Asaf Jahi dynasty

The Asaf Jahi (Hindi: आसफ़ जाहि, Urdu: آصف جاہ) was a Turkic dynasty from the region around Samarkand in modern-day Uzbekistan. The family came to India in the late 17th century, and became employees of the Mughal Empire. As the Mughals, of Turco-Mongol origin, were great patrons of Persian culture, language, literature, the family found a ready patronage.

The dynasty was founded by Mir Qamar-ud-Din Siddiqi, a viceroy of the Deccan under the Mughal emperors from 1713 to 1721. He intermittently ruled after Aurangzeb's death in 1707 and under the title Asaf Jah in 1724. The Mughal Empire crumbled and the viceroy in Hyderabad, the young Asaf Jah, declared himself independent.

Asaf Jah
Hyderabad Coat of Arms
Coat of Arms of the Nizam
Mir osman ali khan
Osman Ali Khan
Founded31 July 1724
FounderQamaruddin Khan
Final rulerOsman Ali Khan
ReligionIslam
Estate(s)Hyderabad
Deposition17 September 1948

History

Nawab Khwaja Abid Siddiqi, grandfather of the first Nizam, was born in Aliabad near Samarkhand in the kingdom of Bukhara. His father, Alam Shaik, was a well-known Sufi and celebrated man of letters. Khaja Abid's mother was of the family of Mir Hamdan, a distinguished Syed of Samarkhand.

Khaja Abid, who had held the high office of Qazi (Judge) and Shaik-ul-Islam, first visited India during the reign of Shah Jehan (Mughal Emperor) in 1655 on his way to Mecca. He presented himself at the Imperial Court where he won favours and robe of honour. He was offered a position in the Emperor's service, which he agreed to accept after his return from Mecca.

In 1657 Khaja Abid returned from his pilgrimage and joined the service of Aurangzeb (Mughal Emperor). At that time Aurangzeb was in the Deccan preparing for the war of succession to the Mughal throne. Khaja Abid, besides being a learned man, was well versed in the art of war. Aurangzeb gave him an important post in the Imperial army. He was granted a high rank of 3000 Zat and 500 Sawars and the title of Khan.

After succeeding in the war of succession, Aurangzeb made him the Governor of Ajmer and subsequently of Multan with the title of Qalich Khan. He served the Emperor with distinction particularly during the early years of Aurangzeb's reign while he was consolidating and restoring peace in his newly acquired territory.

On 30 January 1687 during the siege of Golconda while leading the Imperial armies against the Qutb Shahi King, Qalich Khan died when he was struck fatally by a cannonball.

Qalich Khan was survived by five sons, and his eldest son Shahabuddin Khan, entitled Ghaziuddin Khan Feroz Jung, earned the position of highest distinction in the Mughal Court. He married Safia Khanum, daughter of Saadullah Khan, the famous Prime Minister of Shah Jehan, and by her had a son named Qamaruddin, who later became the celebrated Nizam-ul-Mulk, the founder of the Asaf Jahi Dynasty.

Asaf Jah I

The founder of this dynasty was Mir Qamaruddin Khan, a noble and a courtier of the Mughal Muhammad Shah, who negotiated for a peace treaty with Nadirshah, the Iranian invader; got disgusted with the intrigues that prevailed in Delhi. He was on his way back to the Deccan, where, earlier he was a Subedar. But he had to confront Mubariz Khan, as a result of a plot by the Mughal emperor to kill the former. Mubariz Khan failed in his attempt and he was himself slain. This one on one took place in AD 1724, and henceforth Mir Qamaruddin, who assumed the title of Nizam-ul-Mulk, conducted himself as an independent ruler. Earlier, while he was one of the Ministers of the Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah, the latter conferred on him the title of Asaf Jah. Thus begins the Asaf Jahi rule over Golconda with the capital at Aurangabad.[1]

The Asafjahi Nizams are generally counted as seven, though they were ten. Nasir Jung, Muzaffar Jung, (son and grandson of the Nizam I who were killed by the Kurnool and Cuddapah Nawabs) and Salabat jung who together ruled for a decade, were not counted by the historians and the Mughal emperors at Delhi only recognised them just as Subedars of the Deccan.

The authority of the founder of the State of Hyderabad, Asafjah I, extended from Narmada to Trichinapally and from Machilipatnam to Bijapur. During the period of Afzal-ud-Daula (Asaf Jah V) (AD 1857–1869) it was estimated to be 95,337 sq.miles (2,46,922.83 km2), forming a lateral square of more than 450 miles (724.17 km) each way.

After Nizam I, Asaf Jah, died in AD 1748. There was a tussle for power among his son, Nasir Jung, and grandson Muzaffar Jung. The English supported Nasir Jung whereas Muzaffar Jung got support from the French. These two heirs were subsequently killed by Nawabs of Kurnool and Cuddapah, one after another, in AD 1750 and AD 1751 respectively. The third son of Nizam I, Salabat Jung became the ruler as Nizam under the support of the French.

Hostilities recommenced in India between the French and the English in AD 1758 on the outbreak of Seven Years' War in Europe in AD 1756. As a result, the French lost their power in India and consequently, it also lost influence at Hyderabad. In AD 1762 Nizam Ali Khan dislodged Salabat Jung and proclaimed himself as Nizam.

Asaf Jah II

The fourth son of the Nizam-ul-Mulk, Nizam Ali Khan was born on 24 February 1734. He assumed the Subedari of the Deccan at the age of 28 years and ruled the Deccan for almost 42 years - The longest period among the Nizams. His reign was one of the most important chapters in the history of the Asaf Jahi dynasty. Among his efforts to consolidate the Nizam empire was the shift of the Deccan capital from Aurangabad to Hyderabad. He ruled the Deccan at a most critical period and got very successful support from the Paigah Party. He protected the Deccan from the attack of the Marathas and Tippu Sultan of Mysore by signing a mutual protection treaty with the British.

After a reign that played a pivotal role in the establishment of the Nizam dynasty, Nizam Ali Khan died in 1803 at the age of 69. He was buried at the Mecca Masjid alongside the tomb of his mother Umda Begum.

Asaf Jah III

Mir Akbar Ali Khan Sikander Jah, Asaf Jah III was born on 11 November 1768.A fter the death of the Nizam Ali Khan he became the Subedar Jah was ratified by the emperor Shah Alam II and he also conferred all his father's titles on Sikander Jah.[2]

Asaf Jah IV

Mir Farkhunda Ali Khan Nusir-ud-Dawlah was born in Bidar on 25 April 1794. He was the eldest son of Sikander Jah and after his father's death, he succeeded him on 23 May 1829. During the reign of his father, a number of British officers were employed on several civil services. Hence on ascending the throne in 1829 one of the first ads of this highness was to request the Governor-general, Lord William Bentick to the European officers.[3][4]

Asaf Jah V

Mir Tahniath Ali Khan Afzal-ud-daula was born on 11 October 1827. He was the eldest son of Nawab Nasir-ud-daula. He ascended the throne on 18 May 1857 and Indian mutiny was stated on 17 July 1857 Rohillas attacked the residency but Sir Salar Jung put down the attack with a firm hand. Similarly, trouble was started in Solapur but the Maharaja of Solapur was unable to control.[5]

Asaf Jah VI

Mir Mahboob Ali Khan was born on 17 August 1866. He was the only son of Nawab Afzal-ud-Daula Asaf Jah V. When his father died he was two years and seven months old. He was installed as the Munsab by Sir Salar Jung I, Nawab Rasheeduddin Khan, Shar-ul-Ummul and the residents, there functioned as the Reyab. Shar-ul-Ummul died on 12 December 1881 and Salar Jung become the sole regent. He was remembered administrator and regent till his death.[6][7]

He is popularly known for his efforts to abolish the practice of Sati [8] and having supernatural healing powers against Snakebite.[9]

Asaf Jah VII

Mir Osman Ali Khan was born in Hyderabad on 5 April 1886 at Purani Haveli. Since he was the heir-apparent, great attention was paid to his education, and eminent scholars were engaged to teach him English, Urdu, Persian. On 14 April 1906 he was married to Dulhan Pasha Begum, daughter of Nawab Jahangir Jung, at Eden Bagh at the age 21.[10]

He is credited for various reforms in Education and development and remembered for being a truly secular[11] King by giving yearly donations to various temples.[12] He made large donations to educational institutions in India and abroad, he donated Rs 10 Lakh for the Banaras Hindu University and Rs 5 Lakh for the Aligarh Muslim University.[13]

He set up the Osmania University[14], Osmania General Hospital, Osmania Medical College, State Bank of Hyderabad, South India's first airport -the Begumpet Airport, Nizamia Observatory, Government Nizamia General Hospital etc.[15]

Others

Descendents of Asaf Jah VII

  • Azam Jah, Prince of Berar, GCIE, GBE, MSM (21 February 1907 – 9 October 1970). Granted the title of His Highness the Prince of Berar (13 November 1936). Passed over in the line of succession in 1967 in favour of his elder son. He had two sons, the elder Mukarram Jah & the younger Muffakham Jah
  • Moazzam Jah, second son of Asaf Jah VII.
  • Barkat Ali Khan Mukarram Jah, Asaf Jah VIII, 11th Nizam of Hyderabad (6 October 1933-). Succeeded his grandfather as titular monarch on 24 January 1967; titles abolished by the Indian Government on 28 December 1971. He has children that include two sons.

Asaf Jahi Rulers Of Hyderabad

Image Titular Name Personal Name Date of birth Nizam From Nizam Until Date of death
Asaf Jah I, Nizam of Hyderabad
Nizam-ul-Mulk, Asaf Jah I
نظام‌الملک آصف جاہ
Mir Qamar-ud-din Khan
20 August 1671 31 July 1724 1 June 1748
No image
Nasir Jung
نصیرجنگ
Mir Ahmed Ali Khan 26 February 1712 1 June 1748 16 December 1750
Dupleix meeting the Soudhabar of the Deccan
Muzaffar Jung
مظفرجنگ
Mir Hidayat Muhi-ud-din Sa'adullah Khan ? 16 December 1750 13 February 1751
Salabat Jung
Salabat Jung
صلابت جنگ
Mir Sa'id Muhammad Khan 24 November 1718 13 February 1751 8 July 1762
(deposed)
16 September 1763
Mir Nizam Ali Khan
Nizam-ul-Mulk, Asaf Jah II
نظام‌الملک آصف جاہ دوم
Mir Nizam Ali Khan 7 March 1734 8 July 1762 6 August 1803
Nizam Sikandar Jah (r.1803-29)
Sikander Jah, Asaf Jah III
سکندر جاہ ،آصف جاہ تریہم
Mir Akbar Ali Khan 11 November 1768 6 August 1803 21 May 1829
Nasir-ud-dawlah, Nizam of Hyderabad 1794-1857
Nasir-ud-Daula, Asaf Jah IV
ناصر الدولہ ،آصف جاہ چارہم
Mir Farqunda Ali Khan 25 April 1794 21 May 1829 16 May 1857
Afzal ud-Daula
Afzal-ud-Daula, Asaf Jah V
افضال الدولہ ،آصف جاہ پنجم
Mir Tahniyath Ali Khan 11 October 1827 16 May 1857 26 February 1869
Asaf Jah VI
Asaf Jah VI
آصف جاہ شیشم
Mir Mahbub Ali Khan
میر محبوب علی خان
17 August 1866 26 February 1869 29 August 1911
NezamHaydarabad
Asaf Jah VII
آصف جاہ ہفتم
Mir Osman Ali Khan
میر عثمان علی خان
6 April 1886 29 August 1911 17 September 1948
(deposed)
24 February 1967

Nasir Jung, Muzaffar Jung and Salabat Jung:- * These three rulers are not enumerated in the order of the Asaf Jah's, mainly because they were not granted the title of ASAF JAH by the Mughal Emperor.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Nizams".
  2. ^ "SECUNDERABAD: ORIGINS, TALES & ARMY CONNECTION".
  3. ^ "Mir Farkhunda Ali Khan Nasir-ud-daula - Asaf Jah IV of Hyderabad, India".
  4. ^ "Nasir-ud-Daula & Afzal-ud-daula | Telangana History: From Nizam's to Integration into Indian Union".
  5. ^ "Hyder8".
  6. ^ "NIZAM OF HYDERABAD DEAD.; Premier Prince of Indian Empire Had Annual Income of $10,000,000".
  7. ^ Chakraberty, Sumit (16 September 2012). "Staying at Falaknuma is like holding a mirror up to our past". DNA. Retrieved 22 October 2018.
  8. ^ "Letters leave a rich legacy of rulers".
  9. ^ "Picturing the 'Beloved'".
  10. ^ "Nizam VII cared more for people than himself". 26 May 2018.
  11. ^ "Nizam Hyderabad Mir Osman Ali Khan was a perfect secular ruler". 13 August 2015.
  12. ^ "Nizam gave funding for temples, and Hindu educational institutions".
  13. ^ "Government of India donated Rs 15 Lakh and Nizam of Hyderabad also donated Rs".
  14. ^ "Osmania University first to teach in blend of Urdu & English - Times of India".
  15. ^ "Reminiscing the seventh Nizam's enormous contribution to education".

External Links

Afzal-ud-Daulah

Afzal ad-Dawlah, Asaf Jah V Mir Tahniyath Ali Khan Siddiqi Bayafandi (11 October 1827 – 26 February 1869) was the ruling Nizam of Hyderabad, India, from 1857 to 1869.

Chowmahalla Palace

Chowmahalla Palace or Chowmahallatuu (4 Palaces), is a palace of the Nizams of Hyderabad state. It was the seat of the Asaf Jahi dynasty and was the official residence of the Nizams of Hyderabad while they ruled their state. The palace was built by Nizam Salabat Jung. The palace remains the property of Barkat Ali Khan Mukarram Jah, heir of the Nizams. Other members of the Hyderabadi Nizam family have also wed here.The place is named chowmahalla, which means four palaces. The word char, and its variation chau, means four and the word mahal means palace in Urdu and Hindi. It is more likely derived from Farsi words, as it was the official language of the Hyderabad State at the time. All ceremonial functions including the accession of the Nizams and receptions for the Governor-General were held at this palace.

The palace is located in the old city in Hyderabad near the Charminar.

The UNESCO Asia Pacific Merit award for cultural heritage conservation was presented to Chowmahalla Palace on 15 March 2010. UNESCO representative Takahiko Makino formally handed over the plaque and certificate to Princess Esra, former wife and GPA holder of Prince Mukarram Jah Bahadur.

Khilwat

Khilwat is a historically significant area in the midst of Old City, Hyderabad, India. The area is in the vicinity of the Chowmohalla Palace, which was developed by the Asaf Jahi dynasty. The area has many pre-historic buildings with intricate architecture which lends itself to a lavish lifestyle. Some of the wealthiest figures live in this part of Hyderabad. The Khilwat area is said to have many hidden treasures. This can be traced back to the olden days, when it was believed that there were no banks or government institutions holding valuable goods. Instead, rich people used to hide them in the earth so that they wouldn't be stolen. Only a few family members knew the exact location of these hidden treasures.

Komaram Bheem

Komaram Bheem (22 October 1901 – 27 October 1940) was a tribal leader who fought against the Asaf Jahi Dynasty for the liberation of Hyderabad. Komaram Bheem openly fought against the ruling Nizam government in a guerrilla campaign. He defied courts, laws, and any other form of Nizam authority, living off the sustenance of the forest. He took up arms against Nizam Nawab's soldiers, and fought Babi Jhari until his last breath. His life history was written originally by the comrade leader of Telangana Rebellion, Puchalapalli Sundariah.

List of Hyderabadi Muslims

Hyderabadi Muslims are an ethnoreligious community of Urdu-speaking Muslims, part of a larger group of Dakhini Muslims, from the area that used to be the princely state of Hyderabad, India, including cities like Hyderabad, Aurangabad and Bidar.

First generation immigrants are not included, however second and third generation immigrants who have adopted Hyderabadi Muslim Culture are usually considered Hyderabadi Muslims and included in the list.

Mahboob Ali Khan

Asaf Jah VI Mir Mahboob Ali Khan Siddiqi Bayafandi (18 August 1866 – 29 August 1911) was the 6th Nizam of Hyderabad. He ruled Hyderabad state, one of the Princely states in India between 1869 and 1911.

Mallapur

Mallapur is a village in Hyderabad in the Indian state of Telangana. As per the delimitation of election wards by the GHMC, it falls under ward no.3 of Kapra circle in the East zone.

Mir Osman Ali Khan

His Exalted Highness Nawab Sir Mir Osman Ali Khan Siddiqi, Asaf Jah VII (6 April 1886 – 24 February 1967), was the last Nizam (ruler) of the princely state of Hyderabad, the largest princely state in British India. He ruled Hyderabad State between 1911 and 1948, until it was annexed by India. He was styled as His Exalted Highness the Nizam of Hyderabad.In many accounts, the Nizam is held to have been a benevolent ruler who patronized education, science and development. During his 37-year rule, electricity was introduced, railways, roads and airways were developed. He is credited with the establishment numerous public institutions in the city of Hyderabad, including the Osmania University, Osmania General Hospital, State Bank of Hyderabad, Begumpet Airport, and Hyderabad High Court. Two reservoirs, namely Osman Sagar and Himayat Sagar were built during his reign, to prevent another great flood in the city.

The Nizam was one of the wealthiest people of all time. In 1937, he was featured on the cover of Time magazine, labelled as the 5th richest man in history. He was also a philanthropist, donating millions of rupees to various educational and religious institutions all over India. Apart from his wealth, he was known for his eccentricities, as he used to knit his own socks, and borrow cigarettes from guests.After India's independence in 1947, the Nizam did not wish to accede his state to the newly formed nation. By then, his power had weakened due to the Telangana movement and rise of a radical Muslim militia known as the Razakars. In 1948, the Indian Army invaded and annexed Hyderabad State, and the Nizam was forced to surrender. Later he was made the Rajpramukh of Hyderabad State between 1950 and 1956, after which the state was partitioned and became part of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Maharashtra. The Nizam died in 1967.

Mubarez-ud-Daulah

Mir Gowhar Ali Khan (18 March 1798 – 25 June 1854), commonly known as Mubarez-ud-Daulah was a member of the Asaf Jahi dynasty of Hyderabad state. A son of Nizam Sikandar Jah, he was influenced by the Wahhabi movement and wanted to overthrow the British and defeat his elder brother and Nizam Nasir-ud-Daulah. However, his plans were intercepted by Resident James Stuart Fraser and was arrested by the Nizam.

Mukarram Jah

Mir Barkat Ali Khan Mukarram Jah Asaf Jah VIII (Urdu: میر برکت علی خان مکرم جا اصف جہ‎)(Telugu: మీర్ బర్కాత్ ఆలీ ఖాన్ ముకరం జా ఆసాఫ్ జా),(born 6 October 1934), less formally known as Mukarram Jah, became the titular Nizam of Hyderabad upon the death of his grandfather in 1967.He currently chairs the H.E.H. The Nizam’s Charitable Trust and Mukarram Jah Trust for Education & Learning (MJTEL).

Nasir-ud-Daulah

Mir Farqunda Ali Khan Siddiqi Asaf Jah lV (25 April 1794 – 16 May 1857), commonly known as 'Nasir-ud-Daulah' was Nizam of Hyderabad from 24 May 1829 until his death in 1857.

Born as Farqunda Ali Khan to Nizam Sikandar Jah and Fazilatunnisa Begum, Nasir-ud-Daulah ascended the throne in 1829. He inherited a kingdom which had become financially weak. On his request, Lord Bentinck withdrew all the European superintendents of civil departments and followed a policy of non-intervention into Nizam's affairs. He owed large debts to the Arabs, Rohillas and the British. Ultimately, he signed a treaty with The Earl of Dalhousie, the then Governor-General of India in 1853. The latter agreed to liquidate all his debts and in return the Nizam had to cede a part of his territory to the British. The Nizam founded the Hyderabad Medical School in 1846.

Nizam-ul-Mulk, Asaf Jah I

Mir Qamar-ud-din Khan Siddiqi Bayafandi (20 August 1671 – 1 June 1748) was a nobleman of Indian and Turkic descent and the founder of the Asaf Jahi dynasty. He established the Hyderabad state, and ruled it from 1724 to 1748. He is also known by his titles Chin Qilich Khan (awarded by emperor Aurangzeb in 1690–91), Nizam-ul-Mulk (awarded by Farrukhsiyar in 1713) and Asaf Jah (awarded by Muhammad Shah in 1725).

Nizam Ali Khan, Asaf Jah II

Nawab Mir Nizam Ali Khan Siddiqi Bayafandi Bahadur Asaf Jah II (7 March 1734 – 6 August 1803) was the Nizam of Hyderabad State in South India between 1762 and 1803. He was born on 7 March 1734 as fourth son to Asaf Jah I and Umda Begum. His official name is Asaf Jah II, Nizam ul-Mulk, Nizam ud-Daula, Nawab Mir Nizam 'Ali Khan Siddiqi Bayafandi Bahadur, Fath Jang, Sipah Salar, Nawab Subedar of the Deccan.

Nizam of Hyderabad

The Nizam of Hyderabad (Nizam-ul-Mulk, also known as Asaf Jah) was a monarch of the Hyderabad State, now divided into Telangana state, Hyderabad-Karnataka region of Karnataka and Marathwada region of Maharashtra. Nizam, shortened from Nizam-ul-Mulk, meaning Administrator of the Realm, the title of the rulers of Hyderabad State, was the premier Prince of India, since 1724, belonging to the Asaf Jahi dynasty.

The Asaf Jahi dynasty was founded by Mir Qamar-ud-Din Siddiqi, a viceroy of the Deccan under the Mughal Empire from 1713 to 1721. He intermittently governed the region after Aurangzeb's death in 1707. In 1724, Mughal control weakened, and Asaf Jah became virtually independent of them; Hyderabad would then become a tributary of the Maratha Empire, losing a series of battles for independence through the 18th century. When the British achieved paramountcy over India, the Nizams were allowed to continue to rule their princely states as client kings. The Nizams retained internal power over Hyderabad State until the 17 September 1948 when Hyderabad was integrated into the new Indian Union. The Asaf Jah dynasty had only seven rulers; however there was a period of 13 unstable years after the rule of the first Nizam when three of his sons (Nasir Jung, Muzafar Jung and Salabath Jung) ruled. They were never officially recognised as rulers. The seventh and last Nizam was Mir Osman Ali Khan, who fell from power when Hyderabad was annexed by India in 1948.

Secunderabad

Secunderabad ([sikŋdɾaːbaːd] (listen), also spelled sometimes as Sikandar-a-bad) is the twin city of Hyderabad located in the Indian state of Telangana.

Named after Sikandar Jah, the third Nizam of the Asaf Jahi dynasty, Secunderabad was established in 1806 as a British cantonment. Although both the cities are together referred to as the twin cities, Hyderabad and Secunderabad have different histories and cultures, with Secunderabad having developed directly under British rule until 1948, and Hyderabad as the capital of the Nizams' princely state of Hyderabad.Geographically divided from Hyderabad by the Hussain Sagar lake, Secunderabad is no longer a separate municipal unit and has become part of Hyderabad's Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation (GHMC). Both cities are collectively known as Hyderabad and together form the fifth-largest metropolis in India. Being one of the largest cantonments in India, Secunderabad has a large presence of army and air force personnel.

Sikandar Jah

Nawab Mir Akbar Ali Khan Siddiqi Bayafandi Bahadur, Sikander Jah, Asaf Jah III (11 November 1768 – 21 May 1829), was the 3rd Nizam/Ruler of Hyderabad, India from 1803 to 1829.

Sri Komaram Bheem Project

The Sri Komaram Bheem Project (Telugu: కొమరం భీం ప్రాజెక్ట్) is a Medium Reservoir has been built across Peddavagu River, a tributary of the Pranahita River. It is located at Ada village, Asifabad Mandal, Adilabad District, Telangana.

The project named after Komaram Bheem (Telugu:కొమరం భీం 22 October 1901 – 19 October 1940), was a tribal leader who fought against the Asaf Jahi Dynasty for the liberation of Hyderabad State. Komaram Bheem openly fought against the ruling Nizam government in a guerrilla campaign. He defied courts, laws, and any other form of Nizam authority, living off the sustenance of the forest. He took up arms against Nizam Nawab's soldiers, and fought Babi Jhari until his last breath.

This Project proposed to supply water to Asifabad, Wankidi, Kaghaznagar, and Sirpur mandals more than 45,000 in acres. But currently, the project is providing irrigation water to about 20,000 acres under its left canal 35 km. Right canal will provide irrigation water to about another 25000 acres.

Telangana Secretariat

Telangana Secretariat situated at Hyderabad, is the administrative office of the employees of the Government of Telangana in India.

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