Asda Stores Ltd (/ˈæzdə/) trading as Asda, is a British supermarket retailer, headquartered in Leeds, West Yorkshire. The company was founded in 1949 when the supermarket owning Asquith family merged with the Associated Dairies company of Yorkshire. It expanded into the south of England during the 1970s and 1980s, and acquired Allied Carpets, 61 large Gateway Supermarkets and other businesses, such as MFI, then sold off its acquisitions during the 1990s to concentrate on the supermarkets. It was listed on the London Stock Exchange until 1999 when it was acquired by the American retail giant Walmart for £6.7 billion. Asda was the second-largest supermarket chain in Britain between 2003 and 2014 by market share, at which point it fell into third place. Since April 2019 it has regained its second place position, behind Tesco and ahead of Sainsbury's.
Besides its core supermarkets, the company also offers a number of other services, including financial services and a mobile phone provider that uses the existing EE network. Asda's marketing promotions are usually based solely on price, and since 2015, like its parent company, Walmart, Asda has promoted itself under the slogan "Save Money. Live Better". Since 1987, Asda has also had its property development subsidiary, McLagan Investments Ltd, which is based at the main Leeds head office site. The company is responsible for acquiring land for new Asda store developments, along with the relevant planning applications that are submitted to local councils, and the potential acquisition of any retail stores or developments placed for sale on the open market by any of its main competitors.
As a wholly owned division of Walmart, Asda is not required to declare quarterly or half-yearly earnings, but it submits full accounts to the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission each November. Despite being a subsidiary of Walmart, the company has more autonomy than any of the other supermarket chains within the Walmart International division, and has retained its own British management team and board since the 1999 takeover.
As of April 2018, Sainsbury's and Asda were in talks of merging. Such a merger would have given the combined supermarkets an estimated 30% share of the UK grocery market. Any merger proposal resulting from these talks would be subject to investigation by the UK regulator, the Competition and Markets Authority, before taking place. On 25 April 2019, the CMA announced it would not allow the merger due to an increase in price for consumers.
|Asda Stores Ltd.|
Asda House in Leeds, the supermarket's headquarters.
|Founded||19 February 1949|
|Founders||Peter and Fred Asquith|
Sir Noel Stockdale
|Headquarters||Asda House, South Bank, Leeds, West Yorkshire, England|
Number of locations
|633 as of 30 April 2019|
|Roger Burnley (President & CEO)|
Andy Murray (Chief Customer Officer)
Anthony Hemmerdinger (SVP - Retail Operations)
Hayley Tatum (SVP - People)
|Products||Grocery, general merchandise, financial services|
|Revenue||£21,666 million (2016)|
|£791.7 million (2016)|
Number of employees
|Subsidiaries||Asda Mobile, Asda Money|
The Asquith family were butchers based in Knottingley, West Yorkshire. In the 1920s, their rising aspirations meant that they expanded their business to seven butchers shops in the area. Their sons, Peter and Fred, later became founding members of Asda.
Around the same time, a group of West Riding dairy farmers, including the Stockdale family and Craven Dairies, joined together under the banner of J.W Hindell Dairy Farmers Ltd. This company diversified in 1949 to become Associated Dairies and Farm Stores Ltd, with Arthur Stockdale as the managing director.
In 1963, the Asquith brothers converted an old cinema building, the Queens in Castleford, into a self-service supermarket. Another swiftly followed in the old indoor market at Edlington, near Doncaster. Both stores traded under the name of 'Queens'. Their next store was a purpose-built supermarket in South Elmsall, near Pontefract on the site of the old Palace cinema.
In 1965, when the Asquith brothers approached Associated Dairies to run the butchery departments within their small store chain, a merger was proposed. So they joined together with Noel Stockdale, Arthur Stockdale's son, to form a new company, Asda (Asquith + Dairies) (capitalised from 1985).
Another store opened in Wakefield then in Wortley, Leeds which was swiftly followed by another supermarket in the Whitkirk suburb of Leeds, which consolidated the newly formed supermarket division of Associated Dairies. By 1967, the company had moved outside of Yorkshire to set up a store in the North East in Billingham, Teesside, which is still trading to the present day. By 1969, the Asquith brothers had their stake bought out by Noel Stockdale, who became chairman of the company.
Asda took advantage of the abolition of retail price maintenance to offer large-scale, low-cost supermarkets. This was aided by the risky decision to acquire three struggling US-owned branches in the mid-1960s of the GEM retail group. The Government Exchange Mart stores in Preston, Lancashire, Cross Gates, Leeds and including the first out-of-town store in West Bridgford in Nottingham, that opened in November 1964, had accumulated losses of £320,000 and offered to sell the stores for 20% of whatever Asda could recoup as losses from the Inland Revenue. They received the whole amount back so got the stores for free. The rent was only 10 shillings (50p) per square foot on a 20-year lease, with no rent reviews- all in all a great deal. Asda increased GEM's £6,000 per week sales to around £60,000 per week in just six months with the new stores named solely as just Asda.
The 1970s had seen Asda rapidly expanding to open large superstores in edge-and out-of-town locations, and to build stores with district centres in smaller towns. It also added more petrol filling stations to stores, along with car tyre bays run by ATS. With over 30 stores in the north of England, Asda began their expansion into the south of the country with the opening of new stores in the Estover area of Plymouth, Devon and Gosport, Hampshire in 1977.
By 1981, under the soon to be outgoing, Managing Director, Peter Firmston-Williams, 80 Asda stores were trading. When he first became head of the Asda stores division in 1971, with the approval of Chairman, Noel Stockdale, he introduced delicatessen counters and in-store bakery departments to all Asda stores. The last store to open under his tenure was in the Manchester suburb of Harpurhey. But the growth of the chain was slowing down and their southern expansion had been expensive. They had been competing with southern rivals Tesco and Sainsbury's to acquire prime retail sites in the more affluent South East counties of England. The first London store was not opened until 1982, in Park Royal, near Ealing. The Isle of Dogs and Charlton, London stores followed on rapidly thereafter.
The 1980s were a turbulent period for Asda as they moved away from their founding principles of price competitiveness and good value. In 1984, new Managing Director, John Hardman, made bold attempts to halt Asda's decline, which included the introduction of Asda branded products.
In 1985, Asda merged with MFI (Mullard Furniture Industries) and the group was renamed Asda-MFI Group plc.
By the end of the 1990s the 'Asdale'-named clothing range was replaced by the clothing ranges from the newly formed George Davies partnership with Asda. Davies was an experienced and successful entrepreneur who had founded the Next clothing chain of retail stores.
With stores mainly based in the North of England, the newly focused food retail group expanded further south in 1989 by buying the large format stores of rival Gateway Superstores for £705 million. City estimates suggested that Asda had overpaid by around £300 million for 61 of the largest Gateway stores, two undeveloped store sites and a distribution centre. That was far above the net book value of the locations some of which were poorly sited. Asda has subsequently relocated or rebuilt more than 30 of the original Gateway stores since the late 1990s. This move overstretched the company and by 1991, it found itself in serious financial trouble and saddled with £1 billion of debt.
The company was close to breaching its banking covenants and Asda came very close to bankruptcy. The company raised funds through two major rights issues, one in 1991 and the second in, 1993. By the middle of 1995, with Archie Norman as CEO from 1991, along with his new management team in place, staged one of the most successful turnaround stories in British retail history. As chairman of the company during the period 1996–99, Norman remodelled the store along the lines of Walmart, the world's largest retailer. Executive Allan Leighton travelled to Bentonville, Arkansas to assess and photograph the systems and marketing deployed by Walmart.
When Norman left the company to pursue his political career, he was replaced by Leighton. Walmart wanted to enter the UK market so CEO Bob Martin lobbied British Prime Minister Tony Blair on planning issues. Asda, which at the time owned 229 stores, was purchased by Walmart on 26 July 1999 for £6.7 billion, trumping a rival bid from Kingfisher plc.
In 2005, amid reported concerns within Walmart about a slippage in market share, partially due to a resurgent Sainsbury's, Asda's chief executive, Tony De Nunzio left, and was replaced by Andy Bond. In 2005, Asda expanded into Northern Ireland by purchasing 12 former Safeway stores from Morrisons.
In April 2010, Asda announced plans to open over 100 new non-food stores as part of an ambitious five-year plan. These plans were mothballed shortly after because of the recession and the reining in of spending by consumers on non-food purchases.
In August 2009, Walmart "sold" Asda for £6.9 billion to their Leeds-based investment subsidiary Corinth Services Limited. The deal was described as part of a "group restructuring" and meant Asda remained under the control of Walmart, since Corinth is itself a Walmart subsidiary.
In May 2010, Asda bought the original Netto UK supermarket chain in a £778 million deal. The deal provided the company with smaller stores that became part of the supermarket division formed in 2009, with most Netto stores being only one fifth of the size of a branch within the core Asda superstore format. In September 2010, Asda was required to sell 47 of the existing 194 Netto stores following a ruling by the Office of Fair Trading. The rebranding of Netto stores to Asda began in early 2011.
In November 2017, Asda recruited Jesús Lorente, from French hypermarket retailer Carrefour. He became CMO (Chief Merchandising Officer), in January 2018, and was put in charge of the fresh food and general merchandise offer within all stores. After reportedly clashing with Roger Burnley and only six months in his post, Lorente left Asda at the end of July 2018. His role was divided up between Burnley and Anthony Hemmerdinger.
In April 2018, Sainsbury's and Walmart announced negotiations about a possible merger of Sainsbury's and Asda, creating the largest supermarket chain in the UK. Under the plans, Walmart would own 42% of the combined business, which would be led by the existing chief executive of Sainsbury's, Mike Coupe. The group would also open branches of Argos within Asda stores. The merger is currently under intense scrutiny by a cross-party group of MPs, who are chairing select committees for the proposed merger between the two companies, and along with the Competition and Markets Authority, are investigating the impact of how the deal could negatively affect the retail industry by a possible reduction of consumer choice for shoppers resulting in price rises, and of how suppliers, especially smaller, family-owned companies could be squeezed by the combined group. The CMA, as of June 2018, have been inundated with complaints by suppliers and other major retailers of the damage they feel will be inflicted upon them if the deal is approved. On 25 April 2019 the CMA blocked the proposed merger with Sainsburys suggesting that if the merger was to happen it would increase prices for consumers and make competition unfair for the other UK retailers, Sainsbury's then announced that it was abandoning the merger.
Following the takeover by Walmart, several "Asda Walmart Supercentres" have been opened, creating some of the largest hypermarkets in the United Kingdom. Since 2006, all new Supercentres have been solely branded as Asda Supercentre without the Walmart branding. The first Supercentre with a sales area of 8,600 m2 (93,000 sq ft) opened in Patchway, Bristol in the summer of 2000. The first Scottish Supercentre opened in Livingston, in 2001. The Bletchley, Milton Keynes Supercentre which opened in November 2005 is currently the largest Asda Supercentre with a net sales floor of over 11,000 m2 (120,000 sq ft). This was preceded in June 2002 by the Eastlands, Manchester store which was the largest store at the time with a sales area of 10,000 m2 (110,000 sq ft) but is currently the second largest Asda Supercentre, and the third largest is located in Minworth, West Midlands, followed by Patchway. As of 31 January 2019, there are 32 Supercentres.
Asda superstores are large supermarkets with a non-food offer slightly smaller than an Asda Supercentre. As of 30 April 2019, there are 341 superstores. Most superstores have a petrol filling station and dining and refreshment facilities for shoppers such as customer cafes, and selected stores have McDonald's franchise restaurants or "Express Diners" The Old Kent Road, Scunthorpe and Colindale stores are trialling a Subway franchise. There are currently no plans to roll the Subway franchise out across the chain.
In May 2010, Asda announced the purchase of the 193 UK stores of Danish discount retailer Netto in a £778 million deal. But the Competition Commission made them sell off 47 of the stores to other retailers. The remaining stores continued to trade as Netto stores until early 2011, when Asda integrated the stores into its supermarkets division, designated for shops smaller than 2,300 m2 (25,000 sq ft). These former Netto stores form the core of the Asda Supermarket format. As of 30 April 2019, there are 209 supermarkets.
In October 2003, Asda launched a new format called 'Asda Living'. This is the company's first "general merchandise" store, containing all its non-food ranges including clothing, home electronics, toys, homewares, health, and beauty products. With these stores they have linked up with Compass Group who operate the coffee shop Living Cafe within some of the stores. The first store with this format opened in Walsall, West Midlands. As at 3o April 2019, there are 33 stores.
In 2004, the George clothing brand was extended to a number of standalone George stores on the high street; the first George standalone store to open was in Preston. In 2008, all George standalone stores were closed due to high rental costs resulting in low profitability.
In 2011, Asda announced its intention to establish a small number of pilot George stores. In January 2012 Asda announced that it had agreed to terms with two franchise partners to open international George stores. Through the agreement with SandpiperCI, based in the Channel Islands, the company will be responsible for opening George franchises in both Jersey and Guernsey, and through the Azadea Group, headquartered in Beirut, Lebanon, the George franchise stores would open in the Middle East.
In April 2006, Asda launched a new trial format called 'Asda Essentials' in a former Co-op store in Northampton, followed by another in Pontefract a month later. This was the old Kwik-Save building for Pontefract. The stores were modelled on France's Leader Price chain, with a smaller floorplate than Asda's mainstream stores and with a primary focus on own-brand products, only stocking branded items that were perceived to be at the "core" of a family's weekly shop with the aim being to challenge the dominance of Tesco and Sainsbury's in the convenience store market while at the same time addressing competition from discount supermarkets such as Aldi, Lidl and Netto. On 6 December 2006, The Guardian newspaper reported that further planned store openings were under review following poor sales in the existing outlets, while the range of branded products being carried was also being expanded due to customer demand. In January 2007 it was announced that the original trial store would close within a month after only 10 months of trading.
In 2012, Asda trialled a new standalone petrol filling station format (which means that they are not attached to or near an existing Asda store) at two locations in Sale, Greater Manchester and Leeds Bridge, which is located near to their head office. They include a small convenience store and click and collect facilities. The trial was a success and in 2014, a full roll out of this format was announced after a third site opened in Northolt, West London. In February 2015, 15 petrol filling stations were acquired from Rontec Ltd, and converted to the new format. Asda originally aimed to have at least 100 standalone forecourts by 2018. However, in October 2015, the company decided to slow the roll out down to address the problems associated with a major collapse of profits from its large store formats due to intense competition from its main rivals. But, the company is still continuing to add a combination of fully automated credit/debit card payment only petrol stations and petrol stations with traditional forecourt shops within the car parks of its existing store portfolio and to new store sites.
Asda was also the first supermarket chain in the United Kingdom to sell petrol at its old Halifax store in 1967, which at the time was located inside a converted mill in Battinson Road which burnt down during a major fire in 1982, and subsequently reopened as a purpose-built store in 1983, but it no longer offered a petrol station. The store moved to a different site in 2004. Back then its forecourt fuel was supplied by discount Russian supplier Nafta, because the major oil companies would not supply fuel to be sold at discount prices. From the early seventies, oil companies such as Mobil, Shell and Texaco supplied fuel to Asda as more supermarkets started to sell fuel from car park forecourts. Since the mid-1990s Asda has supplied, along with its main supermarket rivals, its own fuel delivered by its own tankers to its petrol station forecourts. As of June 2018, Asda operates 319 petrol stations in total, most within the car park area of its stores. And, as of 30 April 2019, that includes 18 standalone petrol stations.
Between 2000/2001, the Smart Price brand replaced the Asda Farm Stores budget brand which had been introduced, at first initially, into some underperforming stores back in 1993. In 2012, it was revised to match the branding of the Walmart Great Value line.
Under the new Asda management team it was decided to reintroduce the Farm Stores brand on selected fresh food products, as part of the company's plans to return and reconnect to its core founding heritage. These products include fresh meat and produce. The Farm Stores brand was officially relaunched in April 2017. In 2018, Asda announced to scrap 5p carrier bags in all stores by the end of the year.
Asda has its own range of clothing known as George, which was created and trialled in selected stores in 1989, and officially launched and rolled out to the main superstore estate in 1990. It replaced the older Asdale/Asda clothing labels of the 1970s and 1980s. This is marketed as quality fashion clothing at affordable prices. Walmart also sells the George brand in Argentina, Canada, China, India, Japan, Mexico, and the US (and in South Korea until Walmart pulled out of that market). George clothing is also sold at four stand alone dedicated stores in Malta, the first opening in 2013. The label is named after George Davies, founder of Next, who was its original chief designer. Davies himself parted company with Asda in 2000 and is no longer associated with the brand.
In 2005, Asda stated that the George range was a £1.75 billion business, including sales from Walmart stores in the United States and Germany. Mintel estimate that George is the fourth largest retailer of clothing in the United Kingdom, after Marks & Spencer, the Arcadia Group and Next.
Asda has a financial services division, similar to those operated by Tesco, Sainsbury's and other retailers. Asda simply attaches its own brand to products provided by other companies. Services offered include car insurance (provided by Brightside Insurance Services), credit cards (provided by Creation Financial Services) and travel money bureaux (provided by Travelex). The financial services division of the organisation does not directly sell these services in store and instead uses the supplier of that product by telephone or online/postal application. Marketing and management of financial services is co-ordinated in house and many stores have a financial services co-ordinator, responsible for promoting the products and ensuring legal compliance. The Financial Services division is also responsible for gift cards, Christmas Saver and Business Rewards.
Asda now has 25 distribution depots all across the UK which distribute across the network of stores. There are depots for chilled foods, clothing and ambient products, such as carbonated drinks and cereals.
Alongside ASDA's distribution supply chain now exists the ToYou parcel service. In 2015, the store chain announced that it would be getting involved in click and collect plus returns for online orders from retailers such as ASOS and Ideal World.
According to CACI, as of 2006, Asda has market dominance in 14 postcode areas; DY (Dudley), B (Birmingham), CH (Chester), L (Liverpool), WN (Wigan), BL (Bolton), BB (Blackburn), LA (Lancaster), HU (Kingston upon Hull), SR (Sunderland), DH (Durham), NE (Newcastle upon Tyne), G (Glasgow) and AB (Aberdeen).
The company has featured prominently in lists of "Best companies to work for", appearing in second place in The Times newspaper list for 2005. It offers staff a discount of 10% on most items (exceptions include fuel, stamps, lottery, giftcards and tobacco related items).
The company was fined £850,000 in 2006 for offering 340 staff at a Dartford depot a pay rise in return for giving up a union collective bargaining agreement. Poor relations continued as Asda management attempted to introduce new rights and working practices shortly thereafter at another centre in Washington, Tyne and Wear.
In 2013, tens of thousands of Asda workers across the UK were hit with a tax complication because of an anomaly in Asda's payroll system. Asda employees receive their pay every four weeks, which meant, according to their spokesperson, that once every 20 years they are paid 14 times a year rather than 13. Whilst most companies handle this properly, Asda's payroll system did not, which meant that workers had, through no fault of their own, paid less tax for the year than they should have. This resulted in most full-time and a small number of part-time workers receiving a demand from HM Revenue & Customs for between £72 to £160.
In the 'Asda price' campaign, customers tap their trouser pocket twice, producing a 'chinking' sound as the coins that Asda's low prices have supposedly left in their pockets knock together. The pocket tap ads were launched in 1977 and over the next 30 years, a range of celebrities have been "tappers", including from 1978, actors Richard Beckinsale, Paula Wilcox and James Bolam. And later, Julie Walters, and football player Michael Owen. In the late 1970s, adverts also included Sitcom actor Leonard Rossiter.
In 1980, Carry On actress Hattie Jacques appeared in the advert as a school crossing patrol officer. Between 1981 and 1985, Asda used the slogan 'All Together Better' in conjunction with the 'Asda Price' pocket tap campaign in TV commercials and newspaper and magazine advertisements. When the new green capitalised ASDA logo started to appear from 1985, in early 1986 onwards and until early 1989, two slogans were used. The first, 'You'd be off your trolley to go anywhere else', was replaced in 1987 by 'One trip and you're laughing'.
In 1989, and until late 1991, before the reintroduction of the pocket tap campaign, advertising for Asda had featured the Fairground Attraction song "Perfect" with the slogan 'It 'Asda be Asda', which was based upon the lyrics of the song. When the Asda Price slogan was reintroduced in 1992, the strapline Pocket the Difference (capitalised) was added alongside it. This was replaced by Permanently Low Prices, Forever in 1996.
In December 1997, the Spice Girls licensed their name and image to Asda for the creation of over 40 different Spice Items for Christmas 1997, including goods such as party supplies, official merchandise, and Spice Girl branded kids' meals in the stores' restaurants. The Spice Girls reportedly earned £1 million from the deal.
In the smiley face "rollback" campaign, also used by Walmart, a CGI smiley face bounced from price tag to price tag, knocking them down as customers watch. In 2006, Asda advertising was themed around singing children and the slogan "More for you for less", and the previous tap of the trouser pocket advertising was reduced to a double-tap on a stylised 'A', still producing the 'chinking' sound.
For Christmas 2007, Asda reintroduced the "That's Asda price" slogan.
In 2008, the company refocused on price with a "Why Pay More?" campaign both on TV and in stores. Asda TV commercials in April 2009 focused on price comparisons between Asda and its rivals, using information from mySupermarket. The music being used in these adverts is the Billy Childish version of the classic Dad's Army theme tune. The old Asda jingle is not included in these, but appeared in a 2008 Christmas advert.
Asda has been winner of The Grocer magazine "Lowest Price Supermarket" Award for the past 16 years, and uses this to promote itself across the UK. In August 2005, rival supermarket chain Tesco challenged Asda's ability to use the claim that it was the cheapest supermarket in the country, by complaining to the Advertising Standards Agency. The ASA upheld the complaint and ordered Asda to stop using it.
Asda has signed up to the Ethical Trading Initiative (ETI) which respects workers' rights for freedom of association and a living wage. Implementing this initiative is difficult, however, because the concept of a living wage varies by country and the buying strategies of a major importer like Asda have an indirect impact on national minimum wages by obliging governments to set them low enough to stop businesses from going elsewhere. Industry pressure groups such as Labour Behind the Label and War on Want have argued that Asda and other budget retailers use unethical labour practices in the developing world to keep UK prices low.
The National Farmers' Union, representing UK farmers and growers, has argued that Asda and other major supermarkets have made large profits and kept consumer prices low "by squeezing suppliers' margins to the point where many of them have gone out of business". Asda have also refused to sign up to and donate to the Rana Plaza Donors Trust Fund, to donate compensation to the families of workers in Bangladesh killed when their factory building in Rana Plaza collapsed in 2013. Instead, Asda donated an undisclosed sum to the poverty relief charity Building Relationships Across Communities, who in turn pledged around £1.3m to the fund. Campaigners believe Asda is unwilling to set a precedent on indemnity pay for large scale industrial accidents.
In October 2010, Chairman Andy Bond was a signatory to a controversial letter to The Daily Telegraph, which claimed that "The private sector should be more than capable of generating additional jobs to replace those lost in the public sector, and the redeployment of people to more productive activities will improve economic performance, so generating more employment opportunities." This was followed by calls by the pressure group Liberal Conspiracy for a boycott of Asda, as well as the companies represented by the other signatories to the letter on the grounds that "Companies that support the CSR are failed corporate citizens."
Asda supports the following charities through its stores:
In December 2007, Asda, Sainsbury's and other retailers and dairy firms admitted to the price fixing of dairy products between 2002 and 2003. The price fixing operation was calculated to have cost consumers around £270 million.
Asda commented, "Everyone at Asda regrets what happened, particularly as we are passionate about lowering prices. Our intention was to provide more money for dairy farmers, who were under severe financial pressure at the time." In total, Asda was fined £18.21 million by the Office of Fair Trading for its part in the cartel.
In 2010, a national press ad for Asda on a double-page spread was headed "The big Asda Rollback" with headings stating "Lower prices on everything you buy, week in week out" with equal prominence to a column headed "Lower prices than any other supermarket"; that the arrows underneath the heading "Lower prices than any other supermarket" compared prices at Asda with prices at Sainsbury's, Tesco and Morrisons. The ASA ruled that in the context in which it appeared, it was ambiguous in that it could be interpreted either as referring to price reductions that had taken place within Asda or to price comparisons with the named competitors. In addition, because the ad did not explain that the price reductions had not necessarily taken place in the week that immediately preceded the ad, they concluded that the headings which stated the number of price reductions that had taken place in each product category were misleading. The ASA also concluded that the "Lower prices than any other supermarket" claim in the advert was misleading.
The ASA disagreed, and referred to the claim "Everything is at least half price!" was likely to imply to viewers that all toys were included in the sale. As all toys were not included in the sale, and in the absence of a qualifying statement, the ad was misleading.
The ASA ruled that a television advertisement in 2011 for the new Asda price guarantee was misleading in that the small on-screen text that stated "Exclusions apply" was not sufficient to warn viewers that the Asda price guarantee did not apply to non-grocery items.
The ASA also ruled against two national press ads one which showed hardback and children's books and one that showed football related items with text stating "If your grocery shopping could have cost less elsewhere we'll give you the difference - Guaranteed!". Although each advert had "Exclusions apply" and that other text stated "If your grocery shopping could have cost less elsewhere we'll give you the difference", it felt that given the prominent appearance of the hardback and children's activity books and football related items and the prominent appearance of the logo "ASDA Price GUARANTEE" and "Guaranteed!", they considered the footnote and other text referred to above was not sufficient to warn readers that non-grocery items particularly those included in the advertisement were not included in the Asda price guarantee.
Another advertisement from Asda, in which it featured World Cup related products and an Asda price guarantee was misleading as the World Cup related products were exclusive to Asda and not, therefore, available at Morrisons, Tesco or Sainsbury's.
In 2009, the ASA challenged whether a press ad which showed a large green arrow bearing down on a smaller yellow arrow with a crumpled tip and "Asda 2955 products cheaper" should set out how the general price claims made in the ads could be verified by consumers. Because it was not possible for consumers or competitors to check the products and prices used in the comparison using mySupermarket.co.uk, and because the ads did not set out how consumers and competitors could check that information for themselves, the ASA concluded that the ads did not satisfy the criterion of verifiability as defined in the 2006 European Court of Justice ruling, and were therefore in breach of the advertising Codes.
The ASA ruled that, due to the significant limitations and qualifications to the basis of the price comparison which were not included in the ad, or in the terms and conditions on Asda's website, the approach taken in making the comparisons was unfair and misleading.
A press ad, which appeared on 26 September 2011, was headlined "Only one supermarket is ... always 10% cheaper or we'll give you the difference guaranteed". However, at the top of the ad there was a banner that contained the claims "SALE", "Half Price", "Price Drop", "50% off", "1/2 price", "cheap" and that part of the headline claim "... always 10% cheaper" appeared in bold text in the middle of the ad. The ASA considered the banner, together with the headline was likely to be interpreted by consumers as claims that referred to the price of Asda goods. Since consumers could interpret that claim as one which guaranteed to refund the difference, should Asda not be the lowest on price, the ASA considered the presence of the claim "only one supermarket is always 10% cheaper" could create the impression that Asda were always 10% cheaper and would be interpreted as a 'lowest price' claim. The ASA therefore concluded that the advert was misleading. It also noted the footnote explaining the APG contradicted Asda's absolute claim that they were always the lowest on price, and that the disclaimer was also misleading.
In 2009, a four-page regional press wraparound included several maps and images of a proposed development in New Barnet, and described the benefits the development would bring to the local area. The advert included a development site plan and map, which marked out the proposed Asda store, the existing Sainsbury store and the sites of the proposed, approved and existing Tesco stores. Because it was not clear that the marked-out area relating to the Asda store was for only the store floorspace, whereas the marked-out area relating to the Sainsburys store included store floorspace and additional buildings, and the marked-out area relating to the proposed Tesco area was not based on an approved plan, the ASA concluded the advertisement was misleading.
In 2013, DNA tests revealed that horsemeat was present in Asda's Chosen By You fresh beef Bolognese sauce, the first instance during the 2013 meat adulteration scandal of horsemeat being found in fresh meat.
The American Student Dental Association (ASDA) is a national student-run organization that protects and advances the rights, interests, and welfare of dental students. It introduces students to lifelong involvement in organized dentistry and provides services, information, education, representation, and advocacy.
ASDA was established to connect, support and advance the needs of dental students. ASDA represents 92 percent of all students from 66 U.S. dental schools. In 2018, the association had over 24,000 members, including 22,000 dental students and almost 2,000 predental students. The association also has a membership category for international dental students.Asda Mobile
Asda Mobile is a mobile virtual network operator (MVNO) in the United Kingdom, operated by Asda, using the EE network. Asda Mobile previously used the Vodafone network until December 2013.
Asda Mobile is available in over 360 stores across the United Kingdom, and online through purchasing either a SIM Card (Standard, Micro or Nano SIM) or through an Asda Mobile handset.Australian Directors Guild
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Prominent local features include the Milton Road campus of the Edinburgh College and Edinburgh's largest Asda supermarket. Extensive shopping and some leisure facilities are close by at the Fort Kinnaird retail park nearby, on the site of the former Newcraighall coalmine.Chesser
Chesser is a mainly residential suburb of Edinburgh, Scotland, east of the Water of Leith. It is situated with Longstone to the southwest, Allan Park and Craiglockhart to the south, Slateford, Hutchison and Moat to the east and Gorgie Road to the north.
The area is named after John William Chesser, who was elected Lord Provost of Edinburgh in 1919 and died in office in 1921. In his previous role as Convenor of Markets and Slaughterhouses he had organised the building of the new markets and slaughterhouses in this area.The Edinburgh Corn Exchange is situated in Chesser, providing a venue for regular live events. Recent regeneration has seen the existing, predominantly early 20th century housing stock supplemented with modern developments. Sporting and shopping facilities are also in the area including an Asda supermarket. In 2016, the former Fruit Market in Chesser Avenue was transformed into a new retail park development.Doug Gurr
Douglas John Gurr (born July 1964) is a British businessman, and a global vice-president and head of Amazon UK since 2016. He formerly taught at Aarhus University and held positions in the United Kingdom civil service, at McKinsey & Co., and at Asda.Kinmel Bay
Kinmel Bay (Welsh: Bae Cinmel) is a seaside resort in Conwy County Borough, north-east Wales. It is also an electoral ward to the county council and town council. The town of Rhyl lies just across the River Clwyd in the neighbouring county of Denbighshire.
According to the 2001 Census, together with neighbouring Towyn (to the west), it had a population of 7,864, of which 10.7% could speak Welsh.Kinmel Bay is part of a large urban area which includes Abergele, Bodelwyddan, Pensarn, Towyn, Rhyl and Prestatyn, These are also tourist areas for spring/summer self-catering holidaymakers which include various caravan sites.
A ship, La Nave Reyes said to be part of the Spanish Armada and under the command of the Duke of Medina Sidonia, sunk in the River Clwyd near Kinmel Bay in 1588 with the loss of 220,000 pesos of gold and silver. These coins are still being found today.Kinmel Bay was originally called Foryd before it grew in size, and that was the name of the former train station (See Foryd railway station). Kinmel bay beach is popular with tourists and the local population. There is also a medium-sized Asda superstore that opened in 1981, which is located in Kinmel Bay, and picks up a lot of trade, especially during the summer months, from self-catering holidaymakers. Asda opened a large petrol filling station with a traditional forecourt convenience store which includes a mixture of cash sales and pay at pump by credit/debit card fuel facilities in September 2016. Asda scrapped plans to relocate the store to the former Ocean Beach fun fair redevelopment site one mile away in Rhyl in 2012.Leakage (retail)
Retail leakage occurs when local people spend a larger amount of money on goods than local businesses report in sales, usually due to people traveling to a neighboring town to buy goods. Retail sales leakage occurs when there is unsatisfied demand within the trading area and that the locality should provide extra stores spaces for such type of businesses. After all, retail leakage does not necessarily translate into opportunity. For instance, there could be a tough competition in a nearby locality that leads the market for same type of product. Many small - to medium-sized communities experience leakage of retail expenditures as local citizens drive to neighboring towns to shop at national retail chains (e.g. Tesco, Asda) or eat at national restaurant chains (e.g. Slug and Lettuce, Harvester). Attracting such national retail chain stores and restaurants to a community can prevent this type of expenditure leakage and create local jobs.The economic definition of leakage is situation in which an income exits an economy instead of staying within. In retail, leakage refers to consumers spending money outside the local market. For instance, crossing a border to buy goods instead of making the same purchase from local shops. Alternatively a retail leakage can be referred to as a ‘negative’ Retail Trade Gap or a Surplus fact or. Contradictorily a retail surplus means that the locality’s trade area is securing the local market and attracting non-local customers.Legal disputes over the Harry Potter series
Since first coming to wide notice in the late 1990s, the Harry Potter book series by J. K. Rowling has engendered a number of legal disputes. Rowling, her various publishers and Time Warner, the owner of the rights to the Harry Potter films, have taken numerous legal actions to protect their copyrights, and also have fielded accusations of copyright theft themselves. The worldwide popularity of the Harry Potter series has led to the appearance of a number of locally produced, unauthorised sequels and other derivative works, sparking efforts to ban or contain them. While these legal proceedings have countered a number of cases of outright piracy, other attempts have targeted not-for-profit endeavours and have been criticised.Another area of legal dispute involves a series of injunctions obtained by Rowling and her publishers to prohibit anyone from distributing or reading her books before their official release dates. The sweeping powers of these injunctions have occasionally drawn fire from civil liberties and free speech campaigners and sparked debates over the "right to read". One of these injunctions was used in an unrelated trespassing case as precedent supporting the issuance of an injunction against a John Doe.Outside these controversies, a number of particular incidents related to Harry Potter have also led, or almost led, to legal action. In 2005, a man was sentenced to four years in prison after firing a replica gun at a journalist during a staged deal for stolen copies of an unreleased Harry Potter novel, and attempting to blackmail the publisher with threats of releasing secrets from the book. Then in 2007 Bloomsbury Publishing contemplated legal action against the supermarket chain Asda for libel after the company accused them of overpricing the final Harry Potter novel, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows. A comprehensive list of intellectual property and speech lawsuits involving Harry Potter, Harry Potter Lawsuits and Where to Find Them, was compiled by attorney David Kluft in 2015 for the Trademark and Copyright Law Blog.List of supermarket chains in the United Kingdom
This is a list of supermarket chains in the United Kingdom. Grocery sales in the UK are dominated by Tesco, Asda, Sainsbury's and Morrisons. These, dubbed the 'big four', had a combined market share of 73.2% of the UK grocery market in the 12 weeks ending 4 January 2015, a decline from 74.1% in 2007. Discounters Aldi and Lidl have seen a combined rise in market share from 4.8% to 8.3% over that time, while upscale grocer Waitrose's share rose from 3.9% to 5.1%. As of KANTAR data published on 24 March 2019, the market share is dominated by Tesco, with Asda being second and Sainsbury's third. Morrisons are the largest of the remaining stores.
In early 2017, Tesco announced a deal to merge with Booker, the UK's largest wholesale food retailer, while Aldi became the 5th biggest supermarket.Premier Supermarkets, a subsidiary of Express Dairies, opened the UK's first supermarket in Streatham, South London in 1951, though The Co-operative Food opened Britain's first fully self-service store in March 1948 in Albert Road, Southsea.Minworth
Minworth is a village contiguous with Sutton Coldfield on the northeastern outskirts of Birmingham, West Midlands. It is located near Walmley, Wishaw, Curdworth, Erdington, Water Orton, Thimble End, and Castle Vale.Netto (store)
Netto is a Danish discount supermarket operating in Denmark, Germany, Poland, Sweden, and previously in the United Kingdom both as a stand-alone venture, until its sale in May 2010 to Asda, and via a joint venture with Sainsbury's between June 2014 and July 2016. Netto is owned by Salling Group.
Netto also operates an express version of the store in Denmark, known as "Døgn Netto" ("[24 hour] Day Netto"). Døgn stores offer the same service as regular Netto stores with fewer products, but longer opening hours and higher prices. As of 2016, all Døgn Nettos are being revised to normal Nettos or Føtex Food convenience concept stores.Netto UK
Netto was a discount supermarket chain in the United Kingdom. Netto arrived in the United Kingdom in December 1990, as part of an internationalisation process by its Danish owner, Salling Group. By May 2010, it operated 193 stores, before it was sold to Asda. In June 2014, Salling Group returned Netto to the United Kingdom, as a 50:50 joint venture with Sainsbury's.
In July 2016, the two companies announced they would end the joint venture, and close all its stores, after Sainsbury's chose to focus on its main business ahead of any further investment.Rock Mill, Ashton-under-Lyne
Rock Mill was cotton spinning mill in the Waterloo district of Ashton-under-Lyne, Greater Manchester, in England. It was built between 1891 and 1893 for the Ashton Syndicate by Sydney Stott of Oldham. Rock Mill was built on the site of Wilshaw Mill retaining and using the octagonal chimney. It ceased spinning cotton in the 1960s and was demolished in 1971; the site became the location for the town's first Asda supermarket, which opened in 1972, until Asda relocated to a much larger new store site in Cavendish Street in 1989.Safeway Stores (Ireland)
Safeway Stores (Ireland) was a supermarket chain that operated in Northern Ireland between 1996 and 2005. 12 of the 13 stores were acquired by Asda, itself owned by Walmart; whilst the remaining store was sold to Mr John Miskelly and Mrs Helen Miskelly. Despite its name, it did not operate any interests in the Republic of Ireland.Sainsbury's
Sainsbury's is the third largest chain of supermarkets in the United Kingdom, with a 16.9% share of the supermarket sector. Founded in 1869, by John James Sainsbury with a shop in Drury Lane, London, the company became the largest retailer of groceries in 1922, was an early adopter of self-service retailing in the United Kingdom and had its heyday during the 1980s. In 1995, Tesco overtook Sainsbury's to become the market leader, and Asda became the second largest in 2003, demoting Sainsbury's to third place for most of the subsequent period until January 2014, when Sainsbury's regained second place. In April 2019, whilst awaiting to merge with rival Asda, Sainsbury's was again demoted into third place as their rival placed second.The holding company, J Sainsbury plc, is split into three divisions: Sainsbury's Supermarkets Ltd (including convenience shops), Sainsbury's Bank and Sainsbury's Argos. The group's head office is in Sainsbury's Support Centre in Holborn Circus, City of London.As of February 2018, the largest overall shareholder is the sovereign wealth fund of Qatar, the Qatar Investment Authority, which holds 21.99% of the company. It is listed on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index.
In April 2018, Sainsbury's and Asda were in talks of merging. Such a merger would have given the combined supermarkets an estimated 30% share of the UK grocery market. Any merger proposal resulting from these talks would be subject to investigation by the UK regulator, the Competition and Markets Authority, before taking place. On 25 April, 2019, the CMA announced it would not allow the merger due to an increase in price for consumers.Silverhill, East Sussex
Silverhill is a suburb and Local Government Ward of Hastings, East Sussex. It has a central location within the town, where the A21 meets the B2159 road.Traffic congestion reconstruction with Kerner's three-phase theory
Vehicular traffic can be either free or congested. Traffic occurs in time and space, i.e., it is a spatiotemporal process. However, usually traffic can be measured only at some road locations (for example, via road detectors, video cameras, probe vehicle data, or phone data). For efficient traffic control and other intelligent transportation systems, the reconstruction of traffic congestion is necessary at all other road locations at which traffic measurements are not available. Traffic congestion can be reconstructed in space and time (Fig. 1) based on Boris Kerner’s three-phase traffic theory with the use of the ASDA and FOTO models introduced by Kerner. Kerner's three-phase traffic theory and, respectively, the ASDA/FOTO models are based on some common spatiotemporal features of traffic congestion observed in measured traffic data.WRU League 1 East
The Welsh Rugby Union Division One East is a rugby union league in Wales first implemented for the 1995/96 season. The league was formed in 2006 when the WRU divided the old Division One into two leagues, East and West