Ary Scheffer (10 February 1795 – 15 June 1858) was a Dutch-French Romantic painter. He was known mostly for his works based on literature, with paintings based on the works of Dante, Goethe, and Lord Byron, as well as religious subjects. He was also a prolific painter of portraits of famous and influential people in his lifetime. Politically, Scheffer had strong ties to King Louis Philippe I, having been employed as a teacher of the latter's children, which allowed him to live a life of luxury for many years until the French Revolution of 1848.
Self-portrait by Scheffer
|Born||10 February 1795|
|Died||15 June 1858 (aged 63)|
Scheffer was the son of Johan Bernard Scheffer (1765–1809), a portrait painter who was born in Homberg upon Ohm or Kassel (both presently in Germany) and moved to The Netherlands in his youth, and Cornelia Lamme (1769–1839), a portrait miniature painter and daughter of landscape painter Arie Lamme of Dordrecht, for whom Arij (later "Ary") was named. Ary Scheffer had two brothers, the journalist and writer Karel Arnold Scheffer (1796–1853) and the painter Hendrik Scheffer (1798–1862). His parents educated him and he attended the drawing academy in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, from the age of 11 years. In 1808 his father became the court painter of Louis Bonaparte in Amsterdam, yet his father died one year later. Encouraged by Willem Bilderdijk, Ary moved to Lille, France for further study after the death of his father. In 1811 he and his mother, who greatly influenced his career, moved to Paris, France, where he studied at the École des Beaux-Arts as a pupil of Pierre-Narcisse Guérin. His brothers followed them to Paris later.
Scheffer started exhibiting at the Salon de Paris in 1812. He began to be recognized in 1817, and in 1819 he was asked to make a portrait of the Marquis de Lafayette. Perhaps because of Lafayette's acquaintances, Scheffer and his brothers were politically active throughout their lives and he became a prominent Philhellene.
In 1822 he became drawing teacher to the children of Louis Philippe I, the Duke of Orléans. Because of his connection with them, he obtained many commissions for portraiture and other work. In 1830 riots against the rule of King Charles X resulted in his overthrow. On 30 July, Scheffer and influential journalist Adolphe Thiers rode from Paris to Orléans to ask Louis Philippe I to lead the resistance, and a few days later he became "King of the French".
That same year, Scheffer's daughter Cornelia was born. He registered the name of her mother as "Maria Johanna de Nes", but nothing is known of her and she may have died soon after Cornelia's birth. Considering that his grandmother's name was "Johanna de Nes", it has been speculated that he kept the name of Cornelia's mother secret so as not to compromise the reputation of a noble family. Cornelia Scheffer (1830–1899) became a sculptor and painter in her own right. Scheffer's mother did not know of her namesake granddaughter until 1837, after which she cared for her until she died only two years later. Scheffer became an associate member of the Royal Institute of the Netherlands in 1846, and resigned in 1851.
Scheffer and his family prospered during the reign of Louis Philippe I, who abdicated on 24 February 1848. Scheffer and Hendrik were inundated with artistic commissions, and they taught numerous students in their workshop in Paris, so many that of the works produced during this period that bear his signature the number that he actually made himself cannot be verified.
Scheffer was elevated as commander of the Legion of Honour in 1848. As a captain of the Garde Nationale he escorted the French royal family in its escape from the Tuileries and escorted the Duchess d'Orléans to the Chambre des Députés, where she in vain proposed her son as the next monarch of France. Scheffer fought in the army of Cavaignac during the June Days Uprising in Paris of 23 to 26 June 1848. The cruelty and hatred that the governmental faction exhibited and the misery of the lower classes so shocked him that he withdrew from politics and refused to make portraits of the family of Napoléon III, who reigned after the Uprising. On 16 March 1850 he married Sophie Marin, the widow of General Baudrand, and on 6 November of that year he finally became a French citizen. He continued to frequently travel to The Netherlands, and traveled to Belgium, Germany, and England, but a heart condition impaired his activity and eventually caused his death in 1858 in his summer house in Argenteuil. He is buried in the Cimetière de Montmartre.
When Scheffer left Guérin's studio, Romanticism had come into vogue in France, with such painters as Xavier Sigalon, Eugène Delacroix and Théodore Géricault. Scheffer did not show much affinity with their work and developed his own style, which has been called "frigidly classical".
Scheffer often painted subjects from literature, especially the works of Dante, Byron and Goethe. Two versions of Dante and Beatrice have been preserved at Wolverhampton Art Gallery, United Kingdom, and Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, US. Particularly highly praised was his Francesca da Rimini, painted in 1836, which illustrates a scene from Dante Alighieri's Inferno. In the piece the entwined bodies of Francesca di Rimini and Paolo Malatesta swirl around in the never-ending tempest that is the second circle of Hell. The illusion of movement is created by the drapery that envelopes the couple, as well as by Francesca's flowing hair. These two figures create a diagonal line that intersects the majority of the canvas creating not only a sense of movement, but also giving the painting an air of instability. Francesca clings to Paolo as he turns his face away in anguish. There are an additional two figures in the image: hidden in the background, the poets Dante and Virgil look on as they make their way through the nine circles of Hell.
Scheffer's popular Faust-themed paintings include Margaret at her wheel; Faust doubting; Margaret at the Sabbat; Margaret leaving church; The garden walk, and Margaret at the well. In 1836, he painted two pictures of Goethe's character Mignon: Mignon desires her fatherland (1836), and Mignon yearns for heaven (1851).
He now turned to religious subjects: Christus Consolator (1836) was followed by Christus Remunerator, The shepherds led by the star (1837), The Magi laying down their crowns, Christ in the Garden of Olives, Christ bearing his Cross, Christ interred (1845), and St Augustine and Monica (1846).
One of the reduced versions of his Christus Consolator (the prime version today to be found in the Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam), lost for 70 years, was rediscovered in a janitor's closet in Gethsemane Lutheran Church in Dassel, Minnesota in 2007. It has been restored and is on display at the Minneapolis Institute of Art.
Scheffer was also an accomplished portrait painter, finishing 500 portraits in total. His subjects included composers Frédéric Chopin and Franz Liszt, the Marquis de la Fayette, Pierre-Jean de Béranger, Alphonse de Lamartine, Charles Dickens, Duchess de Broglie, Talleyrand and Queen Marie Amélie.
After 1846, he ceased to exhibit. His strong ties with the royal family caused him to fall out of favour when, in 1848, the Second Republic came into being. Scheffer was made commander of the Legion of Honour in 1848, that is, after he had wholly withdrawn from the Salon. Shut up in his studio, he produced many paintings that were only exhibited after his death in 1858.
The works first exhibited posthumously include Sorrows of the earth, and the Angel announcing the Resurrection, which he had left unfinished. By the time of his death, his reputation was damaged and was further undermined by the sale of the Paturle Gallery, which contained many of his most celebrated achievements: though his paintings were praised for their charm and facility, they were condemned for poor use of color and vapid sentiment.
At various times Maurice Sand, Scheffer, Charles Gounod, Hector Berlioz were in relationships with Pauline Viardot — in letters they claimed that they were in love with her. She wrote in one letter:
Louis and Scheffer (Scheffer was the best friend of Louis Viardot, husband of Pauline Viardot) has always been my dearest of friends, and it is sad, that I was never able to respond to the hot and deep love of Louis, despite all my volition."
She was married to Louis Viardot at 18 years old, when her husband was a director of an Italian opera house in Paris and a friend of Scheffer. Scheffer was a confidant of Pauline Viardot and a friend of her family until his death.
In 1850 Scheffer became a French citizen and married Sophie Marin, the widow of General Marie Étienne François Henri Baudrand, who died on 7 September 1848. Marin died six years later (1856).
Events from the year 1858 in art.Ann Mary Newton
Ann Mary Newton , née Severn, (29 June 1832 – 2 January 1866) was an English painter. She specialized in portraits of children and worked in crayon, chalk, pastel and watercolour. Newton studied in England under George Richmond and in Paris under Ary Scheffer. Her works were exhibited at the Royal Academy of Art between 1852 and 1865.Carlo Felice Biscarra
Carlo Felice Biscarra (March 26, 1823 – July 31, 1894) was an Italian painter and art critic.
Born in Turin, Carlo Felice initially trained with his father, Giovanni Battista, who was director of the Accademia Albertina. Carlo Felice received a pension from the Queen to study in Florence and Rome. In 1850, his first canvas Cola di Rienzo harangues the People of Rome was displayed and much admired at an exhibition at Castello del Valentino. Other works include Galileo Galilei before the Tribunal of the Inquisition; the Brothers Zuccato, Mosaicists (and tutors of Titian, in a Venetian Jail; Fanfulla addresses the armies in defense of Florence; Filippo Lippi in Barbary draws his captors; Giovanni Bellini discovers the secrets of oil painting; recato in Italia da Antonello di Messina; Maso Finiguerra learns how to engrave with burin; Youth of Carmagnola; The infancy of Lodovico Muratori; Silvio Pellico che dalle carceri di Murano s'avvia allo Spielberg; Giordano Bruno in Jail; Loves of the Angels; Medoro; Graziella; Desdemona; Clarino; The old street of Cenisio Capo Noli; and Pesca ai polipi.He traveled through Europe, and in Paris worked with the painter Ary Scheffer. In 1860 under Massimo d'Azeglio, he became secretary of the Accademia Albertina. He also helped found the Circolo degli Artisti di Torino, a painters' association. He collaborated with Luigi Rocca to publish the magazine L'Arte in Italia for five years till 1873. Biscarra translated a course of industrial and artistic design by G. Schreiber, and published on the history of the Academy and of the main works in the Royal Pinacoteca of Turin. He sponsored photography of the archeologic sites of the Piedmont. He died in Turin in 1894.Francesca da Rimini and Paolo Malatesta Appraised by Dante and Virgil
Francesca da Rimini and Paolo Malatesta appraised by Dante and Virgil (and several variant titles) is a composition painted in at least three very similar versions by Ary Scheffer; all are in oils on canvas. They show a scene from Dante's Inferno of Dante and Virgil viewing Francesca da Rimini and Paolo Malatesta in Hell. It "could be described as Scheffer's best work".In the first volume, Inferno, of The Divine Comedy, Dante and Virgil meet Francesca and her lover Paolo in the second circle of hell, reserved for the lustful. Here, the couple are trapped in an eternal whirlwind, doomed to be forever swept through the air just as they allowed themselves to be swept away by their passions. Dante calls out to the lovers, who are compelled to briefly pause before him, and he speaks with Francesca. She obliquely states a few of the details of her life and her death, and Dante, apparently familiar with her story, correctly identifies her by name. He asks her what led to her and Paolo's damnation, and Francesca's story strikes such a chord within Dante that he faints out of pity. The pair, depicted either during their life or following Dante, became a very popular subject in 19th-century art.
Like some other artists, for example William Powell Frith, Scheffer got in the habit of repeating his most successful paintings in smaller versions later in life, as his more recent works became less successful, and his role as a court painter was lost after the French Revolution of 1848. The first or prime version was painted in 1835 and measures 166.5 by 234 centimetres (65.6 by 92.1 in); it is now in the Wallace Collection in London. The second version (1854), measuring 51.7 by 81.3 centimetres (20.4 by 32.0 in), is in the Hamburger Kunsthalle. The third version (1855) is now in the Louvre in Paris, with Louvre Classification: R.F. 1217. Another version from 1851 measuring 24.7 by 33.2 centimetres (9.7 by 13.1 in) hangs at the Cleveland Museum of Art, Ohio. The Carnegie Museum of Art in Pittsburgh has another version.Various titles are used:
Just Francesca da Rimini today at the Wallace Collection
The Ghosts/Shades/Shadows of Francesca de Rimini and Paolo Malatesta Appear to Dante and Virgil by various sources, especially of the Hamburg and Paris versions.
Dante and Virgil Encountering the Shades of Francesca da Rimini and Paolo Malatesta in the Underworld in Pittsburgh
Dante and Virgil Meeting the Shades of Francesca da Rimini and Paolo in Cleveland
Les ombres de Francesca da Rimini et de Paolo Malatesta apparaissent à Dante et à Virgile by the Louvre.François-Émile de Lansac
François-Émile de Lansac (1 October 1803 – 1 April 1890) was a French painter.Jan Riske
Jan Riske (born 1932 in Dordrecht) is a Dutch painter.
Jan Hendrik Riske went to a private Montessori school and was encouraged to draw by his father. Riske was noticed by Laurens J. Bol, director of the Dordrechts Museum. With the financial support from the Ary Scheffer Fund, obtained through the influence of Bol, Riske was able to study at the Art Academy in Rotterdam.After his studies at the art academy in Rotterdam he emigrated to Australia in 1952.
His work was on exposition at the Museum of Modern Art in Melbourne, the Carnegie International in Pittsburgh and galleries in Amsterdam, New York, Sydney and Melbourne.
These museums have works of Jan Riske on display:
National Gallery of Australia, Canberra
Fine Arts Museum (Dallas)Jean-Nicolas Marjolin
Jean-Nicolas Marjolin (6 December 1780 – 4 March 1850) was a French surgeon and pathologist born in Ray-sur-Saône, Haute-Saône. His name is associated with a malady known as Marjolin's ulcer.
After a brief stint in the French military, he attached himself to a physician, a friend of the family who allowed Marjolin to attend Commercy Hospital as a student. In 1800 he relocated to Paris with a letter of recommendation from Alexis Boyer (1757–1833). Here he became a favoured disciple of Guillaume Dupuytren (1777–1835).
In 1803 he gained his internship, followed by promotions as an anatomy assistant (1805) and prosector (1806). In 1808 he earned his medical doctorate, and two years later opened an amphitheater on Rue des Rats (today- Rue Colbert). Here he taught classes that numbered more than 200 pupils. In 1816 he was appointed second surgeon at the Hôtel-Dieu de Paris with Dupuytren as departmental head. By this time Marjolin's relationship with Dupuytren had soured, eventually leading to bitter hatred between the two men.
In 1818 he was chosen professor of external pathology ahead of esteemed candidates that included Philibert Joseph Roux (1780–1854), Dominique Larrey (1766–1842) and Jules Germain Cloquet (1790–1883). For the next thirty two years he maintained the chair of external pathology. His final days were spent in retirement at Clichy, where he pursued his hobby attending to trees and flowers.
In 1820 he became a member of the Académie de Médecine, and in 1830 was chosen consultant surgeon to Louis-Philippe. His son, René, married Cornelia Scheffer, daughter of painter Ary Scheffer (1795–1858).Johan Bernard Scheffer
Johann or Johan Bernard Scheffer (also Jean Baptist Scheffer), (1764 in Homberg, Hesse-Kassel – 30 June 1809 in Amsterdam) was a German-born painter and etcher active in the Netherlands and the father of the painter Ary Scheffer.
He was the son of Johann Werner Scheffer (1730-1799) and Catharine Maria Pfluger (1731-1799) and a pupil of Johann Friedrich August Tischbein. By 1788 he lived and worked in Utrecht and from 1790 in Dordrecht where in October 1794 he married the miniature painter Cornelia Lamme (1769-1839), daughter of the landscape painter Arie Lamme. They had three sons who survived to adulthood: the portrait painter Ary Scheffers (1795-1858), the journalist and writer Karel Arnold Scheffer (1796-1853) and the painter Hendrik Scheffer (1798-1862). The family moved in 1798 from Dordrecht to The Hague, in 1801 to Rotterdam and in 1803 to Amsterdam. Scheffer produced several large historical works, and some portraits, including one of King Louis Bonaparte of Holland. In 1808 he became court painter of Louis Bonaparte in Amsterdam, but he died only a year later at the age of 44 or 45. He was buried 5 July 1809 in the Zuiderkerk.John Kynaston Cross
John Kynaston Cross (13 October 1832 – 20 March 1887), was a British cotton spinner and Liberal Party politician. He served as Under-Secretary of State for India under William Gladstone from 1883 to 1885.List of Légion d'honneur recipients by name (S)
The following is a list of some notable Légion d'honneur recipients by name. The Légion d'honneur is the highest order of France. A complete, chronological list of the members of the Legion of Honour nominated from the very first ceremony in 1803 to now does not exist. The number is estimated at one million including about 3,000 Grand Cross.Louis Pierre Henriquel-Dupont
Louis Pierre Henriquel-Dupont (Paris 13 June 1797 – 20 January 1892 Paris) was a French engraver. His students included Charles Bellay, Jean-Baptiste Danguin, Adrien Didier, Alphonse and Jules François, Adolphe-Joseph Huot, Achille and Jules Jaquet, Jules Gabriel Levasseur, Aristide Louis, Louis Marckl, Isidore-Joseph Rousseaux and Charles Albert Waltner.Louis Viardot
Louis Viardot (pronounced [lwi vjaʁ.do]; July 31, 1800 in Dijon, France – May 5, 1883 in Paris, France) was a French writer, art historian, art critic, theatrical figure, and translator. As a translator, he mostly contributed to the development of Russian and Spanish literature in France.Malvina (character)
Malvina is the bride or lover of Oscar (Irish mythology) in the Ossian cycle of James Macpherson.
Due to the popularity of Macpherson's work, "Malvina" has been used as a given name.Mignon desires her fatherland
Mignon desires her fatherland (Dutch: Mignon verlangende naar haar vaderland) is an 1836 painting by the Dutch-French artist Ary Scheffer. The picture depicts a young woman Mignon, inspired from a character in Goethe's novel Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship. The 1866 Ambroise Thomas opera Mignon was based on the same character, and Scheffer's feminine representation of Mignon in a dress influenced her portrayal by Thomas. The painting currently hangs in the Dordrechts Museum in Dordrecht, Netherlands.Musée de la Vie romantique
The Musée de la Vie romantique (The Museum of Romantic Life, or Museum of the Romantics) stands at the foot of Montmartre hill in the 9th arrondissement of Paris, 16 rue Chaptal, Paris, France in an 1830 hôtel particulier facing two twin-studios, a greenhouse, a small garden, and a paved courtyard. The museum is open daily except Monday. Permanent collections are free. An admission fee is charged for temporary exhibitions. The nearest métro stations are Pigalle, Blanche, Saint-Georges, and Liège.
The Musée de la Vie romantique is one of the 14 City of Paris Museums that have been incorporated since January 1, 2013 in the public institution Paris Musées.Polonia (personification)
Polonia, the name for Poland in Latin and many Romance and other languages, is most often used in modern Polish as referring to the Polish diaspora. However, as can be seen from the image, it was also used as a national personification.
The symbolic depiction of a country as a woman called by the Latin name of that country was common in the 19th Century (see Germania, Britannia, Hibernia, Helvetia).Princess Marie of Orléans (1813–1839)
Marie Christine Caroline Adélaïde Françoise Léopoldine d'Orléans (12 April 1813 in Palermo – 6 January 1839 in Pisa) was a French princess, artist, and, by her marriage, duchess of Württemberg (1837). Before her marriage she was styled Mademoiselle de Valois.Robert Jefferson Bingham
Robert Jefferson Bingham (bapt. 7 March 1824 – 21 February 1870) was an English pioneer photographer, mainly active in France, making portraits and reproductions of paintings. He is one of the first photographers to use and write about the collodion process, which he claimed to have invented.Scheffer
Scheffer is a Dutch occupational surname related to German Schäfer (meaning "shepherd") or Schaffer (meaning "overseer"). Notable people with the surname include:
Aaron Scheffer (born 1975), American baseball pitcher
Ary Scheffer (1795–1858), Dutch-born French painter, son of Johann Baptist and Cornelia
Cornelia Scheffer (1769–1839), Dutch painter and portrait miniaturist
David Scheffer (born 1953), American diplomat, UN Ambassador-at-Large for War Crimes Issues
Emmanuel Scheffer (1924–2012), Israeli football player and coach
François Scheffer (1766–1844), Luxembourgian politician, Mayor of Luxembourg City
Frank Scheffer (born 1956), Dutch cinematographer
Guus Scheffer (1898–1952), Dutch weightlifter
Hendrik Scheffer (1798–1862), Dutch-born French painter, son of Johann Baptist and Cornelia
Henrik Teofilus Scheffer (1710–1759), Swedish chemist
Jaap de Hoop Scheffer (born 1948), Dutch politician, former Secretary General of NATO
James Scheffer, American record producer and songwriter
Johan Scheffer (born 1948), Australian (Victorian) politician
Johann Baptist Scheffer (1773–1809), German-born Dutch painter
Johannes Scheffer (1621–1679), Swedish humanist
Karl-Heinz Scheffer, West German slalom canoeist
Marten Scheffer, Dutch ecologist
Paul Scheffer (born 1954), Dutch multiculturalism scholar and author
de:Pi Scheffer (1909–1988), Dutch band composer and conductor
Rudolph Herman Christiaan Carel Scheffer (1621–1679), Dutch botanist : see nl:Rudolph Herman Christiaan Carel Scheffer
Victor Blanchard Scheffer (1906–2011), American mammalogist
Will Scheffer, American playwrightScheffers:
Maikel Scheffers (born 1982), Dutch wheelchair tennis player
Georg Scheffers (1899–1945), German mathematician