Asaṅga (Tibetan: ཐོགས་མེད།, Wylie: thogs med, traditional Chinese: 無著; ; pinyin: Wúzhuó; Romaji: Mujaku) (fl. 4th century C.E.) was "one of the most important spiritual figures" of Mahayana Buddhism and the "founder of the Yogacara school".[1][2] Traditionally, he and his half-brother Vasubandhu are regarded as the major classical Indian Sanskrit exponents of Mahayana Abhidharma, Vijñanavada (awareness only) thought and Mahayana teachings on the bodhisattva path.

Mujaku Asanga Kofukuji
Japanese wood statue of Asaṅga from 1208 CE


Tibetan depiction of Asaṅga and Maitreya

According to later hagiographies, Asaṅga was born as the son of a high caste father in Puruṣapura (present day Peshawar in Pakistan), which at that time was part of the ancient kingdom of Gandhāra.[3] Current scholarship places him in the fourth century CE. He was perhaps originally a member of the Mahīśāsaka school or the Mūlasarvāstivāda school but later converted to Mahāyāna.[4] According to some scholars, Asaṅga's frameworks for abhidharma writings retained many underlying Mahīśāsaka traits, but other scholars argue that there is insufficient data to determine which school he originally belonged to.[5][6][7]

In the record of his journeys through the kingdoms of India, Xuanzang wrote that Asaṅga was initially a Mahīśāsaka monk, but soon turned toward the Mahāyāna teachings.[8] Asaṅga had a half-brother, Vasubandhu, who was a monk from the Sarvāstivāda school. Vasubandhu is said to have taken up Mahāyāna Buddhism after meeting with Asaṅga and one of Asaṅga's disciples.[9]

Asaṅga spent many years in serious meditation and study under various teachers but the narrative of the 6th century monk Paramārtha states that he was unsatisfied with his understanding. Paramārtha then recounts how he used his meditative powers (siddhis) to travel to Tuṣita Heaven to receive teachings from Maitreya Bodhisattva on emptiness, and how he continued to travel to receive teachings from Maitreya on the Mahayana sutras.[10][11]

Xuanzang (fl. c. 602 – 664), a Chinese monk who traveled to India to study in the Yogacara tradition tells a similar account of these events:[8]

In the great mango grove five or six li to the southwest of the city (Ayodhya), there is an old monastery where Asaṅga Bodhisattva received instructions and guided the common people. At night he went up to the place of Maitreya Bodhisattva in Tuṣita Heaven to learn the Yogācārabhūmi-śāstra, the Mahāyāna-sūtra-alaṃkāra-śāstra, the Madhyānta-vibhāga-śāstra, etc.; in the daytime, he lectured on the marvelous principles to a great audience.

Modern scholars disagree on whether the figure of Maitreya in this story is to be considered as Asaṅga's human teacher or as a visionary experience in meditation. Scholars such as Frauwallner held that this figure, sometimes termed Maitreya-nātha, was an actual historical person and teacher.[12] Other scholars argue that this figure was the tutelary deity of Asaṅga (Iṣṭa-devatā) as well as numerous other Yogacara masters, a point noted by the 6th century Indian monk Sthiramati.[13] Whatever the case, Asaṅga's experiences led him to travel around India and propagate the Mahayana teachings. According to Taranatha's History of Buddhism in India, he founded 25 Mahayana monasteries in India.[14]


Asaṅga went on to write some key treatises (shastras) of the Yogācāra school. Over time, many different works were attributed to him (or to Maitreya, with Asaṅga as transmitter), although there are discrepancies between the Chinese and Tibetan traditions concerning which works are attributed to him.[15] Modern scholars have also problematized and questioned these attributions after critical textual study of the sources. The many works attributed to this figure can be divided into the three following groups.

The first are three works which are widely agreed by ancient and modern scholars to be by Asaṅga:[16][17]

  • Mahāyānasaṃgraha (Summary of the Great Vehicle), a systematic exposition of the major tenets of the Yogacara school in ten chapters.[18] Considered his magnum opus, survives in one Tibetan and four Chinese translations.
  • Abhidharma-samuccaya, a short summary of the main Mahayana Abhidharma doctrines, in a traditional Buddhist Abhidharma style similar to non-Mahayana expositions.[19] Survives in Sanskrit. According to Walpola Rahula, the thought of this work is closer to that of the Pali Nikāyas than is that of the Theravadin Abhidhamma.[20]
  • Xianyang shengjiao lun, variously retranslated into Sanskrit as Āryadeśanāvikhyāpana, Āryapravacanabhāṣya, Prakaraṇāryaśāsanaśāstra, and Śāsanodbhāvana. A work strongly based on the Yogācārabhūmi. Only available in Xuanzang’s Chinese translation, but parallel Sanskrit passages can be found in the Yogācārabhūmi.

Attributed works of unsure authorship

The next group of texts are those that Tibetan hagiographies state were taught to Asaṅga by Maitreya and are thus known as the "Five Dharmas of Maitreya" in Tibetan Buddhist scholasticism. According to D.S. Ruegg, the "five works of Maitreya" are mentioned in Sanskrit sources from only the 11th century onwards.[21] As noted by S.K. Hookham, their attribution to a single author has been questioned by modern scholars.[22] The traditional list is:

  • Mahāyānasūtrālamkārakārikā, ("The Adornment of Mahayana sutras", Tib. theg-pa chen-po'i mdo-sde'i rgyan), which presents the Mahāyāna path from the Yogācāra perspective.
  • Dharmadharmatāvibhāga ("Distinguishing Phenomena and Pure Being", Tib. chos-dang chos-nyid rnam-par 'byed-pa), a short Yogācāra work discussing the distinction and correlation (vibhāga) between phenomena (dharma) and reality (dharmatā).
  • Madhyāntavibhāgakārikā ("Distinguishing the Middle and the Extremes", Tib. dbus-dang mtha' rnam-par 'byed-pa), 112 verses that are a key work in Yogācāra philosophy.
  • Abhisamayalankara ( "Ornament for clear realization", Tib. mngon-par rtogs-pa'i rgyan), a verse text which attempts a synthesis of Prajñaparamita doctrine and Yogacara thought. There are differing scholarly opinions on authorship, John Makransky writes that it is possible the author was actually Arya Vimuktisena, the 6th century author of the first surviving commentary on this work.[23] Makransky also notes that it is only the later 8th century commentator Haribhadra who attributes this text to Maitreya, but that this may have been a means to ascribe greater authority to the text.[24] As Brunnholzl notes, this text is also completely unknown in the Chinese Buddhist tradition.[25]
  • Ratnagotravibhaga (Exposition of the Jeweled lineage, Tib. theg-pa chen-po rgyud bla-ma'i bstan, a.k.a. Uttāratantra śāstra), a compendium on Buddha-nature attributed to Maitreya via Asaṅga by the Tibetan tradition. The Chinese tradition attributes it to a certain Sāramati (3rd-4th century CE), according to the Huayan patriarch Fazang.[26] According to S.K. Hookham, modern scholarship favors Sāramati as the author of the RGV. He also notes there is no evidence for the attribution to Maitreya before the time of Maitripa (11th century).[27] Peter Harvey concurs, finding the Tibetan attribution less plausible.[28]

According to Karl Brunnholzl, the Chinese tradition also speaks of five Maitreya texts (first mentioned in Dunlun’s Yujia lunji), "but considers them as consisting of the Yogācārabhūmi, *Yogavibhāga [now lost], Mahāyānasūtrālamkārakā, Madhyāntavibhāga and the Vajracchedikākāvyākhyā."[25]

While the Yogācārabhūmi śāstra (“Treatise on the Levels of Spiritual Practitioners”), a massive and encyclopaedic work on yogic praxis, has traditionally been attributed to Asaṅga or Maitreya in toto, but most modern scholars now consider the text to be a compilation of various works by numerous authors, and different textual strata can be discerned within its contents.[29] However, Asaṅga may still have participated in the compilation of this work.[16]

The third group of texts associated with Asaṅga comprises two commentaries: the Kārikāsaptati, a work on the Vajracchedikā, and the Āryasaṃdhinirmocana-bhāṣya (Commentary on the Saṃdhinirmocana). The attribution of both of these to Asaṅga is not widely accepted by modern scholars.[16]


  1. ^ Engle, Artemus (translator), Asanga, The Bodhisattva Path to Unsurpassed Enlightenment: A Complete Translation of the Bodhisattvabhumi, Shambhala Publications, 2016, Translator's introduction.
  2. ^ Rahula, Walpola; Boin-Webb, Sara (translators); Asanga, Abhidharmasamuccaya: The Compendium of the Higher Teaching, Jain Publishing Company, 2015, p. xiii.
  3. ^ Hattori, Masaaki. “Asaṅga.” In Aaron–Attention. Vol. 1 of The Encyclopedia of Religion. 2d ed. Edited by Lindsay Jones, 516–517. Detroit: Thomson Gale, 2005.
  4. ^ Engle, Artemus (translator), Asanga, The Bodhisattva Path to Unsurpassed Enlightenment: A Complete Translation of the Bodhisattvabhumi, Shambhala Publications, 2016, Translator's introduction.
  5. ^ Rahula, Walpola; Boin-Webb, Sara (translators); Asanga, Abhidharmasamuccaya: The Compendium of the Higher Teaching, Jain Publishing Company, 2015, p. xiii.
  6. ^ Rama Karana Sarma (1993). Researches in Indian and Buddhist Philosophy: Essays in Honour of Alex Wayman. p. 5
  7. ^ Lugli, Ligeia, Asaṅga,, LAST MODIFIED: 25 NOVEMBER 2014, DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780195393521-0205.
  8. ^ a b Rongxi, Li (1996). The Great Tang Dynasty Record of the Western Regions., Numata Center, Berkeley, p. 153.
  9. ^ Rongxi, Li (1996). The Great Tang Dynasty Record of the Western Regions., Numata Center, Berkeley, pp. 154-155.
  10. ^ Wayman, Alex (1997). Untying the Knots in Buddhism: Selected Essays. p. 213
  11. ^ Rahula, Walpola; Boin-Webb, Sara (translators); Asanga, Abhidharmasamuccaya: The Compendium of the Higher Teaching, Jain Publishing Company, 2015, p. xiv.
  12. ^ Being as Consciousness: Yogācāra Philosophy of Buddhism. Tola, Fernando and Carmen Dragonetti. Motilal Banarsidass: 2004 pg xv
  13. ^ Rahula, Walpola; Boin-Webb, Sara (translators); Asanga, Abhidharmasamuccaya: The Compendium of the Higher Teaching, Jain Publishing Company, 2015, p. xvii.
  14. ^ Rahula, Walpola; Boin-Webb, Sara (translators); Asanga, Abhidharmasamuccaya: The Compendium of the Higher Teaching, Jain Publishing Company, 2015, p. xviii.
  15. ^ Giuseppe Tucci (1930). On Some Aspects of the Doctrines of Maitreya (natha) and the Asanga, Calcutta.
  16. ^ a b c Lugli, Ligeia, Asaṅga,, LAST MODIFIED: 25 NOVEMBER 2014, DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780195393521-0205.
  17. ^ Hattori, Masaaki. “Asaṅga.” In Aaron–Attention. Vol. 1 of The Encyclopedia of Religion. 2d ed. Edited by Lindsay Jones, 516–517. Detroit: Thomson Gale, 2005.
  18. ^ Keenan, John P. (2003). "The summary of the Great Vehicle by Bodhisattva Asaṅga", transl. from the Chinese of Paramārtha (Taishō vol. 31, number 1593). Berkeley, Calif: Numata Center for Buddhist Translation and Research. ISBN 1-886439-21-4
  19. ^ Rahula, Walpola; Boin-Webb, Sara (translators); Asanga, Abhidharmasamuccaya: The Compendium of the Higher Teaching, Jain Publishing Company, 2015, p. xx.
  20. ^ Dan Lusthaus (2002). Buddhist Phenomenology. Routledge, p. 44, note 5. Lusthaus draws attention to Rahula's Zen and the Taming of the Bull.
  21. ^ Ruegg, D.S. La Theorie du Tathagatagarbha et du Gotra. Paris: Ecole d'Extreme Orient, 1969, p. 35.
  22. ^ Hookham, S. K. (1991). The Buddha within: Tathagatagarbha doctrine according to the Shentong interpretation of the Ratnagotravibhaga. SUNY Press. ISBN 0-7914-0357-2. Source; [3] (accessed: Tuesday May 5, 2009), p.325.
  23. ^ Makransky, John J. Buddhahood Embodied: Sources of Controversy in India and Tibet SUNY Press, 1997, p. 187.
  24. ^ Makransky, John J. Buddhahood Embodied: Sources of Controversy in India and Tibet SUNY Press, 1997, p. 17.
  25. ^ a b Brunnholzl, Karl, When the Clouds Part: The Uttaratantra and Its Meditative Tradition as a Bridge between Sutra and Tantra, Shambhala Publications, 2015, p. 81.
  26. ^ Williams, Paul, Mahayana Buddhism: The Doctrinal Foundations, Routledge, 1989, p. 103.
  27. ^ Hookham, S. K. (1991). The Buddha within: Tathagatagarbha doctrine according to the Shentong interpretation of the Ratnagotravibhaga. SUNY Press. ISBN 0-7914-0357-2. Source; [3] (accessed: Tuesday May 5, 2009), pp.165-166.
  28. ^ Peter Harvey (1993). "An Introduction to Buddhism." Cambridge University Press, page 114.
  29. ^ Delhey, Martin, Yogācārabhūmi,, LAST MODIFIED: 26 JULY 2017, DOI: 10.1093/OBO/9780195393521-0248.


External links

2018–19 SLC Twenty20 Tournament

The 2018–19 SLC Twenty20 Tournament was a Twenty20 cricket tournament that was held in Sri Lanka. It was played between twenty-four domestic teams in Sri Lanka, with the tournament running from 15 to 27 February 2019. Nondescripts Cricket Club were the defending champions.On the opening day of the tournament, Sinhalese Sports Club beat Saracens Sports Club in the Super Over, after the match ended as a tie, and Sadeera Samarawickrama scored an unbeaten century for Colts Cricket Club against Police Sports Club. On 19 February 2019, Dinesh Chandimal also scored a century in the tournament, a day after he was dropped from Sri Lanka's One Day International (ODI) squad for their series against South Africa.Following the conclusion of the group stage fixtures, Chilaw Marians Cricket Club, Colombo Cricket Club, Galle Cricket Club, Moors Sports Club, Nondescripts Cricket Club, Ragama Cricket Club, Sri Lanka Army Sports Club and Tamil Union Cricket and Athletic Club had all progressed to the knockout phase of the tournament. From the quarterfinals, Colombo Cricket Club, Moors Sports Club, Nondescripts Cricket Club and Sri Lanka Army Sports Club all advanced to the semi-finals. Colombo Cricket Club won their quarterfinal fixture against Ragama Cricket Club in the Super Over, after the match was tied.In the first semi-final, Moors Sports Club beat Sri Lanka Army Sports Club by six wickets, despite Ashan Randika scoring a century for Sri Lanka Army. The second semi-final saw Nondescripts Cricket Club beat Colombo Cricket Club by one run, with the match going to the final ball. Moors Sports Club won the tournament, after they beat Nondescripts Cricket Club by one wicket in the final.

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The town is subdivided into five villages: Ataessien, Ikot Enuah, Ikot Akpanang, Ikot Oboho and Ikot Eweh.It shares some common boundaries with Ikot Okoro, Ntak Ibesit, Obiakpa. Others include Ikot Afanga, Ikot Ntuen and Ukpom Edem Inyang.

Asanga Jayasooriya

Asanga Jayasooriya (born 28 September 1971) is a Sri Lankan former first class cricketer. He stood as an umpire in the tour match between Sri Lanka Board President's XI vs Indian national cricket team in August 2015.

Bernie Glassman

Bernie Glassman (January 18, 1939 – November 4, 2018) was an American Zen Buddhist roshi and founder of the Zen Peacemakers (previously the Zen Community of New York), an organization established in 1980. In 1996, he co-founded the Zen Peacemaker Order with his late wife Sandra Jishu Holmes. Glassman was a Dharma successor of the late Taizan Maezumi-roshi, and gave inka and Dharma transmission to several people.

Glassman was known as a pioneer of social enterprise, socially engaged Buddhism and "Bearing Witness Retreats" at Auschwitz and on the streets.According to author James Ishmael Ford, in 2006 he

...transferred his leadership of the White Plum Asanga to his Dharma brother Merzel Roshi and has formally "disrobed," renouncing priesthood in favor of serving as a lay teacher.

John Daido Loori

John Daido Loori (June 14, 1931 – October 9, 2009) was a Zen Buddhist rōshi who served as the abbot of Zen Mountain Monastery and was the founder of the Mountains and Rivers Order and CEO of Dharma Communications. Daido Loori received shiho (dharma transmission) from Taizan Maezumi in 1986 and also received a Dendo Kyoshi certificate formally from the Soto school of Japan in 1994. In 1997, he received dharma transmission in the Harada-Yasutani and Inzan lineages of Rinzai Zen as well. In 1996 he gave dharma transmission to his student Bonnie Myotai Treace, in 1997 to Geoffrey Shugen Arnold, and in 2009 to Konrad Ryushin Marchaj. In addition to his role as a Zen Buddhist priest, Loori was an exhibited photographer and author of more than twenty books.

In October 2009, he stepped down as abbot citing health issues. Days later, Zen Mountain Monastery announced that his death was imminent. On October 9, 2009, at 7:30 a.m. he died of lung cancer in Mount Tremper, New York.

Kanzeon Zen Center

Kanzeon Zen Center was a Zen Buddhist center located in Salt Lake City, Utah. It was an affiliate of the White Plum Asanga, an association of Zen centers stemming from the tradition of Taizan Maezumi. The founder and Abbot of Kanzeon Zen Center was Dennis Genpo Merzel Roshi, who resigned in 2011 amidst controversy. Kanzeon Zen Center was the home temple and the hub of Kanzeon Sangha International, founded by Genpo Roshi in 1984, with affiliate teachers, centers and groups in the USA and seven European countries.

The center was housed at 1274 E. South Temple, a historic building listed as a contributing property in the South Temple Historic District. It closed in the wake of the sex scandals involving Merzel. News reports stated that the center was deeply financially in debt to Merzel.


A kōan (公案) (; Chinese: 公案; pinyin: gōng'àn, [kʊ́ŋ ân]; Korean: 공안 gong-an; Vietnamese: công án) is a story, dialogue, question, or statement which is used in Zen practice to provoke the "great doubt" and to practice or test a student's progress in Zen.

Ossie Abeygunasekera

Ahangama Withanage Oswin Nandimithra Abeyagoonasekera (known as Ossie Abeygunasekera) was a Member of Parliament and chairman and the leader of the Sri Lanka Mahajana Pakshaya or Party. He was assassinated by a female suicide bomber of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) while attending an election rally in support of Gamini Dissanayake, for the Presidential election of 1994. He was an alumnus of Ananda College, Colombo.

He was arrested as a Naxalite Prisoner in 1982 along with Vijaya Kumaratunga for printing the "Rice ration book". In 1986. he negotiated with the LTTE for a peaceful solution for the conflict and for the release of the Sri Lankan soldiers who was captured. After the death of his close friend Vijaya Kumarathunga, founder of the Sri Lanka Mahajana Party. he became its leader in 1988 until his death in 1994. He contested the Presidential election in 1989, creating the United Socialist Alliance(USA). During the 1989 revolution in Sri Lanka, his party lost the most number of members, 114 lives in all. In 1989, there were many assassination attempts made by the revolutionary group. which failed. He was an excellent orator and a visionary leader.

Ossie Abeyagunasekera's father, A.W.A. Abeyagunasekera, was also a politician and the Chairman of Port Authority. A.W.A. Abeyagunasekera defeated the Communist Party leader Pieter Keuneman in the 1960s. A.W.A.Abeyagunasekera died in a plane crash in Mumbai.

Ossie Abeyagunasekera was married with one child, Asanga Abeyagoonasekera, who is the Director General of the Institute of National Security Studies Sri Lanka.

Peter Matthiessen

Peter Matthiessen (May 22, 1927 – April 5, 2014) was an American novelist, naturalist, wilderness writer, zen teacher and CIA officer. A co-founder of the literary magazine The Paris Review, he was the only writer to have won the National Book Award in both fiction and nonfiction. He was also a prominent environmental activist. Matthiessen's nonfiction featured nature and travel, notably The Snow Leopard (1978) and American Indian issues and history, such as a detailed and controversial study of the Leonard Peltier case, In the Spirit of Crazy Horse (1983). His fiction was adapted for film: the early story "Travelin' Man" was made into The Young One (1960) by Luis Buñuel and the novel At Play in the Fields of the Lord (1965) into the 1991 film of the same name.

In 2008, at age 81, Matthiessen received the National Book Award for Fiction for Shadow Country, a one-volume, 890-page revision of his three novels set in frontier Florida that had been published in the 1990s. According to critic Michael Dirda, "No one writes more lyrically [than Matthiessen] about animals or describes more movingly the spiritual experience of mountaintops, savannas, and the sea."Matthiessen was treated for acute leukemia for more than a year. He died on April 5, 2014, three days before publication of his final book, the novel In Paradise on April 8.


A pratyekabuddha or paccekabuddha (Sanskrit and Pali, respectively), literally "a lone buddha", "a buddha on their own", "a private buddha", or "a silent buddha", is one of three types of enlightened beings according to some schools of Buddhism. The other two buddha types are the arhat and the sammāsambuddha (Sanskrit samyaksambuddha).

Taizan Maezumi

Hakuyū Taizan Maezumi (前角 博雄 Maezumi Hakuyū, February 24, 1931–May 15, 1995) was a Japanese Zen Buddhist teacher and rōshi, and lineage holder in the Sōtō, Rinzai, and Sanbo Kyodan traditions of Zen. He combined the Rinzai use of kōans and the Sōtō emphasis on shikantaza in his teachings, influenced by his years studying under Hakuun Yasutani in Sanbo Kyodan. He founded or co-founded several institutions and practice centers, including the Zen Center of Los Angeles, White Plum Asanga, Yokoji Zen Mountain Center and the Zen Mountain Monastery.

Taizan Maezumi left behind twelve dharma successors, appointed sixty-eight priests and gave Buddhist precepts to more than five hundred practitioners. Along with Zen teachers like Shunryū Suzuki, Seungsahn, and Hsuan Hua, Maezumi greatly influenced the American Zen landscape. Several Dharma Successors of his—including Tetsugen Bernard Glassman, Dennis Merzel, John Daido Loori, Jan Chozen Bays, Gerry Shishin Wick, Joko Beck, and William Nyogen Yeo—have gone on to found Zen communities of their own.

Maezumi died unexpectedly while visiting Japan in 1995.


Vasubandhu (Gandhari: 𐨬𐨀𐨯𐨂𐨦𐨀𐨞𐨡𐨂; traditional Chinese: 世親; ; pinyin: Shìqīn; Wylie: dbyig gnyen) (fl. 4th to 5th century CE) was an influential Buddhist monk and scholar from Gandhara. He was a philosopher who wrote commentary on the Abhidharma, from the perspectives of the Sarvastivada and Sautrāntika schools. After his conversion to Mahayana Buddhism, along with his half-brother, Asanga, he was also one of the main founders of the Yogacara school.

Vasubandhu's Abhidharmakośakārikā ("Commentary on the Treasury of the Abhidharma") is widely used in Tibetan and East Asian Buddhism, as the major source for non-Mahayana Abhidharma philosophy. His philosophical verse works set forth the standard for the Indian Yogacara metaphysics of "appearance only" (vijñapti-mātra), which has been described as a form of "epistemological idealism", phenomenology and close to Immanuel Kant's transcendental idealism. Apart from this, he wrote several commentaries, works on logic, argumentation and devotional poetry.

Vasubandhu is one of the most influential thinkers in the Indian Buddhist philosophical tradition. In Jōdo Shinshū, he is considered the Second Patriarch; in Chan Buddhism, he is the 21st Patriarch.

White Plum Asanga

White Plum Asanga, sometimes termed White Plum Sangha, is a Zen school in the Hakuyu Taizan Maezumi lineage, created by Hakuyu Taizan Maezumi. It consists of Maezumi's Dharma heirs and subsequent successors and students. A diverse organization spread across the United States and with a small presence in Europe, the White Plum Asanga

[I]ncludes teachers who represent the spectrum of styles to be found to American Zen—socially engaged Buddhism, family practice, Zen and the arts, secularized Zen, and progressive traditionalism."

Conceived of informally in 1979 by Maezumi and Tetsugen Bernard Glassman, the White Plum Asanga was named after Maezumi's father Baian Hakujun Dai-osho and then later incorporated in 1995 following Maezumi's death. Tetsugen Bernard Glassman was the White Plum Asanga's first President and his successor was Dennis Genpo Merzel. Following Merzel's term, in May 2007, Gerry Shishin Wick served as elected President of White Plum, until 2013 when Anne Seisen Saunders became the current president.


Yogachara (Sanskrit: योगाचार; IAST: Yogācāra; literally "yoga practice"; "one whose practice is yoga") is an influential tradition of Buddhist philosophy and psychology emphasizing the study of cognition, perception, and consciousness through the interior lens of meditative and yogic practices. It is also variously termed Vijñānavāda (विज्ञानवाद, the doctrine of consciousness), Vijñaptivāda (the doctrine of ideas or percepts) or Vijñaptimātratā-vāda (the doctrine of 'mere vijñapti), which is also the name given to its major epistemic theory. There are several interpretations of this main theory, some scholars see it as a kind of Idealism while others argue that it is closer to a kind of phenomenology or representationalism.

According to Dan Lusthaus, this tradition developed "an elaborate psychological therapeutic system that mapped out the problems in cognition along with the antidotes to correct them, and an earnest epistemological endeavor that led to some of the most sophisticated work on perception and logic ever engaged in by Buddhists or Indians." The 4th-century Indian brothers, Asaṅga and Vasubandhu, are considered the classic philosophers and systematizers of this school, along with its other founder, Maitreya.It was associated with Indian Mahayana Buddhism in about the fourth century, but also included non-Mahayana practitioners of the Dārṣṭāntika school. Yogācāra continues to be influential in Tibetan Buddhism and East Asian Buddhism. However, the uniformity of a single assumed "Yogācāra school" has been put into question.

Zen Center of Los Angeles

The Zen Center of Los Angeles (ZCLA), temple name Buddha Essence Temple, is a Zen center founded by Hakuyu Taizan Maezumi in 1967 that practices in the White Plum lineage.

ZCLA observes a daily schedule of zazen, Buddhist services, and work practice. The Center's programs include introductory classes, sesshin, workshops and training periods, as well as face-to-face meetings with Abbot Wendy Egyoku Nakao and other Center teachers. The sangha practices zazen and koan training in the Maezumi-Glassman lineage.ZCLA's mission is to know the Self, maintain the precepts, and serve others. The Center serves by providing the teaching, training, and transmission of Zen Buddhism. ZCLA's vision is an enlightened world in which suffering is transcended, all beings live in harmony, everyone has enough, deep wisdom is realized, and compassion flows unhindered.

Zen Peacemakers

The Zen Peacemakers is a diverse network of socially engaged Buddhists, currently including the formal structures of the Zen Peacemakers International, the Zen Peacemaker Order and the Zen Peacemaker Circles, many affiliated individuals and groups, and communities formed by Dharma Successors of Roshi Bernie Glassman. It was founded by Bernie Glassman and his wife Sandra Jishu Holmes in 1996, as a means of continuing the work begun with the Greyston Foundation in 1980 of expanding Zen practice into larger spheres of influence such as social services, business and ecology but with a greater emphasis on peace work. Zen Peacemakers has developed from the White Plum Asanga lineage of Taizan Maezumi.

Āstika and nāstika

Āstika (Sanskrit आस्तिक IAST: āstika) derives from the Sanskrit asti, "there is, there exists", and means “one who believes in the existence (of a soul separate from the material world, Brahman, etc.)” and nāstika means "an unbeliever". These have been concepts used to classify Indian philosophies by modern scholars, and some Hindu, Buddhist and Jaina texts. Āstika has been defined in one of three ways; as those who accept the epistemic authority of the Vedas, as those who accept the existence of ātman, or as those who accept the existence of Ishvara. In contrast, nāstika are those who deny the respective definitions of āstika.The various definitions for āstika and nāstika philosophies has been disputed since ancient times, and there is no consensus. Buddhism is considered to be nāstika, but the Gautama Buddha is considered an avatar of Vishnu in some Hindu traditions.The most studied Āstika schools of Indian philosophies, sometimes referred to as orthodox schools, are six: Nyāyá, Vaiśeṣika, Sāṃkhya, Yoga, Mīmāṃsā, and Vedānta. The most studied Nāstika schools of Indian philosophies, sometimes referred to as heterodox schools, are four: Buddhism, Jainism, Cārvāka, and Ājīvika. This orthodox-heterodox terminology is a construct of Western languages, and lacks scholarly roots in Sanskrit. Recent scholarly studies state that there have been various heresiological translations of Āstika and Nāstika in 20th century literature on Indian philosophies, but quite many are unsophisticated and flawed.

Astika and Nāstika do not mean "theism" and "atheism" respectively in ancient or medieval era Sanskrit literature. In current Indian languages like Hindi, āstika and its derivatives usually mean "theist", while nāstika and its derivatives denote an "atheist.” However, the terms are used differently in Hindu philosophy. For example, Sāṃkhya is both an atheist (as it does not accept an anthropomorphic God) and āstika (Vedic) philosophy, though “God” is often used as an epithet for consciousness (purusa) within its doctrine.


Śrāvaka (Sanskrit) or Sāvaka (Pali) means "hearer" or, more generally, "disciple". This term is used in Buddhism and Jainism. In Jainism, a śrāvaka is any lay Jain so the term śrāvaka has been used for the Jain community itself (for example see Sarak and Sarawagi). Śrāvakācāras are the lay conduct outlined within the treaties by Śvetāmbara or Digambara mendicants. "In parallel to the prescriptive texts, Jain religious teachers have written a number of stories to illustrate vows in practice and produced a rich répertoire of characters.".In Buddhism, the term is sometimes reserved for distinguished disciples of the Buddha.


Śāntarakṣita (Sanskrit: शान्तरक्षित, śāntarakṣita; Tibetan: ཞི་བའ་ཚོ, Wylie: zhi ba tsho, 725–788) was a renowned 8th century Indian Buddhist and abbot of Nalanda. Śāntarakṣita founded the philosophical approach known as Yogācāra-Mādhyamika (c.q. Yogācāra-Svatantrika-Mādhyamika), which united the Madhyamaka tradition of Nagarjuna, the Yogacara tradition of Asanga, and the logical and epistemological thought of Dharmakirti.

Śāntarakṣita was instrumental in the introduction of Buddhism and the Sarvastivadin monastic ordination lineage to Tibet which was conducted at Samye. His philosophic views were the main views in Tibet from the 8th century until it was mostly supplanted by Je Tsongkhapa's interpretation of Prasaṅgika Madhyamaka in the 15th century. In the late 19th century, Ju Mipham attempted to promote his views again as part of the Rimé movement and as a way to discuss specific critiques of Je Tsongkhapa's interpretation of Prasaṅgika.

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