Ashikaga Yoshitane

Ashikaga Yoshitane (足利 義稙, September 9, 1466 – May 23, 1523), also known as Ashikaga Yoshiki (足利 義材), was the 10th shōgun of the Ashikaga shogunate who headed the shogunate first from 1490 to 1493[1] and then again from 1508 to 1521 during the Muromachi period of Japan.[2]

Yoshitane was the son of Ashikaga Yoshimi and grandson of the sixth shōgun Ashikaga Yoshinori. In his early life, he was named Yoshiki (sometimes translated as Yoshimura), and then Yoshitada[3] — including the period of when he is first installed as shōgun; however, he changed his name to Yoshitane in 1501 in a period when he was temporarily exiled, and it is by this name that he is generally known today.[4]

The 9th shōgun Ashikaga Yoshihisa died in 1489 on a battlefield of southern Ōmi Province. Yoshihisa left no heir; and Yoshitane became Sei-i Taishōgun a year later.[5]

Ashikaga Yoshitane statue
Ashikaga Yoshitane

Family

  • Father: Ashikaga Yoshimi
  • Mother: daughter of Uramatsu Shigemasa
  • Wife: Seiyun'in
  • Concubine: daughter of Yamana Toyoshige
  • Children:
    • Takewakamaru
    • a daughter
  • Adopted Son: Ashikaga Yoshitsuna

Events of Yoshitane's bakufu

Significant events which shaped the period during which Yoshitane was shōgun:[3]

In 1493, Yoshitane lost in a power struggle against Hosokawa Masamoto and was formally replaced by the eleventh shōgun, Ashikaga Yoshizumi.[6]

In 1508, with the support of Ōuchi Yoshioki, Yoshitane regained the position of Sei-i Taishōgun from Yoshizumi.[7]

Eventually, after a further power struggle with the Hosokawa clan and Hosokawa Takakuni, Yoshitane was forced to withdraw to Awaji Island. He died in Awa province, on the island of Shikoku.[8]

Hosokawa Takakuni arranged for the replacement of Yoshitane with the twelfth shōgun, Ashikaga Yoshiharu.[8]

Yoshitane's heirs and successors

Shōgun Yoshitane adopted the son of Yoshizumi who was his cousin, Ashikaga Yoshitsuna and he designated Yoshitsuna as his heir and as his anticipated successor as shogun.[9] However, when Yoshitane died prematurely, he was not succeeded by who he had chosen; rather, his father's newly designated heir was accepted by the shogunate as shōgun Yoshizumi.[10]

In other words, after the death of his son, shōgun Yoshimasa adopted the son of his brother, Yoshimi. After the death of his adopted son, Yoshimasa adopted the son of another brother, Masatomo. Shogun Yoshimasa was succeeded by shōgun Yoshihisa (Yoshimasa's natural son), then by shōgun Yoshitane (Yoshimasa's first adopted son), and then by shōgun Yoshizumi (Yoshimasa's second adopted son). Yoshizumi's progeny would become shōguns in due course.[10]

Eventually, the great-grandson of Yoshitane would be installed as a puppet shōgun for a brief period, but external power struggles would unseat him, and the Ashikaga dynasty of shōguns would end.[10]

Eras of Yoshitane's bakufu

The years in which Yoshitane was shogun are more specifically identified by more than one era name or nengō.[11]

Notes

  1. ^ Titsigh, Issac. (1834). Annales des empereurs du japon, p. 361–362., p. 361, at Google Books
  2. ^ Titsingh, pp. 367–371., p. 367, at Google Books
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Ackroyd, p. 331.
  4. ^ Titsingh, p. 364., p. 364, at Google Books
  5. ^ Titsingh, p. 361., p. 361, at Google Books
  6. ^ Titsingh, p. 362., p. 362, at Google Books
  7. ^ Titsingh, p. 366–367., p. 366, at Google Books
  8. ^ a b Titsingh, p. 370., p. 370, at Google Books
  9. ^ Ackroyd, p. 385 n104; excerpt, "Some apparent contradictions exist in various versions of the pedigree owing to adoptions and name-changes. Yoshitsuna (sometimes also read Yoshikore) changed his name and was adopted by Yoshitane. Some pedigrees show Yoshitsuna as Yoshizumi's son, and Yoshifuyu as Yoshizumi's son."
  10. ^ a b c Ackroyd, p. 298.
  11. ^ Titsingh, pp. 352–372., p. 352, at Google Books

References

  • Ackroyd, Joyce. (1982) Lessons from History: The Tokushi Yoron. Brisbane: University of Queensland Press. ISBN 9780702214851; OCLC 7574544
  • Titsingh, Isaac. (1834). Nihon Ōdai Ichiran; ou, Annales des empereurs du Japon. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691.
Preceded by
Ashikaga Yoshihisa
Shōgun:
Ashikaga Yoshitane

1490–1493
Succeeded by
Ashikaga Yoshizumi
Preceded by
Ashikaga Yoshizumi
Shōgun:
Ashikaga Yoshitane

1508–1521
Succeeded by
Ashikaga Yoshiharu
1466

Year 1466 (MCDLXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. It is one of eight years (CE) to contain each Roman numeral once (1000(M)+(-100(C)+500(D))+50(L)+10(X)+5(V)+1(I) = 1466).

1490

Year 1490 (MCDXC) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

1523

Year 1523 (MDXXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Ashikaga Yoshiharu

Ashikaga Yoshiharu (足利 義晴, April 2, 1511 – May 20, 1550) was the twelfth shōgun of the Ashikaga shogunate who held the reins of supreme power from 1521 through 1546 during the late Muromachi period of Japan. He was the son of the eleventh shōgun Ashikaga Yoshizumi.His childhood name was Kameomaru (亀王丸).

May 1, 1521 (Daiei 1, 25th day of the 3rd month): After the tenth shogun Ashikaga Yoshitane and Hosokawa Takakuni struggled for power over the shogunate and Yoshitane withdrew to Awaji Island, the way was clear for Minamoto-no Yoshiharu to be installed as shogun.

1521 (Daiei 1, 6th month): Yoshiharu enters Kyoto.

1526 (Daiei 6, 12th month): Shōgun Yoshiharu invited archers from neighboring provinces to come to the capital for an archery contest.Not having any political power and repeatedly being forced out of the capital of Kyoto, Yoshiharu retired in 1546 over a political struggle between Miyoshi Nagayoshi and Hosokawa Harumoto making his son Ashikaga Yoshiteru the thirteenth shogun.

May 20, 1550 (Tenbun 19, 4th day of the 5th month): Yoshiharu died.1568 (Eiroku 11): Supported by Oda Nobunaga, his son Ashikaga Yoshiaki became the fifteenth shogun.From a western perspective, Yoshiharu is significant, as he was shogun in 1542, when the first contact of Japan with the European West took place. A Portuguese ship, blown off its course to China, landed in Japan.

Ashikaga Yoshihisa

Ashikaga Yoshihisa (足利 義尚, December 11, 1465 – April 26, 1489) was the 9th shōgun of the Ashikaga shogunate who reigned from 1473 to 1489 during the Muromachi period of Japan. Yoshihisa was the son of the eighth shōgun Ashikaga Yoshimasa with his wife Hino Tomiko.Since the almost 30-year-old shōgun Yoshimasa had no heir by 1464, he adopted his younger brother Ashikaga Yoshimi to succeed him. However, Yoshihisa was born in the next year starting a struggle for succession between brothers that erupted into the Ōnin War starting in 1467, beginning the Sengoku period of Japanese history. In the middle of hostilities, Yoshimasa retired in 1473, relinquishing the position of Sei-i Taishōgun to Yoshihisa.

Ashikaga Yoshitsuna

Ashikaga Yoshitsuna (足利義維, 1509–1573) was a Japanese samurai of the Ashikaga clan during the Sengoku period of Japan's history.

Yoshitsuna was the brother of Ashikaga Yoshiharu who was the 12th shōgun of the Muromachi shogunate. Both men were sons of Ashikaga Yoshizumi, who was the 11th Ashikaga shōgun.Yoshitsuna was adopted as heir of the 10th shōgun, Ashikaga Yoshitane, but he was never elevated to this leadership role.Yoshitsuna was the father of the 14th shōgun, Ashikaga Yoshihide.

Ashikaga Yoshizumi

Ashikaga Yoshizumi (足利 義澄, January 15, 1481 – September 6, 1511) was the 11th shōgun of the Ashikaga shogunate who reigned from 1494 to 1508 during the Muromachi period of Japan. He was the son of Ashikaga Masatomo and grandson of the sixth shōgun Ashikaga Yoshinori. His childhood name was Seikō (清晃), Yoshizumi was first called Yoshitō (sometimes translated as Yoshimichi), then Yoshitaka.Yoshizumi was adopted by the 8th shōgun Ashikaga Yoshimasa. He was installed by Hosokawa Masamoto as Sei-i Taishōgun. He was stripped of the title in 1508 by the 10th shōgun Ashikaga Yoshitane, who became shōgun for a second period of time.Two of Yoshizumi's sons would themselves become shōguns. Ashikaga Yoshiharu would hold nominal powers as the twelfth Muromachi shōgun; and Ashikaga Yoshihide assumed nominal powers as the fourteenth shōgun.

Ashikaga clan

The Ashikaga clan (足利氏, Ashikaga-shi) was a prominent Japanese samurai clan which established the Muromachi shogunate and ruled Japan from roughly 1333 to 1573.The Ashikaga were descended from a branch of the Minamoto clan, deriving originally from the town of Ashikaga in Shimotsuke province (modern-day Tochigi prefecture).

For about a century the clan was divided in two rival branches, the Kantō Ashikaga, who ruled from Kamakura, and the Kyōto Ashikaga, rulers of Japan. The rivalry ended with the defeat of the first in 1439. The clan had many notable branch clans, including the Hosokawa, Imagawa, Hatakeyama (after 1205), Kira, Shiba, and Hachisuka clans. After the head family of the Minamoto clan died out during the early Kamakura period, the Ashikaga came to style themselves as the head of the Minamoto, coopting the prestige which came with that name.

Another Ashikaga clan, not related by blood, and derived instead from the Fujiwara clan, also existed.

Battle of Arita-Nakaide

The Battle of Arita-Nakaide (有田中井手の戦) took place in 1517 in Aki Province, Japan during the Sengoku period. During the battle, Takeda Motoshige was defeated by a young Mōri Motonari. It was Motonari's first battle.

Bunki

Bunki (文亀) was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, "year name") after Meiō and before Eishō. This period spanned the years from February 1501 through February 1504. The reigning emperor was Go-Kashiwabara-tennō (後柏原天皇).

Eishō (Muromachi period)

Eishō (永正) was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, "year name") after Bunki and before Daiei. The period spanned the years from February 1504 through August 1521. The reigning emperor was Go-Kashiwabara-tennō (後柏原天皇).

Emperor Go-Kashiwabara

Emperor Go-Kashiwabara (後柏原天皇 Go-Kashiwabara-tennō) (November 19, 1462 – May 19, 1526) was the 104th emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. He reigned from November 16, 1500, to May 19, 1526. His personal name was Katsuhito (勝仁). His reign marked the nadir of Imperial authority during the Ashikaga shogunate.

Entoku

Entoku (延徳) was a Japanese era name (年号, nengō, "year name") after Chōkyō and before Meio. This period spanned the years from August 1489 through July 1492. The reigning emperor was Go-Tsuchimikado-tennō (後土御門天皇).

Hosokawa Takakuni

Hosokawa Takakuni (細川 高国, 1484 – 17 July 1531) was the most powerful military commander in the Muromachi period under Ashikaga Yoshiharu, the twelfth shōgun. His father was Hosokawa Masaharu, who was the branch of the Hosokawa clan.His childhood name was Rokuro (六郎).

In 1507, Hosokawa Masamoto was killed by his foster son, Hosokawa Sumiyuki who had been disinherited by Masamoto. Takakuni supported Hosokawa Sumimoto and got credit for putting down Sumiyuki. Because of that, he participated in the Muromachi shogunate in depth. In 1508, when Ōuchi Yoshioki marched his armies into Kyoto with Ashikaga Yoshiki (Ashikaga Yoshitane), the former shōgun who had escaped to Suō Province, Takakuni conspired with them and purged the shogun Ashikaga Yoshizumi and Sumimoto to Ōmi Province.

Takakuni and Yoshioki took hold of the Muromachi shogunate. Takakuni took over as head of the Hosokawa people and took the blam of Kanrei. In addition, he also held the post of Shugo of Settsu Province, Tanba Province, Sanuki Province and Tosa Province. In 1518, he monopolized the powers of the shogunate after Yoshioki went back to his domain. In 1521, Yoshiki hated to be a puppet shogun, and escaped to Awa Province. Takakuni made Ashikaga Yoshiharu, son of Yoshizumi, take up the post of shogun.

Takakuni took Yanagimoto Kataharu, the younger brother of Kozai Motomori, chief vassal of the Hosokawa people, as his wakashū and the two swore eternal love to each other. Kataharu, even after reaching adulthood, remained a favorite vassal. However, as a result of a calumny by his own cousin, Takakuni felt obliged to have Motomori killed. Though initially appeased by his lord, Yanagimoto shortly after joined with another brother against the cousin to avenge Motomori's death.In 1527, he was purged from Kyoto by Miyoshi Motonaga and Hosokawa Harumoto. In 1531, his army was defeated, and he hid in a store room for alcoholic beverage at Amagasaki, Settsu Province. When he was detected, he committed suicide.

Kujō Masamoto

Kujō Masamoto (九条 政基, 1445–1516), son of regent Mitsuie, was a kugyō or Japanese court noble of the Muromachi period (1336–1573). He held a regent position kampaku from 1476 to 1479. Kujō Hisatsune was his son.

List of shōguns

This article is a list of shōguns that ruled Japan intermittently, as hereditary military commanders, from the establishment of the Asuka period in 709 until the end of the Tokugawa shogunate in 1868.

List of state leaders in 1515

This is a list of heads of state, heads of governments, and other rulers in the year 1515.

List of state leaders in 1516

This is a list of heads of state, heads of governments, and other rulers in the year 1516.

Takao Osawa

Takao Osawa (Japanese: 大沢 たかお, Hepburn: Ōsawa Takao, born March 11, 1968) is a Japanese actor.

Ashikaga family tree
Chronology, dates and paternity of the Ashikaga shōguns

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