Asclepeion

Asclepeions (Ancient Greek: Ἀσκληπιεῖον Asklepieion; Ἀσκλαπιεῖον in Doric dialect; Latin aesculapīum) were healing temples located in ancient Greece (and Rome), dedicated to Asclepius, the first doctor-demigod in Greek mythology.[1] Asclepius was said to have been such a skilled doctor that he could even raise people from the dead. So stemming from the myth of his great healing powers, pilgrims would flock to temples built in his honor in order to seek spiritual and physical healing.

Asclepeion included carefully controlled spaces conducive to healing and fulfilled several of the requirements of institutions created for healing.[2] In addition to these spaces, excavated remains show that sanctuaries included a stadium, gymnasium, library, and theatre; access to these amenities promoted self-therapy through rest, relaxation, and exercise.[3] Treatment at these temples largely centered around promoting healthy lifestyles, with a particular emphasis on a person’s spiritual needs.[4] Signature to Asclepeion was the practice of incubatio, also known as 'temple sleep.'[3] This was a process by which patients would go to sleep in the temple with the expectation that they would be visited by Asclepius himself or one of his healing children in their dream. During this time, they would be told what it is that they needed to do in order to cure their ailment. At the very least, they would wake up having not been directly visited by a deity and instead report their dream to a priest. The priest would then interpret the dream and prescribe a cure, often a visit to the baths or a gymnasium.

Despite these methods being regarded as ‘faith healing,’ they were highly effective, as is evident by the numerous written accounts by patients attesting to their healing and providing detailed accounts of their cure.[3] In the Asclepeion of Epidaurus, three large marble boards dated to 350 BC preserve the names, case histories, complaints, and cures of about 70 patients who came to the temple with a problem and shed it there. Some of the surgical cures listed, such as the opening of an abdominal abscess or the removal of traumatic foreign material, are realistic enough to have taken place, with the patient in a dream-like state of induced sleep known as "enkoimesis" (Greek: ἐγκοίμησις), not unlike anesthesia, induced with the help of soporific substances such as opium.[5]

Asclepeions also became home to future physicians as well. Hippocrates is said to have received his medical training at an asclepeion on the isle of Kos. Prior to becoming the personal physician to the Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius, Galen treated and studied at the famed asclepeion at Pergamon.

Panoramic view from the Askleipion on Kos
Panoramic view from the Askleipion on Kos
Kos Asklepeion
Tourists enjoying the panoramic view of the city from the Askleipion on Kos

Asclepius and the Cult of Asclepius

Asclepius - Project Gutenberg eText 21325
Asclepius holding the staff with a snake wrapped around it that serves as the inspiration for the symbol of medicine.

In Greek mythology and religion, Asclepius was the Grecian God of Medicine - descendent of the Greek God Apollo and mortal Coronis. His name means, "to cut open".[6] It is said that he was so named as a result of his mother's childbirth experience, during which time her womb had to be cut open in order for Asclepius to be born (now known as a cesarean section).

Asclepius’ father Apollo was himself a patron god of medicine. It was through Apollo that Chiron, the wise and peaceful centaur, learned the art of healing. Under Apollo’s mentorship, Chiron grew in his craft so much so that Apollo himself entrusted Chiron to train his son, Asclepius.[1] Through his studies, Asclepius became so deft at medicine, especially the art of surgery, that he was able to return the living from the dead. His abilities quickly drew attention and jealousy from the other gods. As one story goes, Asclepius was killed by Zeus at the request of Hades, the god of the underworld, who feared Asclepius was stealing souls away from him.[1] Before his death, however, Asclepius had several children, including: Machaon, Podalirius, Hygeia, and Panacea, who themselves were regarded as highly effective healers.[1]

Starting around 350 BC, the cult of Asclepius became increasingly popular. He was admired for serving people despite their class and social status, which was not a common practice by Olympians.[7] Doctors claiming to be the direct descendents of Asclepius referred to themselves as “Asclepiads.”[1] Asclepius is further survived in modern times with the symbol of a snake wrapped around a staff, which is seen throughout all medical infrastructures as well as the American Medical Association in modern times, is reminiscent of the staff that Asclepius carried.[8]

Asclepeion Temples

Over 300 asclepieia have been discovered throughout ancient Greece. Among the most famous of the temples were Trikke, Epidaurus, island of Kos, Athens, Corinth and Pergamon.[9] These temples were often located in secluded locations surrounded modern spas or mountain sanatoriums.[3]

Also characteristic of these temples were the presence of dogs and nonvenomous snakes, known as Aesculapian snake, who would frequent the halls and dormitories and who played an important role in healing activities.[4]

Asclepius may first have been worshipped as a hero in Trikka (modern Trikala), Thessaly, Greece. Ancient mythographers generally regarded Trikka as the place of Asclepius' birth, but to date archaeological excavations have yet to uncover his sanctuary there.[10][11] Epidaurus, on the other hand, was the first place to worship Asclepius as a god, beginning sometime in the 5th century BC. The asclepeion at Epidaurus is both extensive and well preserved. There is also an asclepeion located on the south slopes of the Acropolis of Athens which dates to around 420 BC.

Located on the Argolid plain of the east Peloponnese in Greece, Epidaurus was the main asclepeion. The healing temple was named after Asclepius, the son of Apollo.[12] At the Epidaurus, there were various people such as physicians and priests who would assist those who sought a session of healing from these professionals. Patients would come pay homage to the gods by making pilgrimages to the site, performing a prayer or a sacrifice, giving monetary gifts or even sleep at the temple. The Epidaurus also served as a sanctuary for those who were extremely ill. It was eventually expanded to a one hundred eighty-room institution to house the dying and women in labour during the Roman Empire.[8]

Procedures Performed at Asclepeions

Patients sleeping in the temple of Aesculapius at Epidaurus. Wellcome V0018154
Patients sleeping in the temple of Aesculapius at Epidaurus. Wellcome V0018154

Signature to asclepian medicine was its holistic approach to patient care. It emphasized therapy through the natural environment, hence the carefully chosen locations, as well as care for the patient’s psychological and emotional states. By attending to these things, the patient’s innate healing mechanisms were activated, which promoted recovery.[9]

There were two steps in order for a patient to be considered to be treated in the asclepeion. The first of which is the Katharsis or purification stage. This is when a patient undergoes a series of baths and other methods of purging, such as a clean diet over a series of several days or purging their emotions through art. The patient would then make an offering such as money or a prayer to the temple, therefore to Asclepius. The priest of the temple then gives the patient a prayer in which it would ease the patient's mind and create a more positive outlook for them.

Afterwards, comes incubation or dream therapy. Patients would sleep in the “Abaton” or “Enkoimeterion,” which was a dormitory located in the asclepeion. Here, they would be lulled into a hypnotic state, likely induced by hallucinogens, and begin their dream journey.[9] As they slept, they were visited by Asclepius or his daughters Hygeia and Panacea. These dream visitations were prognostic in nature, revealing the projected course of the disease and ultimate patient outcomes. During this time, patients would also discover what it was they needed to do once they woke in order to treat their disease. Upon awakening, the patient would recount their dream to a temple priest, who would then prescribe a treatment based on their interpretation.[4]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Kanellou, V (2004). "Ancient Greek medicine as the foundation of contemporary medicine". Techniques in Coloproctology. 8 (1): 3–4.
  2. ^ Risse, G. B. (1990). Mending bodies, saving souls: a history of hospitals. Oxford University Press. p. 56. ISBN 9780199748693 – via Google Books.
  3. ^ a b c d Luce, JV (2001). "Greek medicine from Asclepius to Hippocrates". Irish Journal of Medical Science. 170 (3): 200–202.
  4. ^ a b c Savel, RH; Munro, CL (2014). "From Asclepius to Hippocrates: The Art and Science of Healing". American Journal of Critical Care. 23 (6): 437–439.
  5. ^ Askitopoulou, Helen; Konsolaki, Eleni; Ramoutsaki, Ioanna A.; Anastassaki, Maria (2002). "Surgical cures under sleep induction in the Asclepieion of Epidauros". International Congress Series. 1242: 11–17. doi:10.1016/S0531-5131(02)00717-3.
  6. ^ Atsma, Aaron. "ASCLEPIUS: Greek God of Medicine & Doctors | Mythology". theoi.com.
  7. ^ Morris, D.B. (2007). "Un-forgetting Asclepius: An Erotics of Illness". New Literary History. 38 (3): 419–441.
  8. ^ a b "Greek Medicine - Asclepius". nlm.nih.gov. US National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 2015-10-26.
  9. ^ a b c Christopoulou-Aletra, H.; Togia, A.; Varlami, C. (2010). "The "smart" Asclepieion: A total healing environment". Archives of Hellenic Medicine. 27 (2): 259–263.
  10. ^ Edelstein, E. J. and L. L. Edelstein. Asclepius: a collection and interpretation of the testimonies. 2 vols. The Publications of the Institute of the History of Medicine. (Baltimore, 1945): 243.
  11. ^ Melfi, M. (2007). "I santuari di Asclepio in Grecia". Studia Archaeologica (in Italian). 157: 511.
  12. ^ "Epidaurus". Ancient History Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2015-10-26 – via ancient.eu.

External links

Acropolis

An acropolis (Ancient Greek: ἀκρόπολις, akropolis; from akros (άκρος) or akron (άκρον), "highest, topmost, outermost" and polis (πόλις), "city"; plural in English: acropoles, acropoleis or acropolises) was in ancient Greece a settlement, especially a citadel, built upon an area of elevated ground—frequently a hill with precipitous sides, chosen for purposes of defense. Acropoleis became the nuclei of large cities of classical antiquity, such as ancient Athens, and for this reason they are sometimes prominent landmarks in modern cities with ancient pasts, such as modern Athens. Perhaps the most famous acropolis is the Acropolis of Athens, located on a rocky outcrop above the city of Athens and containing the Parthenon.

Aphrodite

Aphrodite is an ancient Greek goddess associated with love, beauty, pleasure, passion and procreation. She is identified with the planet Venus, which is named after the Roman goddess Venus, with whom Aphrodite was extensively syncretized. Aphrodite's major symbols include myrtles, roses, doves, sparrows, and swans.

The cult of Aphrodite was largely derived from that of the Phoenician goddess Astarte, a cognate of the East Semitic goddess Ishtar, whose cult was based on the Sumerian cult of Inanna. Aphrodite's main cult centers were Cythera, Cyprus, Corinth, and Athens. Her main festival was the Aphrodisia, which was celebrated annually in midsummer. In Laconia, Aphrodite was worshipped as a warrior goddess. She was also the patron goddess of prostitutes, an association which led early scholars to propose the concept of "sacred prostitution", an idea which is now generally seen as erroneous.

In Hesiod's Theogony, Aphrodite is born off the coast of Cythera from the foam (aphrós) produced by Uranus's genitals, which his son Cronus has severed and thrown into the sea. In Homer's Iliad, however, she is the daughter of Zeus and Dione. Plato, in his Symposium 180e, asserts that these two origins actually belong to separate entities: Aphrodite Ourania (a transcendent, "Heavenly" Aphrodite) and Aphrodite Pandemos (Aphrodite common to "all the people"). Aphrodite had many other epithets, each emphasizing a different aspect of the same goddess, or used by a different local cult. Thus she was also known as Cytherea (Lady of Cythera) and Cypris (Lady of Cyprus), because both locations claimed to be the place of her birth.

In Greek mythology, Aphrodite was married to Hephaestus, the god of blacksmiths and metalworking. Despite this, Aphrodite was frequently unfaithful to him and had many lovers; in the Odyssey, she is caught in the act of adultery with Ares, the god of war. In the First Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite, she seduces the mortal shepherd Anchises. Aphrodite was also the surrogate mother and lover of the mortal shepherd Adonis, who was killed by a wild boar. Along with Athena and Hera, Aphrodite was one of the three goddesses whose feud resulted in the beginning of the Trojan War and she plays a major role throughout the Iliad. Aphrodite has been featured in western art as a symbol of female beauty and has appeared in numerous works of western literature. She is a major deity in modern Neopagan religions, including the Church of Aphrodite, Wicca, and Hellenismos.

Archaeological Museum of Epidaurus

Archaeological Museum of Epidaurus is a museum in Epidaurus, in Argolis on the Peloponnese peninsula, Greece. The museum, noted for its reconstructions of temples and its columns and inscriptions, was established in 1902 and opened in 1909 to display artifacts unearthed in the ancient site of Epidaurus in the surrounding area.

Asclepius

Asclepius (; Greek: Ἀσκληπιός Asklēpiós [asklɛːpiós]; Latin: Aesculapius) or Hepius is a hero and god of medicine in ancient Greek religion and mythology. He is the son of Apollo. Asclepius represents the healing aspect of the medical arts; his daughters are Hygieia ("Hygiene", the goddess/personification of health, cleanliness, and sanitation), Iaso (the goddess of recuperation from illness), Aceso (the goddess of the healing process), Aegle (the goddess of the glow of good health), and Panacea (the goddess of universal remedy). He was associated with the Roman/Etruscan god Vediovis and the Egyptian Imhotep. He was one of Apollo's sons, sharing with Apollo the epithet Paean ("the Healer"). The rod of Asclepius, a snake-entwined staff, remains a symbol of medicine today. Those physicians and attendants who served this god were known as the Therapeutae of Asclepius.

Bergama

Bergama is a populous district, as well as the center city of the same district, in İzmir Province in western Turkey. By excluding İzmir's metropolitan area, it is one of the prominent districts of the province in terms of population and is largely urbanized at the rate of 53.6%. Bergama center is situated at a distance of 118 km (73 mi) to the north from the point of departure of the traditional center of İzmir (Konak Square in Konak, İzmir) and lies at a distance of 27 km (17 mi) inland from the nearest seacoast at the town of Dikili to its west. Bergama district area neighbors the areas of three districts of Balıkesir Province to its north, namely Ayvalık, Burhaniye and İvrindi, İzmir Province district of Kınık and Manisa Province district of Soma, Manisa to its east, while to the south it is bordered by the central provincial of Manisa and two other İzmir Province districts along the coast that are Aliağa and Dikili from its south towards its west. The district area's physical features are determined by the alluvial plain of Bakırçay River.

Cos (city)

Cos or Kos (Ancient Greek: Κῶς) was a city of ancient Greece on the island of the same name. In 366 BCE, the inhabitants of the town of Astypalaea abandoned their town to populate Cos. Cos was a member of the Dorian Pentapolis, whose sanctuary was on the Triopian promontory. Under the Athenian rule it had no walls, and it was first fortified by Alcibiades at the close of the Peloponnesian War. In subsequent times it shared the general fate of the neighbouring coasts and islands. Antoninus Pius rebuilt the city, after it had been destroyed by an earthquake.Its site is located near modern Kos.

Derium

Derium or Derion (Ancient Greek: Δήριον) was a town of ancient Acarnania. The city is attested by epigraphic Greek inscriptions of the 4th and 3rd centuries BCE, among which are a record of theorodokoi receiving theoroi of Nemea dated to 331/0–313 BCE, an inscription in the sanctuary of Asclepius at Epidaurus where proxenos is named as a citizen of Derium, and a treaty between the Ateolians and Acarnanians of the 3rd century BCE. The inhabitants of Derium are also mentioned by Diodorus, which indicates that towards the year 314 BCE, they settled in Agrinium on the advice of Cassander.Its site is located near the modern Skourtou.

Epidaurus

Epidaurus was a small city (polis) in ancient Greece, on the Argolid Peninsula at the Saronic Gulf. Two modern towns bear the name Epidavros:Palaia Epidavros and Nea Epidavros. Since 2010 they belong to the new municipality of Epidaurus, part of the regional unit of Argolis. The seat of the municipality is the town Lygourio.

Kos

Kos or Cos (; Greek: Κως [kos]) is a Greek island, part of the Dodecanese island chain in the southeastern Aegean Sea, off the Anatolian coast of Turkey. Kos is the third largest island of the Dodecanese by area, after Rhodes and Karpathos; it has a population of 33,388 (2011 census), making it the second most populous of the Dodecanese, after Rhodes. The island measures 40 by 8 kilometres (25 by 5 miles), and is 4 km (2 miles) from the coast of the ancient region of Caria in Turkey. Administratively, Kos constitutes a municipality within the Kos regional unit, which is part of the South Aegean region. The principal town of the island and seat of the municipality is Kos Town.

List of hospitals in Greece

This is a list of hospitals in Greece.

AHEPA University Hospital - Thessaloniki

Agios Andreas Hospital - Patras

Agios Dimitrios Hospital - Thessaloniki

Agios Nikolaos General Hospital

Agios Panteleimonas Hospital - Nikaia

Agia Sofia Children's Hospital - Athens

Agios Savvas Anti-Cancer Hospital - Athens

Aigio general hospital - Aigio

Alexandra Hospital - Athens

Alexandroupoli University Hospital

Amalia Fleming General Hospital - Melissia

Amaliada General Hospital

Amfissa General Hospital

Argos General Hospital

Asclepeion Hospital - Voula, Athens

Attikon General Hospital - Chaidari

Chania General Hospital

Chalkida General Hospital

Corfu General Hospital

Corinth General Hospital

Daphni Psychiatric Hospital - Chaidari

Dromokaiteio Psychiatric Hospital - Chaidari

Elena Gynecological Hospital - Athens

Eginition Hospital - Athens

Evangelismos Hospital - Athens

Evgenidion Hospital - Athens

Georgios Gennimatas General State Hospital - Athens

Interbalkan Medical Center - Thessaloniki

Ioannina "Chatzikostas" Hospital

Ioannina University Hospital

Ippokrateion Hospital - Athens

Ippokrateion General Hospital - Thessaloniki

Karditsa General Hospital

Kastoria General Hospital

KAT Hospital - Kifisia

Kavala General Hospital

Kozani "Mamatseio" General Hospital

Komotini "Sismanogleio" General Hospital

Kos General Hospital of Kos

Korgialeneio Benakeio Hellenic Red Cross Hospital - Athens

Laiko General Hospital - Athens

Lamia General Hospital

Larissa General Hospital

Larissa University Hospital

Magoula Hospital - Magoula, north of Eleusis

Metaxa Anti-Cancer Hospital - Piraeus

Metropolitan Hospital - Athens

PAGNI Hospital - Heraklio

Panagiotis & Aglaia Kyriakou Children's Hospital - Athens

Papanikolaou General Hospital - Thessaloniki

Panikarion General Hospital - Ikaria

Pammakaristos General Hospital - Athens

Papageorgiou General Hospital - Thessaloniki

Patisia General Hospital - Athens

Penteli Children's Hospital

Polyklinikh General Hospital - Athens

Pyrgos General Hospital

Rethymno General Hospital

General University Hospital of Patras - Rio, next to the University of Patras

Rhodes General HospitalSamos General Hospital-Agios Panteleimon

St. Luke's Hospital (Panorama, Thessaloniki), Panorama, Thessaloniki

Serres General Hospital

Sotiria Thoracic Diseases Hospital - Athens

Sparta General Hospital

Sismanogleio General Hospital - Vrilissia

Sygrou Dermatological Hospital - Athens

Thriasseio Western Attica General Hospital - Magoula

Trikala General Hospital

Tripoli General Hospital

Tzanio Hospital - Piraeus

Venizeleio Hospital - Heraklio

Volos "Achilopouleio" General Hospital

Zakynthos General Hospital

Lucia Anguissola

Lucia Anguissola (1536 or 1538 – c. 1565-1568) was an Italian Mannerist painter of the late Renaissance. She was born in Cremona, Italy. She was the third daughter of seven children born to Amilcare Anguissola and Bianca Ponzoni. Her father was a member of the Genoese minor nobility and encouraged his five daughters to develop artistic skills alongside their humanist education. Lucia most likely trained with her renowned eldest sister Sofonisba Anguissola. Her art, mainly portraits, are similar in style and technique with her sister. Her skill was seen by contemporary critics as exemplar. According to seventeenth-century biographer Filippo Baldinucci, Lucia had the potential to "become a better artist than even Sofonisba" had she not died so young.

One of her extant paintings, Portrait of Pietro Manna, (early 1560s) was praised by Giorgio Vasari, who saw it when he visited the family after her death. He wrote that Lucia, "dying, had left of herself not less fame than that of Sofonisba, through several paintings by her own hand, not less beautiful and valuable than those by the sister."

Lucia Anguissola is represented in a painting of 1555 by her sister Sofonisba titled The Chess Game, along with her younger sisters Minerva and Europa. Lucia appears at the far left, with both hands on the chess board; Europa, smiling, is the youngest girl; and Minerva appears at the right, raising her right hand; a servant stands behind them. The painting suggests the interactions between the siblings and represents their high status. Lucia gazes directly at the viewer, suggesting her connection to Sofonisba, but also seeming to invite the viewer to join in.

Messene

Messene (Greek: Μεσσήνη Messini), officially Ancient Messene, is a local community (topiki koinotita) of the municipal unit (dimotiki enotita) Ithomi, of the municipality (dimos) of Messini within the regional unit (perifereiaki enotita) of Messenia in the region (perifereia) of Peloponnese, one of 13 regions into which Greece has been divided. Before 2011 it held the same position in the administrative hierarchy, according to Law 2539 of 1997, the Kapodistrias Plan, except that Ithomi was an independent municipality and Ancient Messene was a local division (topiko diamerisma) within it.Most of the area of Ancient Messene contains the ruins of the large classical city-state of Messene refounded by Epaminondas in 369 BC, after the battle of Leuctra and the first Theban invasion of the Peloponnese. Epaminondas invited the return to their native land of all the families that had gone into exile from Messenia during its long struggle with and servitude under the military state of Sparta, now finished as a conquering state. This new Messene, today's Ancient Messene, was constructed over the ruins of Ithome, an ancient city originally of Achaean Greeks, destroyed previously by the Spartans and abandoned for some time.

Currently the substantial ruins are a major historical attraction. Much of it has been archaeologically excavated and partly restored or preserved for study and public viewing, as well as for various events. The site was never totally abandoned. The small village of Mavromati occupies what was the upper city around the fountain called klepsydra. Administrative structure and population figures refer primarily to it.

Mnemosyne

Mnemosyne (; Greek: Μνημοσύνη, pronounced [mnɛːmosýːnɛː]) is the goddess of memory in Greek mythology. "Mnemosyne" is derived from the same source as the word mnemonic, that being the Greek word mnēmē, which means "remembrance, memory".Mnemosyne is the mother of the nine Muses.

Peloponnese

The Peloponnese () or Peloponnesus (; Greek: Πελοπόννησος, Peloponnisos [peloˈponisos]) is a peninsula and geographic region in southern Greece. It is connected to the central part of the country by the Isthmus of Corinth land bridge which separates the Gulf of Corinth from the Saronic Gulf. During the late Middle Ages and the Ottoman era, the peninsula was known as the Morea (Byzantine Greek: Μωρέας), a name still in colloquial use in its demotic form (Greek: Μωριάς).

The peninsula is divided among three administrative regions: most belongs to the Peloponnese region, with smaller parts belonging to the West Greece and Attica regions.

In 2016, Lonely Planet voted the Peloponnese the top spot of their Best in Europe list.

Rod of Asclepius

In Greek mythology, the Rod of Asclepius (Greek: Ράβδος του Ασκληπιού, Rábdos tou Asklipioú; Unicode symbol: ⚕), also known as the Staff of Asclepius (sometimes also spelled Asklepios or Aesculapius) and as the asklepian, is a serpent-entwined rod wielded by the Greek god Asclepius, a deity associated with healing and medicine. The symbol has continued to be used in modern times, where it is associated with medicine and health care, yet frequently confused with the staff of the god Hermes, the caduceus. Theories have been proposed about the Greek origin of the symbol and its implications.

Temple of Asclepius

Temple of Asclepius may refer to:

Temple of Asclepius, Epidaurus

Temple of Asclepius, Rome

Temple of Aesculapius (Villa Borghese)

Asclepeion

Tourism in Greece

Tourism in Greece has been a key element of the economic activity in the country, and is one of the country's most important sectors. Greece has been a major tourist destination and attraction in Europe since antiquity, for its rich culture and history, which is reflected in large part by its 18 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, among the most in Europe and the world as well as for its long coastline, many islands, and beaches.

Greece attracted as much as

33 million visitors in 2018, up from 24 million in 2015,

making Greece one of the most visited countries in Europe and the world, and contributing around 25% to the nation's Gross Domestic Product. Its capital city Athens, as well as Santorini, Mykonos, Rhodes, Corfu, Crete and Chalkidice are some of the country's major tourist destinations.

In recent years, Greece has also promoted religious tourism and pilgrimages to regions with a significant historical religious presence, such as the monasteries in Meteora and Mount Athos, in cooperation with other countries.

Trance

Trance is an abnormal state of wakefulness in which a person is not self-aware and is either altogether unresponsive to external stimuli (but nevertheless capable of pursuing and realizing an aim) or is selectively responsive in following the directions of the person (if any) who has induced the trance. Trance states may occur involuntarily and unbidden.

The term trance may be associated with hypnosis, meditation, magic, flow, and prayer. It may also be related to an earlier generic term, altered states of consciousness, which is no longer used in "consciousness-studies" discourse.

Trikala

Trikala (Greek: Τρίκαλα) is a city in northwestern Thessaly, Greece, and the capital of the Trikala regional unit. The city straddles the Lithaios river, which is a tributary of Pineios. According to the Greek National Statistical Service, Trikala is populated by 81,355 inhabitants (2011), while in total the Trikala regional unit is populated by 131,085 inhabitants (2011).

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