This mourning is considered to be a shameless way for most Shia Muslims and most of them are against this kind of mourning.[59] In some areas, such as in the Shia suburb of Beirut, Shia communities organize blood donation drives with organizations like the Red Cross or the Red Crescent on Ashura as a replacement for self-flagellation rituals like tatbir and qame zani.[60]

Significance among religions

Shia Islam

10 Muharram
Remembrance by Jafaris, Qizilbash Alevi-Turks and Bektashis together in Ottoman Empire[61]

On the 10th of the month of Muharrem – the Ashure Day – Huseyn bin Ali was murdered at Karbala[62] Remembrance by Jafaris, Qizilbash Alevi-Turks, and Bektashis together in Ottoman Empire.

This day is of particular significance to Twelver Shia and Alawites, who consider Husayn (the grandson of Muhammad) Ahl al-Bayt, the third Imam to be the rightful successor of Muhammad.

1170488615 RIMG1144
Shia devotees congregate outside the Sydney Opera House in Australia to commemorate Husayn.
Mourning of Muharram in cities and villages of Iran-342 16 (47)
Mourning of Muharram in Iran
Ashura procession in Tehran, Iran
Ashura procession in Tehran, Iran

According to Kamran Scot Aghaie, "The symbols and rituals of Ashura have evolved over time and have meant different things to different people. However, at the core of the symbolism of Ashura is the moral dichotomy between worldly injustice and corruption on the one hand and God-centered justice, piety, sacrifice and perseverance on the other. Also, Shiite Muslims consider the remembrance of the tragic events of Ashura to be an important way of worshipping God in a spiritual or mystical way."[6]

Shia Muslims make pilgrimages on Ashura, as they do forty days later on Arba'een, to the Mashhad al-Husayn, the shrine in Karbala, Iraq, that is traditionally held to be Husayn's tomb. On this day Shia is in remembrance, and mourning attire is worn. They refrain from listening to or playing music since Arabic culture generally considers music impolite during death rituals. It is a time for sorrow and for showing respect for the person's passing, and it is also a time for self-reflection when one commits oneself completely to the mourning of Husayn. Shia Muslims do not plan weddings and parties on this date. They mourn by crying and listening to recollections of the tragedy and sermons on how Husayn and his family were martyred. This is intended to connect them with Husayn's suffering and martyrdom, and the sacrifices he made to keep Islam alive. Husayn's martyrdom is widely interpreted by Shia Muslims a symbol of the struggle against injustice, tyranny, and oppression.[63] Shia Muslims believe the Battle of Karbala was between the forces of good and evil, with Husayn representing good and Yazid representing evil.[64]

Shia imams strongly insist that the day of Ashura should not be celebrated as a day of joy and festivity. The day of Ashura, according to Eighth Shia Imam Ali al-Rida, must be observed as a day of rest, sorrow, and total disregard of worldly matters.[65]

Some of the events associated with Ashura are held in special congregation halls known as "Imambargah" and Hussainia.[66]

Sunni Islam

Sunnis regard fasting during Ashura as recommended, though not obligatory, having been superseded by the Ramadan fast.[67][7] According to hadith record in Sahih Bukhari, Ashura was already known as a commemorative day during which some Makkah residents used to observe customary fasting. Muhammad fasted on the day of Ashura, 10th Muharram, in Makkah. When fasting during the month of Ramadan became obligatory, the fast of Ashura was made non-compulsory.[8][9]

Judaism

According to Muslim tradition, the Jews also fasted on the tenth day. According to Sunni Muslim tradition, Ibn Abbas narrated that Muhammad came to Medina and saw the Jews fasting on the tenth day of Muharram. He asked, "What is this?" They said, "This is a good day, this is the day when Allah saved the Children of Israel from their enemy and Musa (Moses) fasted on this day." He said, "We have more claim over Musa than you." So he fasted on the day and told the people to fast.[8][9][68][69] This tenth in question is believed to be the tenth of the Jewish month of Tishri, which is Yom Kippur in Judaism.[10] The Torah designates the tenth day of the seventh month as holy and a fast (Lev. 16, Lev. 23, Num. 29). The word "tenth" in Hebrew is Asarah or Asharah (עשרה), which is from the same Semitic root A-SH-R. According to this tradition, Muhammad continued to observe the veneration of Ashura modeled on its Jewish prototype in late September until shortly before his death, which the verse of Nasi' was revealed and the Jewish-type calendar adjustments of the Muslims became prohibited. From then on, Ashura became distinct from its Jewish predecessor of Yom Kippur.[70]

A tadjah at Hosay
A tadjah at Hosay in Port of Spain during the 1950s

Socio-political aspects

Sham Ghariban in Imam Reza shrine, Mashhad 13950721 03
Sham Ghariban (the first night in mourn of Husayn) in Imam Reza Shrine, Mashhad, Iran

Commemoration of Ashura has great socio-political value for the Shia, who have been a minority throughout their history. According to the prevailing conditions at the time of the commemoration, such reminiscences may become a framework for implicit dissent or explicit protest. It was, for instance, used during the Islamic Revolution of Iran, the Lebanese Civil War, the Lebanese resistance against the Israeli military presence and in the 1990s Uprising in Bahrain. Sometimes the Ashura commemorations associate the memory of Al-Husayn's martyrdom with the conditions of Islam and Muslims in reference to Husayn's famous quote on the day of Ashura: "Every day is Ashura, every land is Karbala".[71]

From the period of the Iranian Constitutional Revolution (1905–1911) onward, mourning gatherings increasingly assumed a political aspect. Following an old established tradition, preachers compared the oppressors of the time with Imam Husayn's enemies, the umayyads.[72]

The political function of commemoration was very marked in the years leading up to the Islamic Revolution of 1978–79, as well as during the revolution itself. In addition, the implicit self-identification of the Muslim revolutionaries with Imam Husayn led to a blossoming of the cult of the martyr, expressed most vividly, perhaps, in the vast cemetery of Behesht-e Zahra, to the south of Tehran, where the martyrs of the revolution and the war against Iraq are buried.[72]

On the other hand, some governments have banned this commemoration. In the 1930s Reza Shah forbade it in Iran. The regime of Saddam Hussein saw this as a potential threat and banned Ashura commemorations for many years.[73] In the 1884 Hosay massacre, 22 people were killed in Trinidad and Tobago when civilians attempted to carry out the Ashura rites, locally known as Hosay, in defiance of the British colonial authorities.[74]

Terrorist attacks during Ashura

Terrorist attacks against Shia Muslims have occurred in several countries, on the day of Ashurra.[75] The repeated experience of violence at Ashura has produced an "interesting" feedback effect in Shia history.[76]

  • 1994 – explosion of a bomb at the Imam Reza shrine, June 20, in Mashhad, Iran, 20 people killed[77]
  • 2004 – bomb attacks, during Shia pilgrimage to Karbala, March 2, Karbala, Iraq, 178 people killed and 5000 injured[78]
  • 2008 – clashes, between Iraqi troops and members of a Shia cult, January 19, Basra and Nasiriya, Iraq, 263 people killed[79]
  • 2009 – explosion of a bomb, during the Ashura procession, December 28, Karachi, Pakistan, dozens of people killed and hundreds injured[80]
  • 2010 – detention of 200 Shia Muslims, at a shop house in Sri Gombak known as Hauzah Imam Ali ar-Ridha (Hauzah ArRidha), December 15, Selangor, Malaysia[81]
  • 2011 – explosion of a bomb, during the Ashura procession, December 28, Hilla and Baghdad, Iraq, December 5, 30 people killed[82]
  • 2011 – suicide attack, during the Ashura procession, Kabul, Afghanistan, December 6, 63 people killed[83]
  • 2015 – three explosions, during the Ashura procession, mosque in Dhaka, Bangladesh, October 24, one person killed and 80 people injured[84]

In the Gregorian calendar

While Ashura is always on the same day of the Islamic calendar, the date on the Gregorian calendar varies from year to year due to differences between the two calendars, since the Islamic calendar is a lunar calendar and the Gregorian calendar is a solar calendar. Furthermore, the appearance of the crescent moon that is used to determine when each Islamic month begins varies from country to country due to the different geographic locations.

AH Gregorian date
1438 2016, October 12 (Middle East: Lebanon, Iraq, Iran)
1439 2017,   October 1 (Middle East: Lebanon, Iraq, Iran)[85]
1440 2018, September 20
1441 2019,   September 10

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Except his young son, Ali, who was severely ill during that battle.[30]
  2. ^ Quran, 12:84
  3. ^ From Shaykh as-Sadooq, al-Khisal; quoted in al-Ameen, A’yan, IV, 195. The same is quoted from Bin Shahraashoob's Manaqib in Bih’ar al-Anwar, XLVI, 108; Cf. similar accounts, Ibid, pp. 108–10

References

Citations

  1. ^ a b c "When is Ashura Day Worldwide". September 30, 2017.
  2. ^ "Islamic Calendar". islamicfinder.
  3. ^ "Holidays in Iran in 2017".
  4. ^ a b "Shiite History Beliefs and Differences Between Sunnis and Shiites: Muslim Sects and Sunnis". Archived from the original on February 2, 2015. Retrieved January 26, 2015.
  5. ^ The Princeton Encyclopedia of Islamic Political Thought. Princeton University Press. 2013. p. 45.
  6. ^ a b Cornell, Vincent J.; Kamran Scot Aghaie (2007). Voices of Islam. Westport, CN: Praeger Publishers. pp. 111–12. ISBN 978-0275987329. Retrieved November 4, 2014.
  7. ^ a b Emmanuel Sivan. "Sunni Radicalism in the Middle East and the Iranian Revolution". International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol. 21, No. 1. (February 1989), pp. 1–30
  8. ^ a b c d Sahih Bukhari Book 31 Hadith 222, Book 55 Hadith 609, and Book 58 Hadith 279, [1]; Sahih Muslim Book 6 Hadith 2518, 2519, 2520 [2]
  9. ^ a b c d Javed Ahmad Ghamidi. Mizan, The Fast Archived September 30, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, Al-Mawrid
  10. ^ a b Prophet Muhammad and the Origins of Islam, Francis E. Peters, SUNY Press, 1994, p. 204.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g Madelung, Wilferd. "Ḥisayn B. 'Ali i. Life and Significance in Shi'ism". Encyclopædia Iranica Online. Retrieved November 4, 2014.
  12. ^ Cornell, Vincent J.; Kamran Scot Aghaie (2007). Voices of Islam. Westport, CN: Praeger Publishers. pp. 117–18. ISBN 978-0275987329. Retrieved November 4, 2014.
  13. ^ "Public Holidays in Afghanistan". worldtravelguide.net. Retrieved October 10, 2015.
  14. ^ "Public Holidays in Iran". worldtravelguide.net. Retrieved October 10, 2015.
  15. ^ "Public Holidays in Iraq". worldtravelguide.net. Retrieved October 10, 2015.
  16. ^ "Public Holidays in Lebanon". worldtravelguide.net. Retrieved October 10, 2015.
  17. ^ "Public Holidays in Bahrain". worldtravelguide.net. Retrieved October 10, 2015.
  18. ^ "Public Holidays in Pakistan". worldtravelguide.net. Retrieved October 10, 2015.
  19. ^ "AhlulBayt News Agenc en". May 9, 2016.
  20. ^ "Hindus holding tasia procession in Orissa for over three centuries – Jafariya News Network".
  21. ^ Morrow, John Andrew. Islamic Images and Ideas: Essays on Sacred Symbolism. McFarland & Co, 2013. pp. 234–36. ISBN 978-0786458486
  22. ^ Katz, Marion Holmes The Birth of The Prophet Muhammad: Devotional Piety in Sunni Islam. Routledge, 2007. pp.113–115. ISBN 978-1135983949
  23. ^ Abou-Samra, Sulafa (2011). "Muslim Calendar, holy days, and festivals". Islamic Beliefs, Practices, and Cultures. Marshall Cavendish. p. 153. ISBN 978-0761479260.
  24. ^ A. J. Wensinck, "Āshūrā", Encyclopaedia of Islam 2. Retrieved June 8, 2011.
  25. ^ Staff, Writer. "Top 10 similar words or synonyms for ashura". wordsimilarity.
  26. ^ G.R., Hawting (2012). "Yazīd (I) b. Muʿāwiya". Encyclopaedia of Islam (2nd ed.). Brill. doi:10.1163/1573-3912_islam_SIM_8000.
  27. ^ Hitti, Philip K. (1961). The Near East In History A 5000 Year Story. Literary Licensing, LLC. ISBN 978-1258452452. Retrieved September 23, 2016.
  28. ^ "Al Bidayah wa al-Nihayah".
  29. ^ "Al-Sawa'iq al-Muhriqah".
  30. ^ Hoseini-e Jalali, Mohammad-Reza (1382). Jehad al-Imam al-Sajjad (in Persian). Translated by Musa Danesh. Iran, Mashhad: Razavi, Printing & Publishing Institute. pp. 214–17.
  31. ^ "در روز عاشورا چند نفر شهید شدند؟". Archived from the original on March 26, 2013.
  32. ^ "فهرست اسامي شهداي كربلا". Velaiat.com. Archived from the original on June 29, 2012. Retrieved June 30, 2012.
  33. ^ Chelkowski, Peter J. (1979). Ta'ziyeh: Ritual and Drama in Iran. New York. p. 2.
  34. ^ Madelung, Wilferd. "ʿALĪ B. ḤOSAYN B. ʿALĪ B. ABĪ ṬĀLEB". ENCYCLOPÆDIA IRANICA. Retrieved August 1, 2011.
  35. ^ Donaldson, Dwight M. (1933). The Shi'ite Religion: A History of Islam in Persia and Irak. Burleigh Press. pp. 101–11.
  36. ^ Goldziher, Ignác (1981). Introduction to Islamic Theology and Law. Princeton. p. 179.
  37. ^ "Zaynab Bint Ali". Encyclopedia of Religion. Retrieved January 19, 2008.
  38. ^ Sharif al-Qarashi, Bāqir (2000). The Life of Imām Zayn al-Abidin (as). Translated by Jāsim al-Rasheed. Iraq: Ansariyan Publications, n.d. Print.
  39. ^ Imam Ali ubnal Husain (2009). Al-Saheefah Al-Sajjadiyyah Al-Kaamelah. Translated with an Introduction and annotation by Willian C. Chittick With a foreword by S. H. M. Jafri. Qum, The Islamic Republic of Iran: Ansariyan Publications.
  40. ^ al Musawi, 2006, p. 51.
  41. ^ Litvak, 1998, p. 16.
  42. ^ Nafasul Mahmoom. JAC Developer. pp. 12–. GGKEY:RQAZ12CNGF5.
  43. ^ Chelkowski, Peter (January 1, 1985). "Shia Muslim Processional Performances". The Drama Review: TDR. 29 (3): 18–30. doi:10.2307/1145650. JSTOR 1145650.
  44. ^ Blank, Jonah (April 15, 2001). Mullahs on the Mainframe: Islam and Modernity Among the Daudi Bohras. University of Chicago Press. p. 29. ISBN 978-0226056777.
  45. ^ Jean, Calmard (2011). "AZĀDĀRĪ". iranicaonline.
  46. ^ Bird, Steve (August 28, 2008). "Devout Muslim guilty of making boys beat themselves during Shia ceremony". The Times. London. Retrieved May 1, 2010.
  47. ^ "British Muslim convicted over teen floggings". Alarabiya.net. August 27, 2008. Retrieved December 28, 2010.
  48. ^ a b Nakash, Yitzhak (January 1, 1993). "An Attempt To Trace the Origin of the Rituals of Āshurā¸". Die Welt des Islams. 33 (2): 161–81. doi:10.1163/157006093X00063. – via Brill (subscription required)
  49. ^ David Pinault, "Shia Lamentation Rituals and Reinterpretations of the Doctrine of Intercession: Two Cases from Modern India," History of Religions 38 no. 3 (1999): 285–305.
  50. ^ Nasr, Vali, "The Shia Revival", Norton, 2006, p. 50
  51. ^ Puchowski, Douglas (2008). The Concise Garland Encyclopedia of World Music, Volume 2. Routledge. ISBN 978-0415994040.
  52. ^ Chelkowski, Peter (ed.) (1979) Taʻziyeh, ritual and drama in Iran New York University Press, New York, ISBN 0814713750
  53. ^ Hosay Festival, Westmoreland, Jamaica
  54. ^ http://old.jamaica-gleaner.com/pages/history/story0057.htm title= Out Of Many Cultures The People Who Came The Arrival Of The Indians
  55. ^ Rezaian, Jason. "Iranians relish free food during month of mourning". washingtonpost.
  56. ^ "Scars on the backs of the young". New Statesman. UK. June 6, 2005. Retrieved December 28, 2010.
  57. ^ "Ashoura day: Why Muslims fast and mourn on Muharram 10". Al Jazeera. October 10, 2016.
  58. ^ "Ashura observed with blood streams to mark Karbala tragedy". Jafariya News Network. Archived from the original on July 13, 2011. Retrieved December 28, 2010.
  59. ^ Edith Szanto, "Sayyida Zaynab in the State of Exception: Shi'i Sainthood as 'Qualified Life' in Contemporary Syria", International Journal of Middle East Studies 44 no. 2 (2012): 285–99.
  60. ^ Turkish Alevis are mourning on this day for the remembrance of the death of Huseyn bin Ali at Kerbala in Irak.
  61. ^ Turkish Alevis mourn on this day to commemorate the death of Huseyn bin Ali at Kerbala in Irak.
  62. ^ "Karbala', an Enduring Paradigm". Al-islam.org. Retrieved December 28, 2010.
  63. ^ Dabashi, Hamid (2008). Islamic Liberation Theology: Resisting the Empire. Routledge. ISBN 978-0415771559.
  64. ^ Ayoub, Shi'ism (1988), pp. 258–59
  65. ^ Juan Eduardo Campo (2009). Encyclopedia of Islam. Infobase Publishing. pp. 318–. ISBN 978-1438126968.
  66. ^ Sahih Muslim, (Hadith-2499)
  67. ^ Morrow, John Andrew. Islamic Images and Ideas: Essays on Sacred Symbolism. McFarland & Co, 2013. pp. 234–36. ISBN 978-0786458486
  68. ^ Katz, Marion Holmes The Birth of The Prophet Muhammad: Devotional Piety in Sunni Islam. Routledge, 2007. pp. 113–15. ISBN 978-1135983949
  69. ^ Prophet Muhammad and the Origins of Islam, Francis E. Peters, SUNY Press, 1994, p. 204.
  70. ^ IslamOnline – Art & Entertainment Section Archived December 11, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  71. ^ a b Calmard, J. "'AZAÚDAÚRÈ". Encyclopedia Iranica. Archived from the original on May 4, 2008. Retrieved December 16, 2010.
  72. ^ Melton, J. Gordon; Baumann, Martin (2010). Religions of the World [6 volumes]: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices. ABC-CLIO. p. 211. ISBN 978-1598842036.
  73. ^ Anthony, Michael (2001). Historical Dictionary of Trinidad and Tobago. Scarecrow Press, Inc. Lanham, MD and London. ISBN 978-0810831735.
  74. ^ "Anti-Shia Terror on Ashura Day". Katehon think tank. Geopolitics & Tradition. October 12, 2016. Retrieved September 30, 2017.
  75. ^ Hassner, Ron E. (2016). Religion on the Battlefield. Cornell University Press. p. 40. ISBN 978-0801451072.
  76. ^ Raman, B. (January 7, 2002). "SIPAH-E-SAHABA PAKISTAN, LASHKAR-E-JHANGVI, BIN LADEN & RAMZI YOUSEF". Archived from the original on April 29, 2009.
  77. ^ "Blasts at Shia Ceremonies in Iraq Kill More Than 140". The New York Times. March 2, 2004. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
  78. ^ "Iraqi Shia pilgrims mark holy day". bbc.co.uk. January 19, 2008. Retrieved October 10, 2015.
  79. ^ "Reuters News clip". Youtube.com. Retrieved June 30, 2012.
  80. ^ "Malaysian Wahhabi Extremists Attacked Shia Mourners, Detain 200 + PIC". abna.ir. Retrieved June 30, 2012.
  81. ^ "Deadly bomb attacks on Shia pilgrims in Iraq". bbc.co.uk. December 5, 2011. Retrieved June 30, 2012.
  82. ^ Harooni, Mirwais (December 6, 2011). "Blasts across Afghanistan target Shia, 59 dead". Reuters. Retrieved June 30, 2012.
  83. ^ "Dhaka blasts: One dead in attack on Shia Ashura ritual". bbc.com. October 24, 2015. Retrieved February 24, 2016.
  84. ^ "Holidays in Iran in 2017".

Sources

External links

2004 Ashura bombings in Iraq

The Ashura massacre of March 2, 2004 in Iraq was a series of planned terrorist explosions that killed at least 178 and injured at least 500 Iraqi Shi'a Muslims commemorating the Day of Ashura. The bombings brought one of the deadliest days in the Iraq occupation after the Iraq War to topple Saddam Hussein.

2004 Quetta Ashura massacre

The 2004 Quetta Ashura massacre is the sectarian terrorist attack on Tuesday 2 March 2004 during an Ashura procession in southwestern city of Quetta, in Balochistan province of Pakistan. At least 42 persons were killed and more than 100 wounded in the attack. The attack took place in Liaqat Bazaar Quetta, almost all of the victims were from Hazara ethnic minority of Balochistan. The incident occurred just after the incident of Karbala Ashura bombings in Iraq.

2008 Iraqi Day of Ashura fighting

The 2008 Iraqi Day of Ashura fighting was a series of clashes that occurred on the Islamic holy day of Ashura on January 18, 2008 and the next day in the Iraqi cities of Basra and Nasiriyah. The battles were fought between the Iraqi security forces and fighters of an Iraqi cult called the Soldiers of Heaven, which a year before fought a similar battle, also on Ashura, near the city of Najaf. Then their leader was reported killed along with his deputy Ahmed Hassani al-Yemeni but this time around it was reported that al-Yemeni was still alive and leading the cultists.

2009 Karachi bombing

2009 Karachi bombing or Ashura attack took place on 28 December 2009 inside a Shi'ite procession commemorating the day of Ashura, at Muhammad Ali Jinnah Road, Karachi. Ashura is the holiest of days for followers of Shia Islam and marks the anniversary of the death of Hussain, grandson of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, who was killed at the battle of Karbala in 680. At least 30 people were initially reported to have been killed, later figures revealed even more deaths while dozens were left injured in the wake of the attack. The attacker marched amongst the procession with tens of thousands of people attending the march. There is some speculation amongst officials as to whether the nature of the blast was that of a suicide attack or a remotely detonated or planted bomb.

2011 Afghanistan Ashura bombings

The 2011 Afghanistan Ashura bombings were a pair of bombings in the Afghan capital of Kabul and Mazar-e-Sharif. The Kabul suicide bombing took place at around noon local time, on the day when Muslims commemorate Ashura, an annual holy day throughout the Muslim world particularly by the Shi'a Muslims.

The first attack took place at the gate of a Shi'a shrine in Kabul and was caused by a suicide bomber. The second incident took place in the northern Afghan city of Mazar-i-Sharif, where a bomb was affixed to a bicycle that exploded near a mosque shortly after the Kabul blast. The suicide blast in Kabul resulted in the deaths of more than 70 civilians, which included women and children, while the Mazar-i-Sharif blast claimed at least 4 lives. The third was in the southern city of Kandahar, where five people received injuries. The total number of dead in all the attacks reached about 80, while over 160 more were injured.

Ashur Mosque

The Ashura Mosque was founded in 1169 by the master Najaf Ashur son of Ibrahim. It is located in the Asaf Zeynalli Street. The mosque is frequently called the ‘Lezgin Mosque’. The second name of the mosque is connected with the oil boom of the 19th century. As a result of this event a large inflow of labour was observed in Baku, including from Dagestan. This mosque was used by Lezgin workers during religious ceremonies.The shape of the Ashura Mosque is parallelepiped. There are two small windows on the southern face of the building. The entrance of the mosque is small and arch-shaped which leads to the single chamber prayer room.

In the year of 1970, the mosque underwent restoration works and after reconstruction archaeological excavations discovered two semicircular arches belongs to the Sassanids period in Azerbaijan. These findings are in the southern part of the mosque building.

Ashura protests

The 2009 Ashura protests were a series of protests which occurred on 27 December 2009 in Iran against the outcome of the June 2009 Iranian presidential election, which demonstrators claim was rigged. The demonstrations were part of the 2009 Iranian election protests and were the largest since June. In December 2009, the protests saw an escalation in violence.In response to this protest, pro-government protesters hold a rally in a "show of force" three days later on December 30 (9 Dey) to condemn Green Movement protester.

Asura (Buddhism)

An asura (Sanskrit/Pali: असुर, असुरो) in Buddhism is a demigod or titan of the Kāmadhātu. They are described as having three heads with three faces each and either four or six arms.

Hussainiya

A ḥosayniya or hussainiya (Persian: حسینیه‎ hoseyniye), also known as an ashurkhana, imambargah, or imambara, is a congregation hall for Twelver Shia Muslim commemoration ceremonies, especially those associated with the Mourning of Muharram. The name comes from Husayn ibn Ali, the third of the Twelve Imams and the grandson of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Husayn was killed at the Battle of Karbala on 10 October 680 CE during the reign of Umayyad Caliph Yazid I. The Shia commemorate his martyrdom every year on Ashura, the 10th day of Muharram. There are also other ceremonies which are held during the year in hussainiyas, including religious commemorations unrelated to Ashura.

Karbala

Karbala ( KAR-bə-lə, also US: KAR-bə-LAH; Arabic: كَرْبَلَاء‎, romanized: Karbalāʾ [karbaˈlaːʔ]; Persian: کربلا‎) or Kerbala is a city in central Iraq, located about 100 km (62 mi) southwest of Baghdad, and a few dozen miles east of Lake Milh. Karbala is the capital of Karbala Governorate, and has an estimated population of 700,000 people (2015).

The city, best known as the location of the Battle of Karbala in 680 CE, or the Mosques of Imam Husayn and Abbas, is considered a holy city for Shi'ite Muslims in the same way as Mecca, Medina and Jerusalem. Tens of millions of Shi'ite Muslims visit the site twice a year, rivaling Mecca as a place of pilgrimage. The martyrdom of Husayn ibn Ali is commemorated annually by millions of Shi'ites. Up to 8 million pilgrims visit the city to observe ‘Āshūrā’ (the tenth day of the month of Muharram), which marks the anniversary of Husayn's death, but the main event is the Arba‘īn (the 40th day after Ashura), where up to 30 million visit the holy graves. Most of the pilgrims travel on foot from all around Iraq and more than 56 countries.

Karbala stampede

On 10 September 2019, 31 people were killed and approximately 100 more were injured in a human stampede during Ashura processions in Karbala, Iraq.

Kengan Ashura

Kengan Ashura (Japanese: ケンガンアシュラ) is a Japanese manga series written by Yabako Sandrovich and illustrated by Daromeon. An anime adaptation premiered on July 31, 2019 through Netflix. The second part will begin streaming on October 31, 2019.

Liberation of Jurf Al Sakhar

Liberation of Jurf Al Sakhar, codenamed Operation Ashura (Arabic: عملية عاشوراء‎), was a two-day military operation by Iraqi government forces and Iranian-backed Shia militia beginning on 24 October 2014, aimed at retaking the strategic city of Jurf Al Sakhar near Baghdad from ISIL.

The operation was mainly aimed at preventing ISIS militants from reaching the holy cities of Karbala and Najaf, where ISIS threatened to carry out attacks against the millions of Shia visitors commemorating the Day of Ashura.

List of Mazinger characters

This is a list of characters from the anime and manga series Mazinger Z, Great Mazinger, Grendizer, and Mazinkaiser, as well as the Shin Mazinger reboot. It lists the main players of the plots as well as minor characters or others that did not appear in more than one chapter.

Mourning of Muharram

The Mourning of Muharram (also known as the Remembrance of Muharram or Muharram Observances) is a set of rituals associated with Shia Muslims; and all believers in Islam (except Wahhabis), as well as some non-Muslims, also take part in the remembrance. The commemoration falls in Muharram, the first month of the Islamic calendar. Many of the events associated with the ritual take place in congregation halls known as Hussainia.

The event marks the anniversary of the Battle of Karbala, when Imam Hussein ibn Ali, a grandson of Muhammad, was killed by the forces of the second Umayyad caliph. Family members and companions accompanying him were killed or subjected to humiliation. The commemoration of this event during the yearly mourning season, with the Day of Ashura as the focal date, serves to define Shia communal identity. Muharram observances are carried out in countries with a sizable Shia population.

Both Sunni and Shia Muslims mourn during Muharram, although Sunnis do so to a much lesser extent. Storytelling, weeping, self-flagellation, and re-enactments of the Battle of Karbala form the crux of the observances.

Muharram

The Tenth day of Muharram is known as the Day of Ashura. Sometimes, as part of the Mourning of Muharram Shia Muslims practice faka (partial fasting) and Sunni Muslims practice fasting on Ashura.

Shia Muslims mourn the death of Ḥusayn ibn ʿAlī and his family, honoring the martyrs by prayer and abstinence from joyous events. Shia Muslims do not fast on the 10th of Muharram, but some will not eat or drink until Zawal (afternoon) to show their sympathy with Husayn. In addition there is an important ziyarat book, the Ziyarat Ashura about Husayn ibn Ali. In the Shia sect, it is popular to read this ziyarat on this date.

RG Veda

RG Veda (聖伝-RG VEDA-, Seiden: Rigu Vēda) is a manga created by Clamp, consisting of ten volumes in all. It was first published in Japan in 1989 as Clamp's debut manga. The story features elements of Vedic mythology; the title itself is pronounced Rigveda, the name of one of the four Vedas. The series is known for its extravagant and richly detailed art. It inspired a 2-episode anime OVA that was released through 1991 to 1992. The OVAs were licensed by Central Park Media, while Manga Entertainment licensed it in the UK and Australia, with a different English dub.

The RG Veda manga has been translated and released in many different languages. Tokyopop has released English versions in the United States. However, they have since lost the rights, and Dark Horse Comics recently acquired the series, with plans to publish it in omnibus form in 2016.

Rusatai-ye Ashura

Rusatai-ye Ashura (Persian: روستاي عاشورا‎, also Romanized as Rūsatāī-ye ʿĀshūrā) is a village in Kongor Rural District, in the Central District of Kalaleh County, Golestan Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 150, in 29 families.

Tang-e Zard-e Ashura

Tang-e Zard-e Ashura (Persian: تنگ زرد عاشورا‎, also Romanized as Tang-e Zard-e ʿĀshūrā; also known as Tang-e Zard) is a village in Rak Rural District, in the Central District of Kohgiluyeh County, Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 65, in 15 families.

 
Bismillahir Rahmanir Rahim
Part of a series on

Shia Islam
Mirror writing2
Ghadir logo.png Shia Islam portal
Events
Figures
Places
Holidays
Customs
Related portals
Islamic holidays and observances
The two Eids
Other holidays and observances
January
February
March
April
May
June–July–August
June
July
September
October
November
December
Varies (year round)

Languages

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.