Artur Lemba

Artur Lemba (24 September 1885, Tallinn – 21 November 1963, Tallinn) was an Estonian composer and piano teacher, and one of the most important figures in Estonian classical music. Artur and his older brother Theodor (1876-1962) were the first professional pianists in Estonia to give concerts abroad. Artur's 1905 opera Sabina was the first opera composed by an Estonian. His Symphony No. 1 in 1908 was the first symphony composed by an Estonian.[1]

Lemba was a finalist in the prestigious Anton Rubinstein Competition and later a professor at the Saint Petersburg Conservatory.

Artur Lemba postal stationery
Soviet envelope with imprinted stamp, bearing a portrait of Artur Lemba, issued on his 100th birthday (24 September 1985). The envelope has been cancelled in Moscow on the first day of issue

Early life and education

Artur Lemba learned piano from his brother Theodor Lemba. In 1899, following in his brother's footsteps, he enrolled at the St. Petersburg Conservatory. There he studied piano with Carl van Arck, Prof. V. Tolstov and I. Borovka. His composition teacher was Nicolai Soloviev and he studied music theory with Alexander Lyadov, Alexander Glazunov and Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov.[1]

In 1908, he graduated, receiving a gold medal in piano, a silver medal in composition, and the Anton Rubinstein prize (a Schröder piano). At his graduation ceremony, Lemba performed his Piano Concerto No. 1.

In 1910, Artur Lemba participated in the Anton Rubinstein Competition for pianists, where he placed among the eight finalists, including Arthur Rubinstein and Edwin Fischer.


After his graduation in 1908, Lemba became a piano teacher at the St. Petersburg Conservatory. In 1915 he became a professor. He taught and gave concerts in Saint Petersburg until 1920.

Returning to Estonia, Lemba worked as a piano teacher, eventually becoming head of the piano department at the Tallinn Conservatory. Notable students included Elsa Avesson, Olav Roots, Villem Reimann, Veera Lensin, Kirill Raudsepp and others. In addition to the concerts in Estonia, Lemba performed in Saint Petersburg, Riga, Moscow, Odessa, Budapest, Helsinki and Stockholm.[1]


Lemba's Piano Concerto No. 1 in G major (1905) is perhaps his best known work due to its memorable melody. Lemba's Poéme d’amour (1916) for violin and piano is also popular in the violin repertoire.[1]

Lemba composed in almost every genre, with two symphonies (the first of which is the earliest example by an Estonian composer), three overtures, four operas, three cantatas, chamber music for different ensembles and 30 choral works. For the piano, Lemba wrote five piano concertos, two sonatas, two sonatinas, two preludes and more than 20 études.


  1. ^ a b c d Estonian Music Information Center

External links

Anton Rubinstein Competition

The Anton Rubinstein Competition is the name of a music competition that has existed in two incarnations. It was first staged in Russia and Western Europe between 1890 and 1910, and prizes were awarded for piano playing and composition. Since 2003 it has been run in Germany as a piano competition only.


Artur is a cognate to the common male given name Arthur, meaning "bear-like," which is believed to possibly be descended from the Roman surname Artorius or the Celtic bear-goddess Artio or more probably from the Celtic word artos ("bear"). Other Celtic languages have similar first names, such as Old Irish Art, Artúur, Welsh Arth - which may also be the source for the modern name.

Art is also a diminutive form of the common name Arthur. In Estonian, and many Romance, Slavic and Germanic languages the name is spelled as Artur. The Finnish versions are Arttu and Artturi.


Estonia (Estonian: Eesti [ˈeːsʲti] (listen)), officially the Republic of Estonia (Estonian: Eesti Vabariik), is a country in Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland with Finland on the other side, to the west by the Baltic Sea with Sweden on the other side, to the south by Latvia (343 km), and to the east by Lake Peipus and Russia (338.6 km). The territory of Estonia consists of a mainland and 2,222 islands in the Baltic Sea, covering a total area of 45,227 km2 (17,462 sq mi), water 2,839 km2 (1,096 sq mi), land area 42,388 km2 (16,366 sq mi), and is influenced by a humid continental climate. The official language of the country, Estonian, is the second most spoken Finnic language.

The territory of Estonia has been inhabited since at least 9,000 B.C. Ancient Estonians were some of the last European pagans to be Christianized, following the Livonian Crusade in the 13th century. After centuries of successive rule by Germans, Danes, Swedes, Poles and Russians, a distinct Estonian national identity began to emerge in the 19th and early 20th centuries. This culminated in independence from Russia in 1920 after a brief War of Independence at the end of World War I. Initially democratic, after the Great Depression Estonia was governed by authoritarian rule since 1934 during the Era of Silence. During World War II (1939–1945), Estonia was repeatedly contested and occupied by the Soviet Union and Germany, ultimately being incorporated into the former as the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic. After the loss of its de facto independence, Estonia's de jure state continuity was preserved by diplomatic representatives and the government-in-exile. In 1987 the peaceful Singing Revolution began against Soviet rule, resulting in the restoration of de facto independence on 20 August 1991.

The sovereign state of Estonia is a democratic unitary parliamentary republic divided into fifteen counties. Its capital and largest city is Tallinn. With a population of 1.3 million, it is one of the least-populous member states of the European Union since joining in 2004, the economic monetary Eurozone, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Schengen Area, and of the Western military alliance of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). It is a developed country with an advanced, high-income economy that has been among the fastest-growing in the EU. Estonia ranks very high in the Human Development Index, and performs favourably in measurements of economic freedom, civil liberties, education, and press freedom (third in the world in 2012 and 2007). Estonian citizens are provided with universal health care, free education, and the longest-paid maternity leave in the OECD. One of the world's most digitally advanced societies, in 2005 Estonia became the first state to hold elections over the Internet, and in 2014 the first state to provide e-residency.

II Queen Elisabeth Music Competition

The second edition of the Queen Elisabeth Music Competition, then known as Eugène Ysaÿe Competition, took place in Brussels from May 15 - May 31, 1938, and was the inaugural edition of its piano competition. It was won by Emil Gilels, whose sister Elizabeth had been awarded the 6th prize the previous year.

Jean Absil composed his Piano Concerto op.30 for the competition.

A third edition devoted to orchestral conducting was scheduled for the following year, but due to the outbreak of World War II the competition's third edition didn't take place until 1951. Eventually, no conducting competition has taken place to date.


Lemba may refer to:

Lemba (grasshopper), a genus of insect in the tribe Oxyini

Lemba people, an African ethnic group in Zimbabwe and Southern AfricaPlacesLemba, Kinshasa, a commune in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo

Lembá District, a district of São Tomé Province

Lempa, Cyprus, village in Cyprus, also known as LembaPeopleArtur Lemba (1885–1963), Estonian composer and piano teacher

Basaula Lemba (born 1965), Congolese football player

Chilu Lemba (born 1975), Zambian radio and television presenter, voice over artist and musician

Sebastián Lemba (1520-1547), Afro-Dominican slave rebel

List of 20th-century classical composers

This is a list of composers of 20th-century classical music, sortable by name, year of birth, year of death, nationality, notable works, and remarks. It includes only composers of significant fame and importance. The style of the composer's music is given where possible, bearing in mind that some defy simple classification. Names are listed first by year of birth, then in alphabetical order within each year. The 20th-century is defined by the calendar rather than by any unifying characteristics of musical style or attitude, and is therefore not an era of the same order as the classical or romantic. However, the century can be divided into modern and postmodern eras that overlap and can be defined more by differences in attitude than style.

List of Estonian composers

The following is a list of Estonian composers of classical music.

List of Estonians

This is a list of notable Estonians.

List of compositions for piano and orchestra

This is a list of compositions for piano and orchestra. For a description of related musical forms, see Concerto and Piano concerto.

List of romantics

List of romantics


Metsakalmistu (Estonian: Forest Cemetery) is a cemetery in the Pirita district of Tallinn.

Metsakalmistu was originally planned to be an open city medieval cemetery. Eduard Vilde was the first to be buried in 1933. The original area of the cemetery was 24.2 hectares, but since then, it has expanded to be 48.3 hectares.

Metsakalmistu was officially unveiled in 1939. In the same year, 15 people were buried in the cemetery. In 1939, the nearby Kloostrimetsa Farm cemetery was created, which eventually, through expansion, became part of an expanded Metsakalmistu.

At first, the designers of the cemetery were unanimous about the general design requirements of the cemetery, but the area still dominated by the appearance of a wild forest. Initially, the placement of crosses, girders, ranks, and the largest size of the calcareous stone were 80 x 50 cm. Subsequently, the use of natural barriers, such as grass slabs, has been applied and applied to a moss bed cover and the use of flower borders. The monumental gravestones are not recommended for the cemetery, but they still exist to a small extent. At present, the permissible maximum height for a pillar is 1.5 m.

The main chapel of Metsakalmistu was built in 1936, with its main architect being Herbert Johanson. The chapel was vandalized by the Soviet Union after the establishment of the Estonian SSR, but in 1996 it was restored with the support of the Tallinn City Government. In 2006, a columbarium was built.

Tombstones in Metsakalmistu are reserved for notable Estonian people involved in theatre, sports, composing, writing, the arts, journalism, medicine, architecture, soldiers in Finnish Infantry Regiment 200, veterans of the Estonian War of Independence, scientists and other people well known in public life.

Music of Estonia

The recorded history of music in Estonia dates back as far as the 12th century. The older folksongs, referred to as runic songs, are in the poetic metre regivärss the tradition shared by all Baltic Finns. These were gradually replaced by rhythmic folksongs in the 18th century.

Nicolai Soloviev

Nicolai Feopemptovich Soloviev (Russian: Никола́й Феопе́мптович Соловьёв; Petrozavodsk, 9 May [O.S. 27 April] 1846 – 27 December [O.S. 14 December] 1916 in Petrograd (Saint Petersburg)), sometimes Solovyov, was a Russian music critic, composer, and teacher at the Saint Petersburg Conservatory. His notable composition students include Samuel Maykapar, Mihkel Lüdig, Artur Lemba, and Peeter Süda. See: List of music students by teacher: R to S#Nicolai Soloviev. Soloviev composed several operas, an overture, the symphonic poem Russians and Mongols, and assisted in the completion of Alexander Serov's opera, The Power of the Fiend.As a music critic, Soloviev supported the works of composers such as Modest Mussorgsky and Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov, while trouncing the work of other composers. Of Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky's First Piano Concerto he wrote, "Tchaikovsky's First Piano Concerto, like the first pancake, is a flop."

November 21

November 21 is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 40 days remaining until the end of the year.

Olav Roots

Olav Roots (26 February 1910 – 30 January 1974) was an Estonian pianist and composer.

Roots was born in Uderna. He studied at the Music School of Tartu from 1923–1928, studying piano with Artur Lemba and composition under Heino Eller with musicians such as Eduard Tubin, Eduard Oja, Alfred Karindi and Karl Leichter. He then studied at the Estonian Music Academy in Tallinn, where he subsequently taught piano and music theory until 1935. In addition, he completed his piano studies with Alfred Cortot in Paris.Until 1937, Roots led the Symphony Orchestra of the Conservatory of Tallinn. In 1937, a scholarship enabled him to study with Felix Weingartner in Vienna and attend summer courses with Nikolai Malko in Salzburg. In 1939 he became chief conductor of the Estonian Radio Orchestra. In 1942 he studied with Clemens Krauss in Salzburg.

In 1944, Roots moved to Sigtuna in Sweden. He taught there at the Estonian School and directed the Stockholm Joint Youth Choir. In November 1952 he became conductor of the Symphonic Orchestra of Colombia in Bogotá, Colombia, and taught at the Universidad Nacional de Colombia consevatory, also located in Bogotá, until his death in 1974, becoming its director. His Symphony dedicated to the Colombian symphony orchestra was first performed under his direction 10 November 1967, and he was made an Honorary citizen of Colombia the same year. The Eduard Tubin Museum of Alatskivi Castle today contains exhibits related to Roots and his fellow students of the Tartu music school. He died in Bogotá.

Saint Petersburg Conservatory

The N. A. Rimsky-Korsakov Saint Petersburg State Conservatory (Russian: Санкт-Петербургская государственная консерватория имени Н. А. Римского-Корсакова) is a music school in Saint Petersburg, Russia. In 2004, the conservatory had around 275 faculty members and 1,400 students.

September 24

September 24 is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 98 days remaining until the end of the year.

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