Arycanda

Arycanda or Arykanda (Ancient Greek: Ἀρύκανδα) is an Ancient Lycian city, former bishopric and present Catholic titular see in Antalya Province in the Mediterranean Region of Turkey. Arykanda was built upon five large terraces ascending a mountain slope, located near the small village of Aykiriçay, presently on the Elmalı-Finike road.

Arycanda
Ἀρύκανδα
Arykanda Thermen
The Roman baths (thermae) of Arykanda
Arycanda is located in Turkey
Arycanda
Shown within Turkey
Alternative nameArykanda
LocationAykiriçay, Antalya Province, Turkey
RegionLycia
Coordinates36°30′50″N 30°03′36″E / 36.51389°N 30.06000°ECoordinates: 36°30′50″N 30°03′36″E / 36.51389°N 30.06000°E
TypeSettlement

History

Arycanda is known to be one of the old Lycian cities, as its name ends with -anda, indicative of its Anatolian origin; dating back as far as the 2nd millennium BC.[1]

On the other hand, the oldest remains and finds from the city date from the 6th or 5th century BCE. The site is being excavated and restored by an Ankara University team[1] headed by Prof. Dr. Cevdet Bayburtluoglu[2] since 1971.

Gods and goddesses known to have been worshipped here are: (mostly Greek)

Arycanda survived through Byzantine times, until the 6th century when the settlement moved to a new site south of the modern road, which is called Arif (or Aruf) Settlement in archaeological literature so that it will not mix up with the older site.

Sights

Arykanda
The necropolis is seen on the slope of the hill, the gymnasium and thermae are located at its foot

Acropolis houses Hellenistic and older remains of the site which include the temple of Helios, bouleterion, prytaneion, upper agora withs its shops, and several excavated houses. The lower city houses most of the Roman remains. These include:

  • A bath complex on the lowest terrace, still virtually intact in its sequence of arches, next to the gymnasium. The city has 7 different bath houses of various sizes.
  • Lower Agora, some of the shops in its eastern part can still be seen. It is wide and flat, located to the south of the odeon and was enclosed on three sides by a portico. At its middle are the remains of Tyche Temple.
  • A theatre, in excellent condition, built during the 1st century BCE. It has 20 rows of seats, divided into 7 sections. At the edge of every row are holes that were used to support protective awnings.
  • Odeon - 2nd century AD. The main entrance is to the south, through a triple portal. This was once a very ornate building, the interior was lined with orthostats and the walls, orchestra and seats were once covered with coloured marble. A block that was discovered (and now housed in Antalya Archaeological Museum) during the excavations over the portal bears a portrait of the Emperor Hadrian.
  • A stadium, from the Hellenistic period, that resides above the theatre, in the form of a running track with seats built only on one side. It is smaller than a usual stadium, measuring 106 m. long and 17 m. wide.
  • Two necropoleis. The one on the entrance to the site is very interesting with its series of richly decorated funerary monuments. The eastern necropolis has barrel-vaulted monumental tombs, temple-tombs and sarcophagi and the western necropolis has rock-cut tombs and barrel-vaulted tombs.

Ecclesiastical history

Former diocese

Since it was in the Roman province of Lycia, the bishopric of Arneae was a suffragan of the metropolitan see of Myra, the province's capital. The Second Council of Nicaea (787) were signed on behalf of the absent bishop of Arycanda by his deacon Petrus. Another bishop of Arycanda, Theodorus, took part in the Photian Council of Constantinople (879).[3][4]

Titular see

No longer a residential bishopric, Arycanda is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see.[5]

It is presently vacant, having had the following incumbents since the diocese wasnominally restored in 1921, under the name Aucanda/Ascanda until 1925, all of the lowest (episcopal) rank :

  • Sotero Redondo Herrero, Augustinian Order (O.E.S.A.) (1921.06.16 – 1935.02.24)
  • Anunciado Serafini (1935.05.11 – 1939.06.20)
  • Jean Larregain (甘有為), Paris Foreign Missions Society (M.E.P.) (1939.06.13 – 1942.05.02)
  • Joseph Martin Nathan (1943.04.17 – 1947.01.30)
  • Antônio Maria Alves de Siqueira (1947.05.10 – 1957.07.19) (later Archbishop)
  • Francisco Ferreira Arreola (1957.12.21 – 1960.08.01)
  • Benito Epifanio Rodríguez (1960.09.23 – 2001.02.15)

Gallery

Arykanda Theater

Theater

Arycanda Theatre panorama 3808

Arycanda Theatre panorama

Arycanda Theatre panorama 5011

Arycanda Theatre panorama

Arykanda Grabstätte

Grave decorated with a gorgon head

Arykanda Mosaik

Roman mosaic floor

Arykanda 4973

Arykanda general view

Arycanda 3797

Arycanda from within bath

Arykanda 4918

Arycanda Peristyle house

Arykanda 4958

Arykanda Peristyle house mosaic

Arykanda 4959

Arykanda Peristyle house mosaic

Arykanda 4960

Arykanda Peristyle house mosaic

Arykanda State agora 4975

Arykanda State agora

Arykanda 4949

Arykanda Basilica mosaic

Arykanda 4998

Arykanda Odeon

Arycanda 3894

Arycanda Traianeum

Arycanda 3842

Arycanda at stadion

Arykanda 5061

Arykanda Stadion

Arykanda 5075

Arykanda Tomb 1

Arykanda 5085

Arykanda Monumental grave

Arykanda 5094

Monumental grave entrance detail

Notes

  1. ^ a b Whiting, Dominic (2000-04-01). Turkey Handbook: The Travel Guide. Footprint Handbooks. p. 365. ISBN 1-900949-85-7.
  2. ^ Harrison, Martin (2001-09-05). Mountain and Plain: From the Lycian Coast to the Phrygian Plateau in the Late Roman and Early Byzantine Period. p39. University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-11084-5.
  3. ^ Michel Lequien, Oriens christianus in quatuor Patriarchatus digestus, Paris 1740, Vol. I, coll. 993-994
  4. ^ Pius Bonifacius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae Catholicae, Leipzig 1931, p. 450
  5. ^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 838

External links

Antalya Province

Antalya Province (Turkish: Antalya ili) is located on the Mediterranean coast of south-west Turkey, between the Taurus Mountains and the Mediterranean sea.

Antalya Province is the centre of Turkey's tourism industry, attracting 30% of foreign tourists visiting Turkey. Its capital city of the same name was the world's third most visited city by number of international arrivals in 2011, displacing New York. Antalya is Turkey's biggest international sea resort. The province of Antalya corresponds to the lands of ancient Pamphylia to the east and Lycia to the west. It features a shoreline of 657 km (408 mi) with beaches, ports, and ancient cities scattered throughout, including the World Heritage Site Xanthos. The provincial capital is Antalya city with a population of 1,001,318.

Antalya is the fastest-growing province in Turkey; with a 4.17% yearly population growth rate between years 1990–2000, compared with the national rate of 1.83%. This growth is due to a fast rate of urbanization, particularly driven by tourism and other service sectors on the coast.

Anunciado Serafini

Anunciado Serafini (November 16, 1898 – February 18, 1963) was the Roman Catholic bishop of what is now the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Mercedes-Luján, Argentina. Ordained to the priesthood on December 20, 1924, Serafini was named Auxiliary Bishop of La Plata and Titular Bishop of Arycanda in 1935, and then Bishop of Mercedes in 1939.On April 8, 1962, Bishop Serafini consecrated Antonio Quarracino to the episcopacy. As Cardinal Quarracino later conducted the episcopal consecration of Jorge Mario Bergoglio, the future Pope Francis, Bishop Serafini is part of that pope’s episcopal lineage.

Ariassus

Ariassus or Ariassos (Ancient Greek: Άριασσός) was a town in Pisidia, Asia Minor built on a steep hillside about 50 kilometres inland from Attaleia (modern Antalya).

Arsada

Arsada or Arsadus was a city of ancient Lycia, located over the valley of the Xanthus between the ancient cities of Tlos and Xanthus.Its site is located near Arsaköy, Asiatic Turkey.The site was visited by Thomas Abel Brimage Spratt in the 19th century, where he found rock tombs, on two of which were Lycian inscriptions. "There are several Greek inscriptions; in two of them mention is made of the name of the place." One inscription is given in Spratt's Lycia, from which it appears that the ancient name was not Arsa, as it is assumed in the work referred to, but Arsadus, or Arsada (like Arycanda), as the ethnic name, which occurs twice in the inscription, shows (Ἀρσαδέων ὁ δῆμος, and Ἀρσαδέα, in the accusative singular.) The inscription is on a sarcophagus, and records that the Demus honoured a certain person with a gold crown and a bronze statue for certain services to the community. The inscription shows that there was a temple of Apollo at this place.

Bracca (moth)

Bracca is a genus of moths in the family Geometridae erected by Jacob Hübner in 1820.

Bracca maculosa

Bracca maculosa is a moth of the family Geometridae. It is found in Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo and Palawan.

Bracca subfumosa

Bracca subfumosa is a moth of the family Geometridae. It is found in Borneo and Sumatra.

Caloe

Caloe was a town in the Roman province of Asia. It is mentioned as Kaloe or Keloue in 3rd-century inscriptions, as Kalose in Hierocles's Synecdemos (660), and as Kalloe, Kaloe, and Kolone in Parthey's Notitiæ episcopatuum, in which it figures from the 6th to the 12fth or 13th century.

Cestrus

Cestrus was a city in the Roman province of Isauria, in Asia Minor. Its placing within Isauria is given by Hierocles, Georgius Cyprius, and Parthey's (Notitiae episcopatuum). While recognizing what the ancient sources said, Lequien supposed that the town, whose site has not been identified, took its name from the River Cestros and was thus in Pamphylia. Following Lequien's hypothesis, the 19th-century annual publication Gerarchia cattolica identified the town with "Ak-Sou", which Sophrone Pétridès called an odd mistake, since this is the name of the River Cestros, not of a city.

Cotenna

Cotenna was a city in the Roman province of Pamphylia I in Asia Minor. It corresponds to modern Gödene, near Konya, Turkey.

Docimium

Docimium, Docimia or Docimeium (Greek: Δοκίμια and Δοκίμειον) was an ancient city of Phrygia, Asia Minor where there were famous marble quarries.

Drizipara

Drizipara (or Druzipara, Drousipara. Drusipara) now Karıştıran (Büyükkarıştıran) in Lüleburgaz district was a city and a residential episcopal see in the Roman province of Europa in the civil diocese of Thrace. It is now a titular see of the Catholic Church.

Finike

Finike, the ancient Phoenix or Phoinix (Ancient Greek: Φοῖνιξ), also formerly Phineka, is a district on the Mediterranean coast of Antalya Province in Turkey, to the west of the city of Antalya, along the Turkish Riviera. It is located on the southern shore of the Teke peninsula, and the coast here is a popular tourist destination. However, Finike is best known for its oranges, the symbol of the town.

List of ancient Greek theatres

This is a list of ancient Greek theatres by location.

List of ancient settlements in Turkey

Below is the list of ancient settlements in Turkey. There are innumerable ruins of ancient settlements spread all over the country. While some ruins date back to Neolithic times, most of them were settlements of Hittites, Phrygians, Lydians, Ionians, Urartians, and so on.

Lyrbe

Lyrbe (spelled Lyrba in the 1910 Catholic Encyclopedia; Ancient Greek: Λύρβη) was a city and episcopal see in the Roman province of Pamphylia Prima and is now a titular see.

Stratonicea (Lydia)

Stratonicea – (Greek: Στρατoνικεια, or Στρατονίκεια) also transliterated as Stratoniceia and Stratonikeia, earlier Indi, and later for a time Hadrianapolis – was an ancient city in the valley of the Caicus river, between Germe and Acrasus, in Lydia, Anatolia; its site is currently near the village of Siledik, in the district of Kırkağaç, Manisa Province, in the Aegean Region of Turkey.

Üçayaklı ruins

The Üçayaklı ruins are in Mersin Province, Turkey.

Aegean
Black Sea
Central Anatolia
Eastern Anatolia
Marmara
Mediterranean
Southeastern
Anatolia

Languages

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.